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, Wholesale and Retail, 


pet and Wall Paper House in the State. 

Having been largely engaged in this trade for the past twelve 
years, with busicess that has increased each year until it has reach- 
ed its present great proportions, we feel confident of our ability to 
meet the requirements of the people of our State, or any other 
State in this line. We show full lines in 



AmMJtmmm M^Kji B^Wfy^, mmM imgrmim, 

A.nd we keep in stock for our Wholesale and Retail trade, be- 
side the above, a very fine assortment of 

f ■IIAIIIIIIA lltlMli, 

Also, Hemp, Rag, and Cottage Car.pets. 

We also carry a very large variety in OIL CLOTHS, in all 
widths and patterns; also, MATTINGS, SHADES, CURTAINS, 

We have an immense stock of 


And our trade in this department is large. Our decorations are in 
every variety and price, and we are prepared to fill all orders on 
short notice Work put up by the best artists in the country. 

We invite an examination of our gonds and prices, know^ing 
that we CANNOT BE EXCELLED in goods or prices. 

HUIVEE:, Jf^DuAulVtS ^c CO. 




Soxia.i>©r T<a.ozxa.. 


Manufacturers nud Dealers 



Hosiery^ Grloves^ 


ty ssr © s Ji "W s a s ^ 

Suspenders, Handkerch'fs, Neck Ties, 
Bows and Scarfs, Linen and Pa- 
"^ per Collars, Cuflfs, Etc. 

Perfect Filling Sliirts a Specialtj, 

Made to order ou ten days' notice. A fit guaranteed, 
or money refunded. Send for Self-Measuremeut Blank. 
For square and honest bargains go to 

22 East Washington Street, Indianapolis, Indiana. 





President and Ti 





Sinker, Davis cV Co., 


Of all Sizes, from Five to One HniHlred Horse Power. 

Of different si'/es. Double and Single, with the " Siinultaneout^ l-icrew," "STALKY" or '■ MEI- 
XER " Patent Head Blocks. 


Adapted tor Portable and Stationary Kiigines. 


mmmmMjL ^'^ p*ha« pwm^s^ 

For Feeding Boilers, Supplying Mills and Factories, Mines, Gas Works, Railroad Stations, and for 
any purpose for which a Steam Pnnip is applicable. 

Stillwell's Lime Extractors, Sheet Irou Work, Mill (rearing, Grate Bars, 

Brag Saws, Brass Work, Wrought Iron Fittings, Steam 

Gauges. Water Gauges, etc. 

South Pennsylvania Street, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



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Jmihy. hi operr/f/v// 

^ Iiradcii \ Rui'foi'dlitli. " 

^ liidi.uj.ij»<»lis. — ■ — 

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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2011 witii funding from 

Tile Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant 







Its Hoeial, J|umtip3l, ^'""'"""''^ ^"^ Manufacturing progress, 




18 70. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 


In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Indiana 


The object of this work is to relate the rise and progress ot the business of the 
city of Indianapolis, and give an accurate and full exhibit of its present condition- 
To that end no labor or expense has been spared to collect all the facts that might 
contribute to the formation of correct opinions on the subject by the public. Every 
branch of trade has been thoroughly canvassed by competent examiners, and the 
results systematized and tabulated, so as to give, as nearly as possible, a full view 
of each at a single glance. A sketch of tbe history of the city precedes these more 
particular statements, as a fitting introduction, necessary to a fair understanding of 
their significance. 

It is not intended to be a detailed account of all the incidents, events, move- 
ments and efforts of the citizens during the time of the growth from a village full 
of trees to a city full of the bustle of business ; but to be a history of all that relates 
to her I regress and prosperity. It is intended rather to generalize facts, and relate 
results, without, however, excluding any interesting event or incident, wheiher 
directly connected with the history of business affairs or not. Whether thatobjept 
has been attained, it will be for the public to judge. 

Pree use has been made, in this portion of the work, of the excellent history 
of the city by Ignatius Brown, Esq., in the Directory for 1868. It is as full a col- 
lection of all the facts as can possibly be made ; but such a collection is unsuited to 
the purpose of such a work as this, and besides would swell its bulk beyond all 
reasonable limits. The present work is directed rather to use than to repeat his 
facts, and he is entitled to a full recognition of his eflTorts in this attempt to apply 
them to a wider purpose than a Directory. 

As no similar efi"ort to exhibit the condition and prosperity of the city has ever 
been made, it is hoped that this will command the interest and patronage of the 

iisr X) ex: 


AGKICULTUBAL SOCIETIES 49, 56, 94, 96, 109, 112, 275 to 278 

AMUSEMENTS (See Drama.) 




ARSENALS 119,257 


BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES 50, 77, 85, 91, 126, 184 to 201 



BUILDING IMPROVEMENTS 36, 109, 116, 125 

BANKS 63, 103, 107, 298 to 306 


BLAKE, JAMES 31, 41 




COURTS 19, 91, 262 to 266 

COURT HOUSE U, 131, 259 








Protestant Episcopal — 

Christ's Church 60,202 

St. Paul's 204 

Grace Church 205 

Church of the Holy Innocents 205 

Episcopal Mission 206 

Presbyterian — 

First Church 96, 207 

Second Church 208 

Third Church 96, 210 

Fourth Church 100,211 

Fifth Church 212 

Olivet Church 212 

Seventh Church 212 

Missions 214 to 216 

Baptist — 

First Church 216 

South StFeet 218 

Garden Mission 219 

North Baptist Mission 219 

Second Baptist, colored 219 



CHURCHES— Continued. 

Congregational — PAffE. 

Plymouth , 220 

Mayflower 221 

C;jris<m»t— Christian Chappel 4 222 

Second Clirtitiau Church (colored) 222' 

Third Christian Church 223 

Fourth Christian Church 223 

Salem Chapt-l „ 223 

Olive Mission 224 

German Reformed — First German Reformed 224 

Second German Reformed 225 

Society of Friends 225 

Methodist Episcopal — 

Meridian M. E Church „ 226 

Robert's Park M. E Church 228 

St. John's M. E. Church „ 230 

Asbury M. E. Church „ 231 

Tiinity M. E. Church 232 

Ames M. E. Church 233 

Grace M E Chuich 235 

Third Street M. E. Church 236 

German M. E Church 236 

Massachusetts Avenue M. E. Church 237 

Allen Chapel M. E Church, (polored.) 288 

Bethel Chipel M. E. Church, (colored.) „ 238 

Boman Catholic — 

St. John's, St. Mary's, St. Peters, The Cathedral „ 128,239 to 241 

Hebrew Church „ „ 110,242 

Lutheran — 

First English Lutheran Church 60, 243 

St. Paul's German Evangelical Lutheran 244 

Zion's Church 245 

German Evangelical Association 245 

Vniversalists — First and Second Churches 246 

United Brethren in Christ 96, 247 

First Unitarian 247 

Recapitulation 248 

Undenominational Religious Societies — 

Y. M. C. A 102,249 

Women's Christian Association 251 

Y. M. C. A. (German ) .„ „ 25] 

Indianapolis Female Bible Society 251 


Crown HiM „ „ _ 125, 259 

City Cemetery 79, 261 

Hebrew Cemetery 262 

Catholic Cemetery 262 

Lutheran Cemetery 262 



CHOLERA 45,91 

CONVENTIONS 62, 101, 105,106, 111, 121 


DRAMA, MUSIC AND AUSEMENTS...23, 78,79,87,96, 98, 101,, 102, 105, 107, 109, 110, 129, 145 to 153 


DRY GOODS 89, 108 








County Seminary „. « 35 

Indiana Female Institute 60,180 

Schools and Sclioolmasters 61, 88 

Public Schools 87, 108, 109, 163 to 178 

Indiana Female College 91 

McLean Female Seminary 98 

Northwestern Christian University « 98, 179 

Indianapolis Female Institute 116 

Eoman Catholic Schools 182 

Parochial Schools 182 

German-English Schools 182 

Business Colleges 183 

EXPRESS COMPANIES 96, 273 to 275 









FIRES 97, 101, 129 

FIRE DEPARTMENT 32, 49, 66, 110, 139 


FRESHETS (See Meteorological). 











HOTELS 32, 70, 97 

HOSPITAL 104, 129, 193 






INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS 49, 51, 56, 67, 90 

INSURANCE COMPANIES .^ „..^6, 294 to 298 







LECTURES 87, 96, 101, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113 


MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 44, 73, 84, 99, 101, 110, 132 




MASONS. (See Secret Societies.) 
MACHINISTS. (See Manufactures.) 

market houses 44, 60 

meteorological 45, 63, 83,91, 96, 106, 108, 110, 113 

Mccarty, Jonathan „ „.,.„..„ 72 

y£ INDEX. 



MEXICAN WAR 81 to 88 


MEDICAL COLLEGES 91, 252 to 255 

MORTON, HON. 0. P 116, 117,120, 121, 123 



MANUFACTURES (EARLY) 83, 96, 97, 130, 308 to 316 



NEWSPAPERS 18, 81,90,91,101,109, 112, 154 to 162 


ODD FELLOWS. (See Secret Societies.) 

PARKS 129 



POPULATION 17, 31,37, 84 

POLITICAL 48, 70, 100, 105. 106, 109. 113 

POST OFFICE 17, 107, 115, 291 





RELIGIOUS. (See Churches.) 



Madison & Indianapolis 69, 81, 88, 324 

Bellefontaine 97, 326, 336 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati 97, 328, 336 

Jeffersonville & Indianapolis 97,326 

Terre Haute & Indianapolis 97, 328, 338 

Pe'u & Indianapolis 97,330 

Lafayette & Indianapolis 97, 330, 336 

Indiana Central 97, 330 

Indianapolis & Vincennes 128, 332 

Indianapolis Junction 128, 332 

Indianapolis & St. Louis 334 

Indiana & Illinois Central 128 

Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western , 128, 332 

Consolidated Tables 340, 342 








SCHOOLS. (See Educational.) 











Masonic „ 87, 281 to 284 

Odd Fellows ~.99, 285 to 288 

Knights of Pythias 288 to 290 

Druids „ 290 



SECEET SOCIETIES— (Continued.) page. 

Improved Order of Ked Men, and Independent Order of Bed Men „ 290 

Sons of Herman 290 

Harugari 291 

Heptasophs 291 


TEMPERANCE 80, 101, 104, 255 to 257 





TRADE 368 to 384 






WRIGHT, GOV. JOSEPH A 91, 94, 96 

WICK, W. W 41 


WATER WORKS 112, 130, 281 


WAR EXCITEMENT 115 to 124 

WAR APPROPRIATIONS „ ^ .™..123, 124 





























^mem\ Wiew of the f ragress txi the ^itij, 

fHE Eastern, Southern and Western sections of the State contained many 
thriving, though not populous, settlements, while Central Indiana was yet a 
wilderness. The reason may be briefly stated to be the absence of water and 
the presence of Indians. Though there was water enough and to spare for 
ordinary purposes, there was none for navigation, and civilized men hesitate to 
put themselves beyond the reach of other provisions than they can procure with 
the rifle. Without access by a constantly navigable stream, a Central settler could 
never be certain of anything better than unsalted bread and venison; and he could 
not be certain of the bread if he depended on his own cultivation, for the country was 
still in the hands of the Indians. This is a second reason. A settlement could not be 
safe; for, though not hostile, the Indians were far from friendly. The Shawnees and 
Delawares had not forgotten the ba.ttle of Tippecanoe or the death of Tecumseh (who, 
by the way, was a native-born Hoosier, his birthplace being the Shawnee town near 
the site of Anderson, Madison county). This region was their favorite hunting- 
ground. It was full of game, and White river and its tributaries swarmed with fish. 
They disliked to give it up, and they did not till 1821, five years after the State 
Government had been created. But having agreed, by the treaty of St. Mary's, Ohio, 
in 1818, to cede it in 1821, the actual cession was anticipated, and settlers began to 
come in as early as 1820. A few came in 1819, but two of them, the brothers 
Jacob and Cyrus Whetzel, came by consent of the chiefs, and settled near the Bluffs 
of White river. George Pogue, the first who made his home on the site of the city, 
is generallj' believed to have come in the same year, but it is questioned. William 
Conner, the Father of Central Indiana, however, had established himself on Whit« 
river, some sixteen miles north of the city, as early as 1806, and had made himself a 
comfortable home, with no neighbor nearer than sixty miles. He had been an Indian 
trader, was familiar and a favorite with them, and could venture safely where there 
was danger for everybody else. He and his brother John founded the town of Con- 
nersville, from which point, and its vicinity, came most of our first settlers. Indian- 
apolis is, therefore, a sort of colonj'' of Connersville, and, as will be seen hereafter, 
had to depend for some time upon the mother settlement for support. In 1820, how- 
ever, a number of pioneers planted themselves on the site of the city, and from that 
year may be dated the beginning of its history. 


Before entering upon this history, however, it will be well to present a general 
view of the growth of the city, which may be traced through four stages. 

First. That from the first settlement in 1820, to the removal of the Capital from 
Corydon in 1825. This was a period of isolation, and, for a time, of struggle for ex- 
istence. During this five years, no other village of the State had so much to resist, 
and so little to assist it. It was far from all navigable streams and all passable roads, 
and, for the first two years, was without clearing or adequate cultivation, without mills or 
means of subsistence, except what was brought on horseback through sixty miles of 
forest. Sickness in the second year, which prostrated nearly everybody, made its 
isolation more dangerous, and sickness having prevented labor, an unpleasant ap- 
proach to starvation followed the ague. But the sickly settlement grew a little larger 
and a little healthier. It built a jail, two or three churches, patronized a few shops, 
and two or three of the inevitable newspapers, had a few taverns and a Sunday school, 
and showed evident signs that it meant to live, whether fed by State pap or not. 
Then, though not free from fears of the scattered Shawnees of Fall Creek, it was 
deemed ready for the Capital. 

Second. The period from 1825, when the Capital came, to 1847, when the first 
railroad came. This may be said to have been a period of Legislative dependence, as 
the possession of the Capital was the only influence that raised Indianapolis above the 
position of an ordinary county town. Its central situation was nothing then, or rather 
it was a drawback. In the first years of this period, the recent acquisition of the 
Capital gave an impulse to the increase both of population and the price of town lots, 
but the stimulus was lost by 1827, and thenceforward growth was steady but slow, 
dependent on the settlement of the surrounding country, strengthened, as before re" 
marked, by the possession of the Capital. Towards the close, the expectation of rail- 
road communication excited a spirit of enterprise, or at least a feverish feeling of un- 
rest, and with the impulse which the locomotive thus sent ahead of it, began a 
new era. During this period, business was entirely of a local character. Some little 
jobbing was done to country dealers, but nothing more, because, with all the enterprise 
in the world, nothing more was possible. Manufacturing was merely for home con- 
sumption. All trade was circumscribed by the limits of local demand. Little was 
expected to go farther than a farmer could drive his load of corn and get home the 
same day. Importations were made in heavy road wagons. Exportations in return 
buggies and farm wagons. An occasional flatboat, loaded with hay or chickens, 
went down with the spring freshets to New Orleans, if it didn't break its back on the 
dam at the Bluffs. An annual drove of horses went South for same years. Hogs 
were driven to Cincinnati or Madison, or the nearest town on a navigable stream. 
Woolen mills spun yarn for old women, or made jeans for country wear. Wheat was 
ground for the owner, or bought only to grind for home use. Corn was distilled or 
fed to hogs; none was shipped. Iron founding had been tried twice and failed. No 
business was expected to exceed a few hundred dollars per week. In this condition 
of things the city wosld have remained to the end, if the railroad had not reached it. 
The first stirring of this stagnation was made by the slow but steady approaches of the 
Madison railroad from Vernon, where it had been lying up helpless since the great 

Third. The period from 1847 to 1861. This was a period of new life. The 
railroad, like "one fool," according to the proverb, "made many." The great profits 
of the Madison road, the obvious benefit to the country, the fully restored financial 
health prostrated in 1837, with a score of lesser influences, combined to give an im- 


petus to railroad building, which was the great feature of this new era. The enter- 
prise thus stirred into activity showed itself in all business. Old branches were enlarged 
and new ones were established. The foundations of most of those which hare Jit 
length proved so successful, and contributed so greatly to the growth of the city, were 
laid then. While business was putting on its men's clothes for manly effort, the city 
was doing the same. Not a few changes were made from the village character of tiie 
past. But this activity was vastly increased during the last period or stage of growtli. 
Fourth. The period from 1861, the breaking out of the war, to the present time. 
What the war might have done for a town, even as large as Indianapolis, with the 
muscles of its energy rendered feeble and flabby for want of vigorous exercise, it 
would be hard to say. It would have brought a vast increase of business, and brought 
out a vast addition of activity, but it might have taken both away with it, too. Indi- 
anapolis, skilled and strong, vigorous and enterprising, from the schooling of the past 
fourteen years, was able and prompt to use all its advantages. The concentration of 
troops here, with the immense demand thej' created for many kinds of supplies, and 
the flocking here of business men to meet it; the increase of the business of those 
already here ; and the attendant smaller classes of trade which follow any crowd, 
maintained through four years, gave a strong impulse to the already rapidly growing 
prosperity of the city, and created some such feverish feeling of being able to do im- 
possible things, as was so long prevalent in San Francisco, and still is, probably, in 
Chicago. But the advantages were generally safely held. Thej' fell into strong 
hands, and when the war passed off, and its impulse was removed from trade, nothing 
was lost to the city but what was it's gain — the crowds of cormorants that followed 
the camps. Business was held at high water mark, or near it. In the five years 
since, what little, if any, was lost, has been regained, and a vast addition has been 
made. The growth of population and trade in all forms has gone steadily and swiftly 
on. In manufactures especially has the change been marked and promising. At the 
same time the improvements of the city have not been less marked. Whole streets of 
superb business blocks have been erected, and miles of streets paved and lighted. 
Handsome residences have spread outward further and further, till they crowd up the 
hunting forests of a few years ago, A system of water works is in process of con- 
struction. Business that used to swing back and forth along Washington street as 
some occasional impulse directed, but never left its fixed groove, has turned out, or 
filled up and run over, into a score of other streets. All the features of a well-grown 
city have supervened upon the face of the village that the first railroad entered. How 
far this development may continue, or how it may terminate, will be considered in 
another place. 




i5 h ap t er I . 

s:TUATio>r OF The cit-^— natural cokditiojc of the aita-^THE first settler — begin- 



W'NDIANAPOLlS is situated in the slightly depressed center of a considerable plain 
^^on the east bank of White river, in latitude 39° 55''. This plain, though nowhere 
* level for any considerable distance, is yet broken only by comparatively slight 
elevations, which increase its attractiveness without swelling to either the grandeur 
or inconvenience of hills. It lies so high above the river that it is not subject to over- 
flow from th* highest freshets, and never has been overflowed. At the time of the 
selection of the site of the Capital, tj|ie ground was covered with a dense growth of 
oak, ash, sugar, beech, walnut, hickory, and all other ordinary forest trees, and with 
thickets of underwood, that sheltered as much game probably as was ever found 
ranging the same space of country. It was traversed by a creek, subsequently called 
"Pogue's Greek," after the traditional first settler, and by two or three bayous or 
"ravines," as they were called, which proved a frequent cause of annoyance, and of 
occasional serious injury. The remains of the largest may yet be seen near Carey's 
barrel and stave establishment. The underlying stratum, consisting of sand and 
gravel, through which the surface water was filtered, being rarely more than twenty- 
five feet below the surface, formed an easily accessible reservoir of pure but "hard" 
water, which has until now rendered the city independent of any other supply. But 
to all these advantages there was a serious drawback, as the first settlers found. The 
dense forests sheltering the soil from the sun and compelling it to retain its moisture, - 
the broad and swampy "bottoms," the marshes, and the frequent freshets, made it 
the very home of the "chills and fever," and for many a year their visit was antici-- 
pated with the unpleasant confidence of a debtor in a persevering dun. But the soil 
was excellent, and the promise of a "good time" sometime undoubted, and the pio- 
neers of that day, as of all days, did not count the chances of chills against the cer- 
tainty of crops and future competence. 

So, into this land of remote promise, somewhere about the first of March, 1819,' 
tradition says, came George Pogue, a blacksmith, from the White Water region, and 
built a cabin near the present eastern end of Michigan street. Tradition is confirmed 
by better evidence, but unfortunately contradicted by other evidence equally good. 
Probably no question of individual credit and municipal history was ever so obscured, 
by excess of light, as that of the origin of Indianapolis. And the obscuration began 
almost as soon as the town was begun. George Pogue had been dead only about a 
year, and the town was only two years old, when one of the second influx of settlers. 


Dr. S. G. Mitchell, published a letter in the Indianapolis Gazette, contesting Pague's 
claim to the honor of being the first settler, and giving it to John and James McOor- 
mick. Cyrus Whetzel, who settled at the Blulfs at about the same time that Pogue is 
said to have reached this place, concurs with Dr. Mitchell. Mrs. King, the widow of 
one of the McCormick brothers, now living, in good health, and with apparently unim- 
paired powers of memory, concurs with Dr. Mitchell and Mr. Whetzel. Her evidence 
would seem to be conclusive, for she not only had the opportunity to know, but the 
weeriness of a solitary life in the woods to impress inefFaceably the memory, that she 
and her family were alone in this section of the State. She claims that George 
Pogue, with her husband and husband's brother, and some others, first came here 
about the time of Pogue's traditional arrival, and built cabins preparatory to the 
removal of their families, which was effected, in her case, in January or February follow- 
ing, 1820, and that no other family was known here till her husband's brother brought 
his, about a month later. Pogue would appear from this statement to have been only 
one of a company to "prospect" here, and the danger of traveling alone at that time, 
in a country held by unfriendly Indians, is a circumstance that would corroborate it. 
Up to this point Mrs. King's account of the settlement of the city may reconcile con- 
flicting claims, but no farther. If she is right, Pogue, though he may have prepared 
to move out, did not settle till some time in 1820. The evidence for the McCormicks 
sums up with a force hard to resist. Dr. Mitchell's claim, within a year of Pogue's 
death, was not contested by anybody. The recollections of two living persons, one 
likely, and one certain, to know the truth, confirms the uncontested claim. On the 
other hand, the evidence for Pogue, if not strong enough to convince, is strong enough 
to perplex, us. In 1822, people were not so apt to rush into the papers upon any 
provocation, or none, as they are now, and Dr. Mitchell's letter may have been, pro- 
bably was, undisputed, because nobody cared enough to remember whose pig pen was 
built first, or cared enough to write about it, and not because the opinion of the vil- 
lage concurred with him. The tradition which has always made Pogue the first 
settler, has never been weakened by accompanying doubts, or suggestions to include 
anybody else. And an unimpeached tradition of fifty years of age, is no slight proof 
of the truth of the matter it relates to. If Dr. Mitchell's belief had been that of his 
fellow-townsmen in 1822, we of this generation would never have heard of George 
Pogue as the first settler. That the tradition, or general belief, has outlived so early and 
public an attack is a fact that will weigh as heavily in a just estimate as any per- 
sonal recollection. A mistake, if uncontested, might grow into tradition, but a 
mistake caught when it is a year old and shown to everybody's eyes could get no 
credit afterwards. John Pogue, son of George, who was a well grown lad, if not of 
full age in 1819, and well able to recollect, has stated repeatedly and unqualifiedly 
that his father came here on the second of March, 1819, nearly one year before the 
McCormicks came. The contest of his father's claim would be likely to stamp the 
event and date more indelibly upon his memory, and make his evidence, by that 
much, more important. One of the McCormick children of that date, adds his recol- 
lection of the current belief that Pogue was the first settler. There is about an equal 
weight of evidence, both of inference and memory, on each side, and there is no 
reason why there should be when there are so many persons living who can add 
decisive facts. 

But if Pogue was not the first settler he certainly was the first martyr, if we may 
allow that name to one who ventures and dies in the cause of civilization. Sometime 
in April, 1821, early in the morning, he heard a disturbance among his horses, and 
believing that the Indians, a party of whom was encamped near by, were stealing 


them, he took his rifle and set out to see. He was last seen near their camp, where 
gunshots were afterwards heard, and he was never seen again. But his clothes and 
horses were soon after found In the hands of the Indians, so that there is no doubt of 
his murder by this squad of Shawnees. His name was given to the creek which was 
then a horror, and has ever since been a nuisance, to the citizens. So cruel an outrage 
of course excited the little settlement intensely, but it was too little to help itself. 

If Pogue really arrived in March, 1819, he lived for nearly a year alone, with no 
neighbor except the Whetzels, on the south, at the Bluffs, and William Conner, on the 
north, sixteen miles away. But on the twenty-seventh of February, 1820, he was 
joined by James and John McCormick, who built themselves a house on the river near 
the present position of the National Road bridge. Within a few days they were 
followed by John Maxwell and John Cowan, who built upon Fall Creek, near the 
crossing of the Crawfordsville road. By the first of June, these first five had been 
joined by Henry and Samuel Davis, Corbaly, Van Blaricura, Barnhill, Harding and 
Isaac Wilson (who was the first to build on the town plat, near the northwest corner 
of the State House Square,) with others, making, it is supposed, about fifteen families 
who had settled upon what was afterwards the "donation." As the year passed on 
still others came, but the first comers had not been idle. They had to live through 
the winter and set about their preparations with the characteristic energy of pioneers. 
In this duty they were providentially relieved of the hardest of their labor. A 
tract of near two hundred acres, west of the present Blind Asylum grounds, had been 
"deadened" for them by the locusts and caterpillars. They had nothing to do but 
clear off the underbrush. This was done, the brush used to fence in lots for cultiva- 
tion, and the ground broken up and planted in corn and vegetables for the winter. 
Game was plenty and provisions were thus made secure for all ordinary necessities. 
Little more than this is known of the history of the first year of the life of the founders 
of the capital. 

But the history does not close with this fact, however appropriate a place it might 
be to stop. A most important event for the little colony occurred in June. This 
was the selection of a site for the permanent capital of the State. 

The "enabling" act of Congress, April 19, 1816, donated four sections of unsold 
land for a permanent capital. On the eleventh of January, IS'iO, the Legislature 
appointed the following commissioners to make the selection: George Hunt, John 
Conner, John Gilliland, Stephen Ludlow, Joseph Bartholomew, John Tipton, Jesse B. 
Durham, Frederick Rapp, William Prince and Thomas Emerson. They were to meet 
at the house of William Conner (above alluded to,) in the spring, and make their 
choice. But five of them accepted their appointment, or acted upon it. These five 
traversed White River Valley, making examinations as they advanced, and very 
naturally reached conflicting conclusions. But three points were prominent above all 
others; this, (called the Fall Creek location,) Conner's and the Bluffs of White River. 
The discussion upon meeting at Conner's was warm, if not worse, but the mouth of 
Fall Creek won the day against the Bluffs by three votes to two. Who the lucky or 
sagacious three were it is now impossible to say or they should have a conspicuous 
place in the celebration of the city's birth-day. The government surveys had been 
completed in this portion of the State, and the Commissioners were thus enabled to 
designate their choice in the mysterious but sensible gibberish of the survey office. 
They reported on the seventh of June, that they had selected sections one, two, twelve 
and eleven ; and, section two being a fraction, enough of west fractional section three 
had been added to make up the grant. Thus the capital came to the mouth of Fall 


Creek or near it. It was a narrow miss, but as it was a miss we can hardly speculate 
more profitably on the possible results of one more vote going for the Bluffs, than did 
the young lady upon the problem '' where she would have been if her father had not 
married her mother?'" 

The SECOND YEAR of the town's existence began with the act to lay it off and name 
it. On the sixth of January, 1821, the Legislature confirmed the choice made by the 
Commissioners, and called the new-born city Indianapolis. The etymology of this 
name is evident enough and its propriety is indisputable, but it is not generlly known 
t» whom the city is indebted for it. In the Legislative Committee which prepared the 
bill of confirmation the point was settled, and Judge Jeremiah Sullivan, of Jeflfexson 
county, formerly of the State Supreme Court, suggested the name. In a letter replying 
to the inquiries of Governor Baker (kindly made at the suggestion of the author,) 
Judge Sullivan give^ the following interesting account of the christening of the 
capital : 

"I have a very distinct recollection of the great diversity of opinion that pre- 
vailed as to the name by which the new town should receive Legislative baptism. 
The bill (if I remember aright) was reported by Judge Polk, and was in the main, 
very acceptable. A blank, of course, was left for the name of the town that was to 
become the seat of government, and during the two or three days we spent in en- 
deavoring to fill the blank there was in the debate some sharpness and much amuse- 

"General Mafston G. Clark, of Washington county, proposed 'Tecumseh' as the 
name, and very earnestly insisted upon its adoption. When it failed he suggested 
other Indian names, which I have forgotton. They all were rejected. A member 
proposed 'Suwarrow,' which met with no favor. Other names were proposed, dis- 
cussed, laughed at, and voted down, and the house without coming to any agreement, 
adjourned until the next day. There were many amusing things said, but my remem- 
brance of them is not sufficiently distinct to state them with accuracy. 

" I had gone to Corydon with the intention of proposing Indianapolis as the name 
of the town, and on the evening of the adjournment above mentioned, or the next 
morning, I suggested to Mr. Samuel Merrill, the representative from Switzerland 
county, the name I proposed. He at once adopted it and said he would support it. 
We, together, called on Governor Jennings, who had been a witness of the amusing 
proceedings of the day previous, and told him what conclusion we had come to, and 
asked him what he thought of the name. He gave us to understand that he favored 
it, and that he would not hesitate to so express himself. When the House met and 
went into convention on the bill, I moved to fill the blank with Indianapolis. The 
name created quite a laugh. Mr. Merrill, however, seconded the motion. We dis- 
cussed the matter fully ; gave our reasons in support of the proposition; the members 
conversed with each other informally in regard to it, and the name gradually, com- 
mended itself to the committee, and was accepted. The principal reason given in 
favor of adopting the name proposed, to wit : that the Greek termination would indi- 
cate to all the world the locality of the town, was, I am sure, the reason that over- 
came the opposition to the name. The town was finally named Indianapolis, with 
but little, if any, opposition." Indiana-polis, — the city of Indiana, — is a good 
name, and likely to be known as that of the largest inland city in the Union. 

Christopher Harrison, James Jones 'and Samuel P. Booker, were^ by the same act, 
appointed Commissioners to "lay off" the town, and directed to meet here on the first 
Monday of April, appoint two surveyors and a clerk, make a survey and two maps, and 


advertise and sell the alternate lots as soon as practicable, the proceeds of the sales to 
constitute a building fund. 

The effect of this selection, and its confirmation, was to add largely to the slender 
population of the metropolis, and to bring in not a few of those who still lire honored 
among us or have left honored names and representatives behind them. Before the 
lot sales took place, or soon after, there came Morris Morris, Dr. S. G. Mitchell, John 
Given, James Given, James M. Ray, Matthias R. Nowland, Nathaniel Cox, John 
Hawkins, Dr. L. Dunlap, David Wood, Daniel Yandes, Alexander Ralston, Dr. Isaac 
Coe, Douglas Maguire, Obed Foote, Calvin Fletcher, James Blake, Alexander W. 
Russell, Caleb Scudder, Nicholas McCarty, George Smith, Nathaniel Bolton, Wilkes 
Reagan, James Paxton, Samuel Henderson, and others less known. They came in 
nearly equal proportions from the south and east, or "Kentucky and Whitewater," 
as the divisions were then called. A population of some hundreds had been gathered 
by the fall, and the village might be said to have fairly entered upon its career. 

The history of that first year, with a name, is a history of many annoyances, much 
suffering and much manly and noble exertion. A very wet summer aided the natural 
miasm of the region to produce such a general distribution of the chills and fever that 
but three persons out of the whole population escaped. Though severe, the visitation 
was rarely fatal to the settlers, though it came near proving so to the settlement- 
For rumor flew abroad with the news and dropped perilous exaggerations everewhere. 
But the city outlived them as the citizens outlived their cause. An unfortunate result 
of the general prostration was that nobody had been able to keep up the cultivation 
of the "caterpillar deadening," and when the bright days of October brought return- 
ing health it brought also starvation. There was no mill and nothing to grind if 
there had been one. Game alone was poor eating. Flour or meal could only be had 
by packing it on horses from the Whitewater, sixty miles off, through a pathless wil- 
derness. But the courage of the settlers rallied to the work, and a system of horse 
transportation was established which furnished a meagre supply, eked out by the pur. 
chase of corn from the Indians up the river, which was brought down in boats. 

The " social events "of the year were the birth of a child to Mr. Harding, who 
was given the name of Mordecai, and he " still lives," hearty and vigorous. This is 
claimed by some to be the first birth in Indianapolis ; others claim the honor for a son 
of Mr. Corbaly. The other, even more interesting event, was the marriage of Jere- 
miah Johnson, to Miss Jane Reagan, the first marriage in Indianapolis. An-d it would 
be memorable if it were the last in last week's list in the daily papers. For the gallant 
Jerry, with a devotion unknown in these degenerate days, walked to Connersville, 
sixty miles, for his marriage license, for Indianapolis was under the jurisdiction of the 
mother settlement as yet. And then he had to wait some weeks for a preacher to 
perform the ceremony. The first sermon was preached by Rev. John McClung, a 
"New Light," in what was afterwards the circle grove. 

Business received a start during the year by the establishment of a store on the 
south bank of Rogue's Creek, in March, 1821, by Daniel ShaSer, who died in June 
following. John and James Given and John T. Osborn followed in the same line, 
near the river, and later Luke Walpole, Mr. Wilmot and Jeremiah Johnson, began 
business. James Linton built a saw mill on Fall Creek just above the Crawfordsville 
road, — some of the timbers are still standing — and a grist mill for Isaac Wilson, on 
the same stream near where the old " Patterson Mill " was. It had no " bolt " how- 
ever, and its flour had to be sifted — a very common necessity in those days, in the 
backwoods. James Blake put up the first frame and plastered house, just east of 
where the Masonic Hall now stands. Carter, Hopkins and Nowland, all had set up 



taverns, and Joseph C. Read opened a school. The first market was held in the 
circle. And thus the metropolis started in business. 

One very serious annoyance to which the citizens were subjected was the mainte- 
nance of the jurisdiction of Connersville over them as a part of Delaware County, 
which embraced all the centre and north of the State, and was attached for judicial 
purposes to the White Water jurisdiction. Every case had to be tried on the White 
Water, and the expenses of attendance would eat up any ordinary demand. Probably 
the effect was beneficial in repressing litigation. But it was more serious in criminal 
cases, for prisoners could not well be taken sixty miles through the woods for trial 
without allowing them many chances of escape. To obviate these difficulties the 
Legislature, in January, 1821, authorized the appointment of two justices of the 
peace for the New Purchase, with an appeal to the Bartholomew Court. Under this 
authority Governor Jennings appointed John Maxwell, but after a few month's service 
he resigned, and James Mcllvain Avas elected by the people and commissioned by the 
Governor. Calvin Fletcher, who arrived in the fall of 1821, was the only lawyer, 
luckily, or conflict might have made litigation. As it was Mr. Fletcher was virtually 
the squire, and a wise one. Having no jail the citizens had no better policy to pursue 
towards dangerous or troublesome offenders than to scare them off, and this they 
practiced with good effect. 

An amusing incident is related by Mr. Brown in illustration. Four Kentucky 
boatmen came from the Bluffs to Indianapolis for a Christmas frolic. They soon got 
drunk enough to be riotous, and began tearing down a little shanty of a goggery 
kept by Daniel Larkins. The interference of the citizens was repelled with violent 
threats which drove them off. But the grocery was a vital institution, and the laws 
must not be outraged, so after consultation it was determined to take the rioters at 
all hazards. James Blake, who seems to have been a leader in all enterprises of 
"pith and moment," proposed to take the biggest and boldest himself if his associates 
would take the other three. It was agreed to and the capture effected. The prisoners 
were t;iken before Squire Mcllvain, who fined them heavily, and in default of payment 
ordered them to the Connersville jail. The idea of being taken sixty miles, in the 
dead of winter through, an unbroken wilderness, was too much for their courage, and 
they made their escape in the night, the guard understanding that that was exactly 
what was wanted. 

Running along with this current of social events and progress in 1821, was the 
laying out and formal founding of the capital. 

The Commissioners appointed by the Legislature to survey the donation, make a 
plat of the proposed city, and sell the alternate lots, did not meet on the first Monday 
of April as ordered. Only Judge Christopher Harrison attended. But he proceeded 
at once to execute the order. He appointed Elias P. Fordhara and Alexander Ralston, 
surveyors, and Benjamin I. Blythe, clerk. Mr. Blythe, who became a resident of the 
place and was afterwards agent for the sale of lots, was well known to all old resi- 
dents. Ralston was a resident also, and seems to have been the active and controlling 
man in the survey. He had, when young, assisted in the survey of Washington 
city, and to the ideas obtained in that work we are probably indebted for the plan of 
the city, and especially its wide and regular streets. He was a Scotchman, a bachelor, 
and had been concerned in Burr's expedition, the failure of which left him in the 
W^est, where he chose to remain. He died in 1827, and was buried in the "old grave 
yard," though nobody now knows where. 

The " donation " of four sections was surveyed, a fraction on the west side of the 
river being added to fill out one of the sections from which a corner was cut off by 


the eastward bend of the river. In the centre of this tract a plat of one mile square 
was made for the capital. It may be remarked here, however, that the donation is 
not exactly in the centre of the State, nor is the old plat of the city exactly in the 
centre of the donation. The latter is a mile or two northwest of the centre of the 
State. The location of the city in the donation was determined mainly by the posi- 
tion of Pogue's Creek. To have put the city in the centre of the donation would have 
taken the creek too nearly through the middle of it, and the valley of that stream was 
a very uninviting locality in those days. To avoid it the plat was located further 
north and the centre placed at the circle. A beautiful little knoll further recom- 
mended this point. 

On this central knoll a circle of about four acres was laid off as the starting 
point, and a street eighty feet wide thrown round it. From the extreme corners of 
the four adjacent squares, avenues were sent out to the northeast, northwest, southeast, 
and southwest. The first street south was made one hundred and twenty feet 
wide, and called " Washington" then, and is so called now, but for many years it was 
called " Main " street. The remainder of the square mile was laid off in regular 
squares of four hundred and twenty feet, separated by ninety feet streets following 
the cardinal points of the compass, and divided by alleys of thirty and fifteen feet, 
crossing each other at right angles in the centre. The boundary streets. East, West, 
North and South, Avere not included in the original survey. The Commissioner 
seems to have thought that nobody would ever live on the outside of the last line of 
squares and made no provision to reach any but the inside. These streets owe their 
existence to James Blake, who represented their importance to Commissioner Harrison, 
and he subsequently added them to the plat. The "out-blocks, " or divisions of the 
donation outside ttte original plat, were made some time afterwards. Nobody dreamed 
that the young town could grow all over the old plat, the " out-lots, " and a great deal 
of the country outside of both, as it has. 

The surveys having been completed and mapped as required by law, the sale of 
alternate lots was advertised to be held on the tenth of October, by General John 
Carr, State Agent. At the appointed time it was held in a cabin occupied as a tavern 
by Matthias Nowland, a little west of the present line of the canal, on Washington 
street. Although the main settlement was on the river, as new settlements always 
are, the sickness that had hardly yet passed away convinced the people that they must 
move farther off, and river lots did not sell- well. The sales lasted several days and 
three hundred and fourteen lots were sold for $35,596 25, of which one-fifth, $7,119 25 
was paid down, the remainder to be paid in four equal annual instalments. The lot 
on the northwest corner of Delaware and Washington streets brought the highest 
price, $560, and one west of the State House square sold for the next highest price, 
$500. Prices generally ranged between $100 and $300. 

The progress made in the disposal of the town site and the adjacent out-lots of 
the donation, gave but a feeble promise of the future growth of the town. After the 
first sales, lots, as the market phrase has it, were " dull and inactive." Of the three 
hundred and fourteen sold one hundred and sixty-nine were forfeited or exchanged 
for others. The reserved lots — only alternate lots were first sold — and those that had 
been forfeited, were oifered for sale repeatedly, but unavailingly. Money was scarce, of 
course, as it always is, and the reputation of the town for health was bad. The 
capital, though assigned to the town, might be kept away for years, as it was. The 
outlook was unpromising._ The growth was slow, so slow that as late as 1831, three- 
■fourths of the town site and donation remained unsold. In that year the Legislature, 
by putting a minimum price of $10 upon the lots, managed to get rid of most of them, 


and when the sales were closed in 1842, it was found that the whole of Indianapolis 
had brought but $125,000. Out of this fund, the State House, Court House, the 
Governor's House, in the circle, the Clerk's office, and Treasurer's house and office 
were paid for. The agency for the sale of city lots was held successively by General 
Carr, James Milroy, Bethuel F. Morris, Benjamin I. Blythe, Ebenezer Sharpe, John 
G. Brown, Thomas H. Sharpe and John Cook. It was then transferred to the State 

The city as thus sold out was a forest, except where a clearing here and there 
had opened the ground to the light. 

To get the streets cleared it was proposed to give the timber to anybody who 
would cut it. A man by the name of Lismund Basye took the contract for Washing- 
ton street, expecting to make a "good thing" of such a superb lot of timber trees, and 
then began to calculate. There were no mills and his trees were of no use without 
them, so he rolled bis splendid logs together and burned them as well as his 
" fingers." 

The year was closed by the inauguration of a county organization. The sales 
made by Judge Harrison were confirmed by the Legislature, and on the last day of 
the year 1821, an act was passed organizing Marion county, and attaching to it for 
judicial purposes the territory now constituting the counties of Johnson, Hamilton, 
Boone, Madison and Hancock. The present Court House Square was dedicated to 
judicial uses, and $8,000 appropriated to build a two story brick Court House, fifty 
feet square, to be completed in three years, and used by the State, Federal and County 
Courts, and by the Legislature for fifty years, or until a State House should be built. 
Two per cent of the lot fund was set apart for a County Library. William W. Wick 
Avas elected the first Judge of the Circuit Court, and Hervey Bates appointed the first 
sheriff. Both came out early in the following year, 1822. 

Bhnpter II« 



W^RE begiiining of the year 1822, is a convenient point from which to glance at 
i^K the situation and prospects of the city. The capital had been located, the town 
^ named, its plan completed, enough of its lots sold and population collected to 
warrant it against dying of inanition, and the political existence of the county had 
just been recognized and a place within the law given it. It was ready for emigration 
and emigrants were ready for elections, though no representation in the Legislature 
had been allowed. The town was a fact, but an almost imperceptible one in the dense 
and limitless Avoods into which it had crawled. It made little more change in the 
face of the region than the boring of a few grubs makes in a white o.ak log. Scattered 
cabins seemed to have dropped down with no order or purpose, thickening a little 
near the river, and thickening still more toward the East, but they marked no street 
except the line of Washington, which still bore dismal testimony to the fate of 
Basye's speculation in timber. It was crowded with stumps and heaps of logs and 
limbs, which, in places, the close undergrowth of hazel, spice brush and pawpaw made 
impervious to all penetration. To travel along it was impossible ; to cross it, except by 
long and devious ways, very difiScult ; to see across it a feat of little easier performance 
than looking through a stone wall. Mr. Brown notices that a spectator standing in 
the door of Hawkins's tavern (old Capital House site) could not see a house where 
Hubbard's block is on the corner of Washington and Meridian streets. No other 
street was visible at all, or only by patches of ineffectual clearing. Neighbors went 
from house to house through paths as hard to follow as a cow track in White River 
bottom. One could walk right over the places where are now depots, churches and four 
story houses, but he had to bend out of the way an intrusive root, or an inconvenient 
log. It is hardly a score of years since the last vestiges of this troublesome thicket 
disappeared, and on Pogue's Creek, near West street, there are , still some honey 
locusts surviving the destruction. 

The means of communication between the town and other portions of the State 
were no better than those between neighbors in the town. There were no roads. 
The river was useless except for such trading as necessity might create with the 
Indians ; and the Cumberland, or National, Road, though on its way westward, came 
slowly and was by no means certain of being able to come beyond the Ohio State 
line at all. For the government was building it by contract with Ohio, with money 
reserved from the proceeds of public land sales in that State, and when the contract 
should be finished at the western boundary, there was no power to go further, except 
by such a construction of the Constitution as would, and did, arouse one of the 
warmest and most protracted political controversies in our national history, and ended 
by dropping the tail of the road in the mud a little west of Big Eagle Creek. The 


State Legislature petitioned Congress for a continuance of the road through the newly 
chosen capital, within two days after the choice had been confirmed, but no attention 
was given the request. It Avas not till about Christmas, 1828, when Hon. Oliver 
H. Smith, then a representative in Congress from the "White Water district of this 
State, by a resolution directing a continuance of the road westward beyond the limit 
of the contract with Ohio, woke up the sleeping lion of party conflict, that attention 
was effectively called to the matter. Even then, but for Hon. William McLean, 
of Ohio, the road would have left Indianapolis a tier of counties to the north, for Mr. 
Smith's resolution directed the " existing location to be followed " and that was 
tending southward. Mr. McLean changed the direction "from Zanesville, through 
Columbus," and sent it to this place. But this really great (for that day) work came 
too late to relieve the necessities of the mud and wood bound town. We got but 
little good of it till 1838, and by that time, though it was the only goo& road we had, 
railroads were acquiring too firm a grasp of public feeling and hope to allow its indis- 
putable value to encourage the improvement of other roads. Its direct advantage 
beyond macadamizing Washington street, was not at all equal to the anticipations of 
the citizens. It became a thoroughftire for emigration to the Mississippi and beyond, 
but it left here little of the deposit that was borne along by its current. It did a vast 
deal for the West but not much for Indianapolis. 

There were other roads, or rather places for them, laid out to the Ohio and White- 
water rivers by the Legislature, in the winter of 1821-2, and one hundred thousand dol- 
lars appropriated to build them, and still others were asked for by a petiti&n of the citizens 
in the fall of 1822, but all were little better than none till long after the town had ceased 
to be dependent upon them. The " Michigan State Road " from the Ohio river to the 
new capital through Greensburg, was one of these, and at the lower end it was made 
a very good road, but the upper end was mud or "cross way," impassable in winter 
and intolerable in summer. The Madison road through Franklin and Columbus was 
even worse. So were all the Northern lines to Pendleton, Noblesville and Crawfords- 
ville. And so they remained till neighborhood thrift and convenience gravelled or 
planked them into passability. It needs no very long memory to recall the merchant's 
journey to Cincinnati, consuming double the time and ten fold the comfort of a 
trip now to New York ; or the voyages of goods wagons quite equal to an Atlantic 
voyage now; in the days when the Stucks, Lemasters, Perrys and their associat-es 
ruled transportation with thewagon whip as absolutely as Tanderbilt or Fisk can do with 
their tariffs; and those who can recall those days and scenes can easily understand what 
the isolation of Indianapolis was when it had no roads at all. Attempts to improve 
the river were made at intervals for years, but never accomplished anything but a 
demonstration that nothing could be done at all except upon a scale unlikely to be 

The town was hidden and out of reach. We who see it the greatest railroad 
centre on the earth, accessible from more directians and to greater numbers than any 
other city that ever existed, find it hard to understand the motives that could have 
impelled the settlers of this period to try to"get to. it. Immediate pi'ofit they could 
not count upon, for there were no mines or promises of unusual development. What- 
evey they got they knew they would have to get by hard work or shrewd manage- 
ment, as they could anywhere else. Real estate promised a poor speculation, even in 
an embryo capital to which access was difficult always and almost impossible for half 
the year, and where sickness and starvation were visitors of most unpleasant fre- 
quency. There was not much to look to as remuneration for a great deal that must 


be endured. Whether it was a higher motive than personal advantage, or merely an 
irrepressible feeling of unrest, that sent our first settlers here, it is certain that if the 
upbuilding of the town had depended upon similar efforts of their descendants and 
successors it would have remained unbuilt. It is not necessary to look for greater 
virtues among pioneers than among their children to account for their contented- 
endurance of privations, or ready daring of danger ; but more striking virtues we certainly- 
shall find. Doubtless we of this day have qualities better suited to our times, and an 
average of endowments and deficiencies of one generation would probably differ hiit 
little from that of the other, but those of the pioneers, whatever they were, were 
not ours. That is certain. No other town in the State has had to encounter so many 
and so serious obstacles to improvement. Those which once rivalled it had infinite 
advantages, either in navigable streams or easy access to other settlements. Indian- 
apolis had nothing, and lay among hostile Indians where scalps were little safer than 
they are now on the slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Isolation, sickness and endless 
forests were serious drawbacks to a town that offered no better inducements than 
could be found in every township of the State. There is no just parallel between it 
and the cities of the far West that have sprouted out of the gold traffic. Great risks 
for great gains are frequent enough anywhere, and nowhere more frequent than at the 
faro table. There were no such chances and no such efforts here, yet no gold town 
can show a history of greater difficulties surmounted by more indomitable resolution. 

The population at the beginning of 1822, numbering not far from five hundred, 
was quite as well provided with mechanical and professional skill as any young town i 
could be, and there was very little, if any, admixture of the fierce ruffianism too often i 
noiirished by remote settlements and unforgotten Indian cruelties. All were workers, 
and if there were any drones they were not troublesome as well as useless. The con- 
dition of the town is exhibited accuratelj^ enough in a paragraph of one of the earliest 
copies of the first newspaper published here. Forty dwellings had been built during 
the past year; several workshops had been erected, and two saw mills and a grist' 
mill were in operation in the vicinity, while others were in course of construction. 
There were thirteen carpenters, four cabinet makers, eight blacksmiths, four shoe- 
makers, two tailors, one hatter, two tanners, one saddler, one cooper, four bricklayers, 
two merchants, three grocers, four doctors, three lawyers, one preacher, one teacher, 
and seven tavern keepers. The number of the last class seems to indicate a tendencjr 
towards speculating on the possession of the Legislature for three months in the year; 
There could have been but very few of the adult male population outside of this list 
of sixty-one working men. 

In the remote and almost inaccessible situation of the little community, the want 
of postal facilities was, next to the supply of the necessaries of life, most keenly felt, 
and one of its first efforts, after settling into the form and substance of a village, was 
to open communication with the world they had left. A meeting of the citizens waa 
held at Hawkins's tavern, on the thirtieth of January, to establish a private mailj. 
which, inefficient as it must be, was better than the chance of trusting to new emif- 
grants or occasional visitors to carry letters. A postmaster, whose chief duty was mail, 
carrying, was chosen, in Mr. Aaron Drake, and he notified postmasters to forward 
Indianapolis matter to Connersville, where he would receive it and take it to its 
destination. He heralded his first arrival by an uproarious blowing of his horn, and. 
though it was after nightfall the people turned out in mass to welcome him and his 
budget of news. The government, in a few weeks, completed the work thus irre- 
sponsibly begun, and in February sent Samuel Henderson as a regularly commissioned^ 



postmaster, to displace Mr. Drake's enterprise. He opened his office on the seventh of 
March, and a month after published the first list of five uncalled for letters, a number indi- 
cating, with about equal clearness, a m eagre correspondence and an eager inquiry for what 
there was. Henderson held the place till 1831. The office was moved about with 
the changes made by the growth of the town, but was, on the whole, much less 
vagrant than might have been anticipated even by those who could have forseen the 
stages in its course to its present magnitude. It was first kept near where the canal 
now runs, that then being a half-way point between the earlier settlement on the 
river and the later and larger to the eastward. It was next kept in Henderson's 
tavern, on the site of Glenn's block; then in what used to be called "Union Row," 
a line of two story brick buildings of surpassing splendor for that day, of which John 
Cain, the postmaster, owned one and put his office in it; later in the building on the 
west side of Meridian street, near Washington, now incorporated in " Hubbard's 
Block;" at one time it was kept on the west side of Pennsylvania street, in the same 
building with the Journal office, and a fire which broke out in the Washington street 
front of the block endangered it greatly ; subsequently it was removed to Blackford's 
building on the east side of Meridian street, opposite to a former location, and there 
it remained till its removal to the building which the government erected expressly 
for it. Of the history of its business more will be said in another place. 

Almost simultaneously with the establishment of the first mail came the first 
newspaper of the town. It was issued on the twenty-eighth of January, and an- 
nounced that its owners and editors were George Smith and Nathaniel Bolton. The 
former was rather a conspicuous character aside from the notoriety attaching to a 
magnate of the press. He wore a queue carefully tied with an eel skin string. The " old 
settlers" believed fully that some sort of virtue lay in such a string that no twine or 
strip of buckskin could boast. Old women always tied their "back hair" with eel 
skin, and many an eel has died a victim to this fancy that might have lived till now 
if only sought for his meat. Mr. Smith, moreover, had a most sonorous sneeze, which, 
to all the inhabitants in the vicinity of his residence on the corner of Georgia 
and Tennessee streets, where the Catholic institutions now stand, proclaimed the early 
■ dawn as regularly as cock-crow, and could be heard nearly as far as the arsenal gun. 
He was a man of some eccentricity of character, and esteemed of a rather intellectual 
•cast in that day of material interests and influences. Mr. Bolton is better known as 
the first husband of Mrs. Sarah T. Bolton, not unfrequently called the " poetess of 
.Indiana," and, unquestionably, for many years more" widely known than any other 
literary personage in the State. He was State Librarian at one time, and subsequently 
Consul at the city of Geneva, Switzerland. He was more or less connected with the 
^press for many years, but though a man of sound sense and fair attainments, he never 
made a very broad mark either on the press, or, through it, on the public. The first 
•office of the Gazette, was a cabin near where the present Fifth Ward school stands on 
Maryland street. It was soon changed to the site of the Metropolitan Theatre ; and 
■thence to a building near Pennsylvania street on Washington; and later to a one- 
story brick on the site of Temperance Hall, which became afterwards a theatre, and 
the headquarters of recruiting for the Mexican war. 

Very few papers have encountered or withstood greater difficulties so early in life. 
Its ink was compound of tar, and realized the printer's description of a paper " worked 
with swamp mud on a cider press." It appeared as it had a chance, for the lack of 
mails made it difficult to gather matter, and as for local news every tongue told that 
to every ear, and the accidental paper must have been as empty as a last year's bird's 
nest. Seven numbers were published between the twenty-eighth of January and the 


fourth of May, an average of one every two weeks. After that the roads and mails 
enabled it to appear regularly. A notice of the press of the city will give further 
information in regard to it, its rivals and the successors of both. 

Following closely after the first mail and the first paper, came the first election. 
The county had been organized, but it had ao officers, except the Judge and Sheriff, 
who served by appointment of the Governor. On the 22d of February Hervey Bates, 
the Sheriff, issued a proclamation ordering the election on the first of April following, 
of two Associate Judges, a Clerk, Recorder, and three Commissioners, and designating 
polling places, which show; what a very extensive county we had then. One was in 
the town at the house of General Carr, the State Agent for the sale of town lots, on 
Delaware street, opposite the present county offices; one at John Finch's, near Con- 
ner's settlement, four miles south of Noblesville; one at John Page's, Strawtown, in 
the northern part of what is now Hamilton county; one at John Berry's, Anderson, 
now Madison county; and one at William McCartney's, on Fall Creek, near Pendle- 
ton. The list of candidates would have shamed even the formidable array of names 
that " Many Friends " announce every two years at this daJ^ For Judges, James 
Page, Robert Patterson, James Mcllvain, Eliakim Harding, John Smock, and Rev. 
John McClung announced themselves. For Clerk, James M. Ray, Milo R. Davis, 
Morris Morris, Thomas Anderson, and John W. Redding. For Recorder, Alexander 
Ralston, Joseph C. Reed, Aaron Drake, John Givan (still living), John Hawkins, 
William Vandegrift, and William Townsend. For County Board there were about 
five candidates for each of the three memberships. In a voting population of three 
hundred and thirty, a list of thirty-three candidates indicates that if there is any dif- 
ference, we have degenerated a little from the ambition of our predecessors. Partisan 
differences, though resting on no questions of policy, were pretty well marked, and 
followed the line of nativity closely. Kentucky and Whitewater, represented by 
Morris Morris and James M. Ray, were the contestants, and they fought as eagerly, 
though hardly so unscrupulously, as later rivals for the same offices. Every voter wa? 
brought out, and pretty nearly every one was taken back drunk. In respect of 
temperance, later elections are a decided improvement on those of the first twenty 
years of our history. The Kentuckians were mainly the sufferers, from too recent 
residence to be entitled to a vote, and Whitewater was victorious. James M. Ray 
became the first County Clerk ; Joseph C. Reed, the first schoolmaster, became first 
County Recorder; John T. Osborn, John McCormack and William McCartney first 
Commissioners; and Eliakim Harding and James Mcllvain, first Associate Judges. 
James M. Ray got 21 7 votes, out of an entire poll of 336 in the county. At the Indi- 
anapolis precinct, 224 votes were cast, of which something over 100 belonged to the 
" donation." The vote shows that some addition had been made to the adult popu- 
lation of the town since the Gazette's list appeared. In August, the election for Gov- 
ernor was held, and William Hendricks received 315 votes, out of 317. Harvey Bates 
was then elected Sheriff, and George Smith, Coroner. 

The County Board organized on the 15th of April, and formed thirteen town- 
ships — Pike, Washington, Lawrence, Wayne, Center, Warren, Decatur, Perry and 
Franklin, as at present, with four others in the outlying portions of the county — Fall 
Creek, Anderson, White River and Delaware. Some of these were attached to the 
administration of larger townships for a time. In Center, Wilkes Reagan, Obed 
Foote and Lismund Basye were elected Justices on the 23d of May. 

The first term of Court commenced on the 26th of September, and the session was 
first held in Carr's Cabin, already alluded to. Judge W. W. Wick presided, assisted 
by his new associates Harding and Mcllvain; Clerk Ray produced his first docket as 


Clerk; Hervey Bates introduced business with the first ofiSckl " Oyez," as sheriff; 
and Calvin Fletcher acted, by appointment, as the first Prosecutor. The Court, after 
organizing, adjourned to Crambaugh's house, west of the Canal, and there tried the 
first case. Daniel Bowman vs. Meridy Edwards. Richard Good, late of Ireland, 
was naturalized. The Grand Jury returned twenty-two indictments, six of them for 
unlicensed liquor-selling; and John Hawkins was granted a license to keep a tavern 
and sell liquor. As debtors were then liable to imprisonment, "bounds" were fixed, 
which allowed unfortunate poverty a chance to move about, but confined it to der- 
tain streets. 

The appropriation of $8,000 and a square of ground, made by the Legislature, for 
a Court House, was first applied by the County Commissioners on the 2 2d of May, 
when a call was made for a plan of the proposed building. That of John E. Baker 
and James Paxton was selected, and the contract, for erection awarded them in 
September. What the plan was could be seen a few weeks ago. The work was 
begun the following summer, and completed in the fall of 1824, at a cost of $14,000. 
At the same session of the County Board, Mr. Sheriff Bates was directed to procure 
proposals for a jail, and for clearing the Court House square. The latter was done 
partly by the axe and partly by the wind. A fine selection of large trees was left 
standing when the forest was cut away, but they were blown and broken off so badly 
that it was thought best to clean them out entirely. The jail, of hewed logs, two 
stories high, was finished early in the fall. It stood on the northwest corner of the 
square, a little north of the present tempoi-ary Court House. It was burned in 1833, 
by a negro, who a short time before had paraded the streets riding on the back of a 
buffalo, to the amazement of all the school children, and distinguished by a red mo- 
rocco band on his cap, and the name of "Buffalo Bill." He was not burned in the 
jail, but it would have been little matter if he bad been. A new brick jail, so long . 
identified with Andrew Smith, Deputy Sheriff and Jailer, and with Mr. Mattingly, 
was then built east of the old Court House, on Alabama street, and enlarged in 1845 
by an addition made of three concentric courses of hewed logs, each a foot thick, the 
middle one crossing the others transversely, and making quite as safe a prison, except 
against fire, as any stone or brick contrivance yet attempted. Both gave place, in 
1852, to the present costly and inadequate structure. The Court House will soon be 
replaced by the building, a cut of which forms the frontispiece to this volume. 

Along with other interesting first observances or inaugurations, that of the first 
Fourth of July celebration deserves notice. It had been arranged at a meeting at 
Hawkins' tavern two weeks before, and was held, on the old " Military Ground," 
where subsequently the "Bloody Three Hundred" rendezvoused for the Black Hawk 
expedition. Rev. John McClung prea-ched a sermon from Proverbs xiv. and 34, Judge 
Wick read the Declaration of Independence, prefaced with some appropriate remarks, 
and 'Squire Obed Footc read Washington's Inaugural Address, John Hawkins read 
the Farewell Address, and Rev. Robert Brenton, with a benediction, dismissed the 
meeting to a barbecue of a buck, which Robert Harding had killed the day before in 
the north part of the donation. The banquet was enlivened with whisky, and toasts 
and speeches by Dr. Mitchell and Major Redding, and the whole affair concluded with 
a ball at Crumbaugh's. 

Militia musters were deemed important in those days, and not a few of our 
statesmen have won their way to national prominence through the popularity first 
gained with a militia plume or epaulet. James Paxton was the first Colonel of the 
regiment assigned to this section of the State— the Fortieth ; Samuel Morrow Lieu- 
enant Colonel, and Alexander W. Russell, Major. These titles elung to their 


vietiras to the last day of their lives, except whei-e they were changed, as in Russell's 
case, for a higher one. 

The first camp meeting was held for three days, beginning on the 12th of Sep- 
tember, by Kev, .Tames Scott, the first Methodist pieacher of the town, who was 
sent here by the St. Louis cocference. During the fall one of those singular phe- 
nomena of animal instinct, a migration of squirrels, took place. The town was 
filled with tbem, and myriads crossed the river, a feat which, except in these 
monstrous processians, squirrels rarely attempt. Another occurred in 1848, within 
the memory of many now living, when the animals were seen frequently in the 
remoter streets and shot out of shade trees. 

Though the health of the town had been better than during the preceding year, 
and not worse than that of western villages usually was in those days, the ill repute 
of the universal prostration of 1821 clogg- d its progress. The unsold lots remained 
unsold, and many that had been sold showed signs of a coming forfeiture. Times 
were hard, as they always are in a new country, and the liet of tax delinquencies 
much longer in proportion than it is now, for sums ranging from a quarter of a 
dollar to three dollars, showed it unmistakably. Men who hold lots for a specula- 
tion, as well as those who hold for homes, do not willingly incur the liabilities of a 
tax sale. To encourage settlement, even on probation, the Legislature, early in 
January, authorized the unsold lots to be sold upon condition that they were cleared 
within four months. The tract ©n the west side of the river (thrown in to mak-e 
up the complete four square miles of the Government donation), though it prom- 
ised rather better than it does now, was thought so unlikely of settlement as a towsa , 
that it was leased in lots big enough for moderate farms, ranging from five to twenty 
acres. A lease was also made for three years of the ferry across White River. It 
ran very nearly across from the foot of Washington street to the opposite bank, 
some hundred yards below the National Road bridge. Two acres were also author, 
ized to be sold for a brick yard. Whatever may have been the effect of these 
encouragements, there is but one of them that has left a trace to our day, and that 
is the last. The brick yard furnished the material for the first brick building 
erected in the city, and it is standisg yet, opposite the north end of the Post Ofiice, 
on the north side of Market street. It was erected by John Johnson, begun in 182 2, 
and completed in about a year. The first tw,o-story frame was erected in the spring 
of this year, by James Linton, on Washington street, near the alley east of the 
Metropolitan Theatre. For a number of years it was stored full of old documents, 
and was occupied sometimes for public offie-s, but a portion of the time as a book- 
bindery. The cellar under it caved in, on the street si^ie as well as on the other, 
and the hogs used to wallow there. Then it was abandoned, cr used for any ehanc* 
purpose that it suited, till about 1840, when it was repaired and additions made to 
it, and a tavern for a long time known as the " Buck Tavera," from its sign, was 
kept there by Mr. Aa-mstrong. It was burmed down in 1847. A market house was 
placed in the circle grove in the spring of 1822, but was soon transferred to the pres- 
ent East Market place. 

Though the town was the chosen capital of the State, the county had no repre- 
sentation in the Legis'.atura A petition to obtain it was adopted by a meeting in 
the fall, and an effort made to obtain a weekly mail from the actual capital, Cory- 
cen, by way of Vernon. Neither met with success, nor did a later effort to have 
the town incorporated. The citizens were not agreed about it, and no further sf.eps 
^ere taken in that directioa for ten y^ears. 

^hapt^r III* 

Second Paper — Legislative Election — Improvements — First Drama — First 
Chttrch and Sunday School — Order to Kemove the Capital — the 
Indian Murder — Great Freshet. 

tHE beginning of the year 1823 was signalized by the admission of the county 
to the Legislature, and the preparations for the election in the following 
August. Two newspapers are, of course, essential to any well regulated polit- 
ical contest, and as tbiere was but one (the Gazette), when the contest opened, 
another became inevitable and appeared on the 7th of March. It was called " The 
Western Censor and Emigrant' s Guide" with that peculiar inverse proportion of 
length of name to intrinsic value that distinguishes young country newspapers 
everywhere. Harvey Gregg and Douglass Maguire were the proprietors and edit- 
ors. Mr. Gregg has passed from the memory of all but a very few of the present 
generation, but he was known as a lawyer of decided ability, and like his rival, 
Mr. Smith, of some personal eccentricity. Mr. Maguire is still well remembered 
by many as one of our prominent citizens, a capable and faithful State officer 
(Auditor,) a true friend, and a most kindly and genial gentleman, though irritable 
withal, easily vexed and as easily placated. His connection with the paper, in one 
capacity or another, continued till 1835, but that of Mr. Gregg terminated in 1824. 
Mr. G. was succeeded by John Douglass, then recently from Corydon, the capital, 
where he had been printer to the State, Mr. Maguire actiag as editor. Early in 1825 
the name was changed to the ^'- Indiana Journal" which it still retains, and seems 
likely to retain as long as a newspaper shall be published in Indianapolis. Samuel 
Merrill subsequently became editor. His successors and the changes in proprietor- 
ship will be noticed under their proper head. 

The Censor and Guide took tbe political path that finally led to whigism, as the 
Gazette's did to Democracy; but this was the "era of good feeling," as it has been 
called, when parties were in a transition state, solidifying from the break up of the 
old Federal and Democratic parties into the future AVhig and Democratic parties, 
and differences were less defined and less bitter then than they have become since. 
Parties had not been disciplined to the accuracy and unanimity of movement of 
armies, even where parties were distinctly formed, and elections were in a good 
degree contests of personal popularity. No man knew exactly what anybody else 
believed about politics, and was not always clear as to what he believed himself, or 
whom he agreed with, and his choice was naturally enough decided by personal 
inclination. Electioneering, though a less expensive, was a more delicate, operation 
than now, when a nomination gives a candidate about all the strength that any 
quantity of ability and personal popularity can gain The solidity of parties is too 
great to be easily afiected by any individual quality. But in that day a man carried 
himself, consequently the "ingratiating" element came powerfully into play, and 
■was aided by the paucity of voters which made a personal acquaintance with everj 


one not only possible but easy. The day of child-kissina;, dinner-eating, wife-flat- 
tering electioneering is pretty well over now; but in 1823 and for many a year 
afterwards, it was a candidate's " best hold," and a good fiddler or '' go-d fellow" — 
pretty much the same thing — has beaten a good orator and a sound legislator more 
than once. But these were the exceptions then, as the choice of really incompe- 
tent over competent men is the exception and not the rule, whatever their personal 
acceptability may be, in all intelligent communities. The election made our first 
legislators of two men who would have done credit to any State. James Gregory 
of Shelby, was our Senator, and Col Paxton our Representative. 

The vote showed that the town was gaining but little. At the preceding 
August election, when Hendricks was chosen Governor, 317 votes were cast in this 
county. The total vote was now but 270. The Censor estimated the population of 
the town at 600, probably quite as much as a census would have made good. A 
year had done nothing but settle and fix the elements already collected. But 
improvements were made, and a look of age and steadiness was gradually coming 
upon the callow capital. A woolen mill was set in operation in Wilson's mill, by 
Townsend & Pierce, in June. Woolen manufactures in the form of a supply of 
yarn for socks and thread foi linsey and jeans, are among the first efi'orts of young 
communities, and apt to appear beside or close after the saw and grist mill. In 
this unpretending form they are as significant of a pioneer, as their larger succes- 
sors are of the wealthy and well-groAvn, community. A new "tavern" — for the 
dignity of " hotel " was not claimed by the primitive establishments of those days — 
was built by Thomas Carter, on Washington street, opposite the Court house. It 
^as burned in 1825, during the first session of the Legislature held in the capital. 
A still larger and more famous tavern was erected about the same time by James 
Blake and Samuel Henderson, the Post master, on the site of "Glenn's Block," It 
was called "Washington Hall," a name which was perpetuated by its brick suc- 
cessor, till the demands of business and the rise of more pretentious hotels sup- 
planted it. Henderson's old frame was moved eastward in 1836, to make way for 
the brick building, and was long occupied as a shoe and tailor shop, and by Gov. 
Wallace as a law office. Gramling's block stands in its place now. In another 
place will be found a fuller notice of our early hotels. These preparations for the 
Legislature were not indications of equal activity in improvements in all directions- 
Washington street was still encumbered with trees, and the others were only chopped 
out in places. The town was mainly a collection of illy cleared farms, reached by 
cow paths; still, it seems, by the complaints of the Censor, to have provoked the 
envy or rivalry of other towns, though for what, it is not easy to see. 

But the prospect of the acquisition of the capital exerted a sort of metropolitan 
influence, and the close of the year brought the first Theatrical entertainment ever 
•witnessed in Indianapolis. It was given in Carter's tavern, on the night of 
Wednesday, the 31st of December, and consisted of the "Doctor's Courtship or the 
Indulgent Father," and the farce of the "Jealous Lovers." Price of admission 
thirty-seven and a half cents. In deference to the religious notions of the people 
Mr. Carter insisted on the performance only of serious music, "hymn tunes" and 
the like, by the single fiddle that constituted the orchestra. Several performances 
were given with, we are left to infer, moderate success, as the "enterprising mana- 
ger," Mr. Smith— unhappily his first name is not known, or it was "John" and 
might as well have not been any name at all — came back next year, and repeated 
the experiment with less success, as he ran off without paying the printer. The 
Censor intimated on the return of Mr. Smith in 1824, that popular feeling was not 


prepared for the levity of theatrical exhibitions, though its own opinion was not 
adverse to them. This hint explains Mr. Carter's incongruous selection of " serious 
music." It was a compromise between scruple and curiosity. 

The religious sentiment among the early settlers of the West, even when no 
profession of religion was made, was always strong, and never yielded to fashiona- 
ble solicitations or the hints of 'Mrs. Grundy." As already noticed, the circle 
grove was used as a meeting house for the first attendants en public worship, and a 
camp meeting was held in 1822, by the Methodists, east of town; but though sev- 
eral deuominatione were fairly represented, no church edifice was erected till this 
year of 1823. The Presbyterians, early in the spring, held a meeting, and took 
steps both for a church organization and building. The former was completed in 
Jul}^, and the latter, at a cost of $1200 for building and lot, in the year following, 
though the frame was raised pretty nearly simultaneously with the congregation. 
It stood, till some ten or twelve years ago, where it was first placed, on Pennsylva- 
nia street, about midway of the square north of Market, on the west side. It was 
regularly occupied till superceded by an $8,000 brick structure, on the north-east 
corner of Circle and Market streets, where The JouRNAii oflice now stands. Both 
have bad to make way for increased congregations and the necessities of trade, and 
are now represemed by the superb edifice on the corner of New York and Penn- 
■eylvania streets. 

This year was further marked, in its religious developement, by the organiza- 
tion of the first Sunday School, as well as the first church. It met on March 6, 
in the cabinet shop of Caleb — or, as he was better known, "Squire"— Scudder, on 
the Washington street side of the State House Square. No attempt was made to 
introduce denominational dilierences. It was a Union School, so called, and so in 
fact. Its anniversary has been often celebrated with much interest, no inco sid- 
erable number of the first scholars being still alive to relate their experiences. The 
attendance averaged about forty during the first year; but it was a sort of luxury 
not deemed necessary to be kept up through the winter, and on the approach of cold 
weather it was suspended till the following spring. It re-appeared on its first anni- 
versary, and never was suspended again. After the completion of the Presbyterian 
church in 1824, it was held there, and continued there till the growth of other 
churches, and the obtrusion of denominational feelings, called oflT first one colony 
and then another, leaving to the old place little more than its Presbyterian 
collection. The Methodist school was separately organized April 24-h, 1829, and 
the Baptist in 1832. After that each church formed its Sunday school to itself. 
But the Union lived alone six years, as useful an institution as ever was established 
anywhere. From an average attendance of forty the first year, it rose to an hun- 
dred an fifty before the Methodist "swarm" left the "old hive,"' and had a library 
of one hundred and fifty volumes of the now long-forgotten marble-paper covered 
books of the type of the "Shepherd of Salisbury Plain." To this union of Sunday 
schools we owe the long-prevalent fashion of celebrating the Fourth of July by a 
procession of all the Sunday school scholars of the town, a march to some conve- 
nient grove,reading the Declaration of Independence, a speech by some prominest 
lawyer or public man, and a dinner of "rusks" and watei-. This celebration con- 
tinued till the excitement of the war banished it utterly, and it has never been 
repl ced by any general observance. The Fourth of July in the capital has dis- 
appeared except as an idle holidaj^, or the occasion for som^e Society's pic-nic. But in 
1823 the day was the great day of the year. Everybody celebrated it. A barbecue was 
made by Wilkes Reagan, at his residence on Market street, near the creek. Rev- 



D. C. Proctor, the Presbyterian paptor, and the first regular pastor in the town, 
ofBciated as chaplain, Daniel B. Wick as reader, and Morris Morris as orator. Rev. 
Isaac Read closed with a benediction. The "barbecue," or roasting of a deer or 
beef whole, was the staple entertainment of all public assemblages of these early 
.days. Political barbacues were frequent, and the reader may remember the noted 
one given on the occasion of the visit of Henry Clay in 1842, in Gov. Noble's pas- 
ture, east of town. That was about the last of those old-time festivities. 

In the spring an organization of physicians was formed called the Indiana 
Central Medical Society, with Dr. S. G. Mitchell as president, and Dr. Livingston 
Dunlap as secretary. Its purpose seems to have embraced one point more than its 
successor of this day ; for under the law of that day doctors were licensed, and this 
association was authorized to examine applicants and issue licenses. 

Although, at the beginning of 182-4, the rather disproportionate aiDountof hotels 
to other improvements indicated an expectation of the removal of the capital, the 
change was held ofi" by several influences — the inaccessibility of the town, its repu- 
ted bad health, its lack of suitable buildings or any at all sufficient for the Legisla- 
ture, and not least, probably, by the fact that until the session of 1824 the new 
county of Msirion had no representative in that body. But when Senator Gregory 
and Representative Paxton took their places, attention was efectivelj- directed to 
the matter, ai.d on the 28th of January, 1824, an aet was pas-ed transferring the 
seat of Government to Indianapolis, ordering the removal, under the direction of 
Samuel Merrill, State Treasurer, of the offices and archives, by the 10th of January 
following, and fixing that day for the meeting of the Legislature in the new capitol, 
the unfinished Court house. This was final as far as authority went, asad the trans- 
fer needed nothing but a wagon or two to be complete. Our members, upon their 
return home after the adjournment of the Legislature were given a complimentary 
banquet at Washington Hall, at which the usual enthusiastic anticipations were 
indulged, with the unu«ual fortune, however, of being at once above and below the 
truth. So far as the influence of the acquisition of the capital went — and the ban- 
queters, of course, thought of no other — hope ran high over the reality. So far as 
the ultimate growth and importance of the city, independent of the capital, was 
indicated, the reality has outrun the wildest anticipations. The enthusiasm climbed 
too high to see clearly what was at its feet, aad not high enough to see what lay 
a half century away. The interval, till the momentous wagon with Mr. Merrill's 
boxes of papers arrived, was filled up with some improvements, and some incidents 
that deserve to be remembered. 

The streets were still in course of being opened to the light, and the Court 
house, a school house, tiie Presbyterian church, and a building for the State ofiices, 
were going up. The population had shifted considerably, and while the county 
grew daily larger and sttonger, the town stood pretty nearly where the impetus 
given by the lot sales had left it. Emigrants made it a stopping place where they 
could look about and choose a location, and thus many came who did not stay. A 
census taken by the Union Sunday School Visitors— the first of a series of rather 
useless statistics that were regularly collected for many years — indicated that the 
"Donation" contained about one hundred families, an average population of six 
hundred, of which one hundred and seventy-two were voters, and forty-five 
were unmarried women. 

This was not a very formidable strength if a collision should occur with the 
Shawnees, whom the excellence of the hunting grounds still retained near their old 
town on Fall Creek, in Madison county. A war could hardly be said to have been 


possible, but a "row" certainly was; and the town was easier to hurt, and had 
more to lose, than its possible assailants. Consequently a feeling of insecurity was 
never entirely allayed, and it was sometimes excited to a painful degree. The worst 
and last of these alarms occurred on the 22d of March, 1824. This was the mur- 
der of nine Seneca or Shawnee Indian?, two men, one named Ludlow, three women, 
two boys and two girls, by five whites, Harper, Sawyer and his son. Bridge and 
his son, and Hudson. Hon. Oliver H. Smith, in his " Early Indiana Sketches," gives 
an account of the affair, and the serious commotion it excited even as far as the 
national seat of Government. These Indians had encamped a short time before eight 
miles above Pendelton, the seat of the then recently organized county of Madison, 
and were watched with the usual disquietude of the whites. They had been hunting 
and trapping only a week, Mr. Smith says, and were just ready to catch the rac- 
coons as they issued from their winter holes to hunt frogs in the newly thawed 
swamps and streams. But their collection of furs excited the cupidity of Harper, 
who, doubtless, as did most frontiersmen, also retained the memory of some injury 
inflicted by the Indians to aggravate his bate, and he led his companions into the 
scheme to massacre the party and take their peltries. They entered the camp under 
the pretext of hunting their horses, and got the Indians to go out with them to help 
in the search. Harper took one Indian with him and Hudson took the other, and each 
cruelly shot his companion dead within hearing of the women and children. The 
whole party then went back to the camp, where JSawyer shot one of the squaws and 
Bridge and his son shot the other two. The children were shot with the same 
fiendish delibei-ation, but the oldest boy not being quite dead when found. Sawyer 
took him by the legs and knocked his brains out against a log. The bodies were 
thrown into a pond, where the settlers found them next day, one of the women still 
showing signs of life. The camp was robbed, and the murderers escaped, but not 
long. Harper got away to Ohio, and in those days, at such a distance, he was as 
safe as he would bo now in Europe, and he never was caught. The others were, 
and caught again after an escape in July. 

This terrible crime produced serious apprehensions. The people in the vicinity 
took refuge in the Pendleton mills, and the authorities thought it necessary to take 
especial measures to placate the Indians. Col. John Johnston, the Indian Agent at 
Piqua, Ohio, and Mr. William Conner were dispatched on a mission of concilia- 
tion. They assured the tribes that the murderers should be punished, and obtained 
a promise from the chief that nothing hostile should be done till they saw what the 
"Great Father" would do. Whatever might have been the laxity of popular 
notions of justice to Indians, in this case there was no escape from a rigid adherence 
to the law. The Government employed General James Noble, then United States 
Senator, to assist Calvin Fletcher, the prosecutor, in the prosecution, and General 
Noble brought with him his son-in-law, Philip Sweetser, a name well known in 
after years at the bar of Indianapolis and in the Legislature. Nearly all the promi- 
nent men of the bar were retained for the defense, among them Mr. Smith mentions 
Harvey Gregg, editor of the Censor, Lot Bloomfield, James Kaiiden, Charles H. 
Test, Daniel B. Wick, and William R. Morris, of this State, and General Sampson 
Mason, and Moses Vance, of Ohio. Hudson was indicted and tried in November, 
"in a new log building, with a puncheon floor," in Pendleton, before Judge Wick 
with Associate Judges Samuel HoUiday and Adam Winchell, the latter a black- 
smith, who ironed the prisoners on their arrest. Mr. Smith states that W. R. Mor- 
ris, for the defense, moved for a habeas corpus for the prisoners when the case was 
called, Judge Wick being absent. Judge Winchel!, after questioning the propriety 


of the motion, refused it flatly with the quaint remark, "It would do you no good 
to hring out the prisoners I ironed them mself, and you will never get them irons 
off until they have been tried, habeas corpus or no habeas corpus." Hudson was 
convicted and hung in the winter, a number of Indians attending the execution. 
This is memorable as the Jirst instance in the history of the United States of the 
legal execution of a white man for killing an Indian. The elder Bridge and 
Sawyer were hung in the following June. Young Say wer escaped with a verdict of 
manslaughter, ai.d young Bridge was pardoned by Gov. James Brown Ray, an 
event which is still remembered as an illustration of the eccentricities of that able 
but wayward man. It is said that when young Bridge was placed under the rope 
that had hung his father, Gov. Ray, who had given no intimation of his startling 
design, mounted the scaffold, and after a speech on the enormity of the crime and 
its danger to the peace of the community, announced directly to the condemned, 
" No power now remains but that of the Almighty and the Executive of Indiana, to 
save your life," and announced to the people his pardon. The Indians were content 
with the justice of the whites, and gave no further trouble. Indeed, from tha^ 
time Indian alarms, on any account whatever, ceased. 

The spriag of this murder was unusually wet, and the river rose enormously, 
higher than has ever been known since, except in 1828. Th6 flood of 1847, the 
next highest, was not thought by Mr. Nathaniel Cox (who was thoroughly familiar 
with the river,) to have been quite so high. In the sparsely settled s'.ate of the 
country such an overflow was rather interesting than alarming, and a keel boat 
called the "Dandy" increased the interest the town took in the event by coming 
up with a load of backwoods necessaries, whisky and salt. But neither the freshet, 
nor the excitement caused by the Indian massacre, stopped the slow movement of 
such enterprises as were attempted, and religion received a full share of whatever 
effort was made. The Methodists held their first quarterly meeting in the Presby- 
rian church on the 25ih of May, under James Scott, a missionary sent out, as before 
stated, by the St. Louis Conference in 1821. Before this the meetings had been semi- 
occasional gatherings, as zeal and opportunity suggested, and held at private houses. 
Camp meetings had been collected every year, but still the Methodist growth de- 
manded something fixed in the fashion of settled religious communities. But 
though they organized their church in 1824 they were not able to get a house till 
the next year, when they built on Maryland street east of Meridian. In secular 
affairs it is to be noticed that a military school was opened in January by a Major 
SuUinger, for the instruction of militia officers and soldiers, — an enterprise that 
would seem to be about as urgently demanded as a teacher of painting in a blind 
asylum. A real estate agency was also established this year, by W. C. McDougal, 
but that seems to have been nearly as far ahead of the times as the pr-emature West 
Point. But the country, as before remarked, was filling up, new farms were appear- 
ing, trade growing, and emigrants coming and scattering. The Fourth of July 
brought the usual celebration, and, as before, at Wilkes Reagan's. One speech was 
made by Gabriel J. Johnson to the citizens, and another by Major Redding to the 
militia. Obed Foote read the declaration, and Reagan of course furnished the bar- 
becue. In August there was a warm contest for the o.ffice of sheriff between Major 
Alexander W. Russell and Morris Morris. The old rivalry between Kentucky and 
Whitewater had disappeared. It was Kentucky against Kentucky now. Russell 
was elected by 265 votes to 148. In November the great contest between Clay, 
Adams and Jackson, occurred. The Kentucky influence was paramount, and Clay 
got 217 votes to 99 for Jackson, and 16 for Adams. The Clay meo. made a regular 


organization on the I7th of July, with James Paxton as President, and Hiram 
Brown as Secretary. 

In November Mr. Samuel Merrill, with the aid of a heavy wagon, traveling at 
the rate of twelve and a half miles a day, brought our new capital here. He put the 
Treasurer's office and residence in the brick building, long a v/ell known jemnant of 
early days, on the southwest corner of Washington and Tennessee streets, and there 
it remained till the little office got too small for it. The now State offices occupy its 
place. The Growernor had to live like anybody else, where he could get a house, and 
this unfixed condition of the Executive household continued till the administration 
of Gov. Wallace, in .838, when the residence, then the finest in the town erected by 
Dr. John Sanders, on the northwest corner of Market and Illinois streets, was pur- 
chased for a Governor's mansion. The Court House was not finiehed, but it was 
hurried up to allow the first meeting of the Legislature to be held there. The ap- 
proach of the capital, in all the glory of the State seal, and legislative wisdom, sug- 
gested to the citizens to get a foretaste of the coming pleasure by organizing a legis- 
lature of their own. They did it, called it the Indianapolis Legislature, and, with 
all the leading citizens io it, made it a really assembljf, and an instruct- 
ive one, too. It had the same offices and rules, received messages, and discussed 
State measures, as the authoriiative body did, and did it better. The Governor's 
election was fixed to take place whenever a new subject of debate was needed, and 
his message would furnish it. When the real Legislature met, many of its members 
joined the other, and, as both discussed the same topics, the a>etion of the former was 
Qot unfrequently settled in the debates of the latter. 



iShapt^r If 


tHE transfer of the capital to Indianapolis, though really accomplished in No- 
vember of 1824, with the coming of the State oiBces and officers, made little 
more diflerence in the condition of the tov/n than the arrival of any other four 
or five new settlers. If was not till the meeting of the Legislature, on the I'th of 
January, 1825, in pursuance of the act noticed in the last chapter, that the change 
showed itself visibly Then the addition of nearly a hundred men, with all the 
hangers on of legislative bodies, the families of such its could easily bring them, or 
would not come without them, and the influx of thuse wbo then, as now, had "axes 
to grind," made such a stir in the sluggish village as one ef this day can form no 
conception of. It was very much like doubling the population, as well as giving it 
new and exciting topics of talk, and incentives to speculation. Business became 
lively and society animated Keligion found new objects of exhortation, and litera- 
ture a new audience of no trifling cultivation. The vices too had their sources of 
nourishment iH the change, and the effect was generally an exhilaration not a little 
like that following a "square drink." No wonder the little town while it lay idle 
and unapproachable in the woods looked with longing for this change. But prop- 
erty was shrewder than the population, and touched speculations lightly. To the 
cool eye, formed of a dollar,- thee was not much promise in an acquisition that 
came for two' or three months in the year, and left nothing when it went away. 
Crowds came in from the adjacent country to see the " big bugs," as the legislators 
were generally called in the Hoosier vernacular, but as they came to stare and did 
not stay to trade they benefitted nobody but the "grocery." the predecessor of the 
"saloon," and use soon made the "show" too cheap to go through the mud and 
snow to see. There was no permanent growing influence visible in the great acqui- 
sition, after all. So town lots stood pretty steady, and were first stirred into a fever 
of speculation on the approach of the Internal Improvement system of 1836. Pop- 
ulation grew slowly. Indianapolis was merely a county town, with one unusually 
large and interesting session of court more than other county towns, that was all. 
And thus it remained till 184^7, or rather till the influence emanating from the work 
completed in 1847, first showed itself. Thus it would have remained till the last, so 
far as any change depended on the possession of th« capital. This advantage was 
something like a fairy's bad gift, which would only do one thing, and prevented the 
owner from doing anything^ with anything else. It was the towa's main deden- 


ence, after the local trade that every settlement had in an equal measure and the 
meeting of the Legislature was looked to as anxiously, and made the condition of 
bargains, the prospect of clearing off stock?, or opening new trades, as regularly as 
the arrival of a caravan in a desert town, and yet it was a dependence that prom- 
ised nothing more in 1870 than it had accomplished in 1825. Its first and only 
permanent addition to the property of the town was the location here of the Benev- 
olent Institutions. This was not much, but it was permanent, so far as it went. 
These twenty-two years formed a period of legislative dependence. 

The unfinished Court house (now gone), was put in such order as was possible 
to receive the General Assembly. The House met in the court room on the ground 
floor, the Senate up stairs. And here the sessions were held till December, 1835, 
when the new State House was first occupied. Being brought face to face with the 
unimproved condition of the capital, and compelled to endure its evils in their own 
persons, the legislators naturally enough concluded to do something to alleviate it, 
and on the 12th of February ordered the laying oflfand sale of a range of ten four- 
acre out-lots on the north, and another on the south, side of the town plat. Similar 
ranges had been ordered the year before by the Legislature, and sold at an average 
price of about f 100 each, the highest bringing $155, and the new ranges lay out- 
side of these. The reserved lots on Washington street were also ordered to be sold, 
the "bottom." of Pogue's Creek cleared out to the extent that $50 would do it, and 
the ferry leased for five years. The sale of out and reserved lots was made in May, 
at rates which indicated, as has already been said, no enthusiastic hopes of a specu- 
lation from the possession of the capital. The best Washington street lots went 
for $360, and the lowest at $134. Only seventeen were sold, and they brought only 
$3,328 into the treasury of the town agent, Mr. B. I. Blythe. The twenty four-acre 
out lots brought btit $18 an acre, and an aggregate of $1,467. The valley of the 
creek was not very largely cleared, for $50 would not go far towards it, and though 
but a corner of the plat was cut ofi" by it, there were trees and thickets left on it 
for many a year afterwards. Between its muddy borders and regular overfloivs, it 
was about as uncomfortable a stream of its si/-e as could be found in the State. But 
"every little helped," and the work of the Legislature and of the citizens was 
slowly getting the town out of the woods, and suggesting the direction of streets to 
the nearest farms oif Washington street The churches were busy, and several 
societies for benevolent purposes were organized. On the 18th of April the Indian- 
apolis Bible Society was formed; and, except the two churches, it is the only organ- 
ization of that day that remains. It was a woman's afiair mainly, and was promo- 
ted zealously by the wife of the eccentric and since greatlj' distinguished Oriental 
scholar, George Bush, the second regular pastor of the Presbyterian church. The 
Marion County Bible Sodety was also organized, with an auxiliary tract society; 
and these seem to have been the men's share of the same work that the women 
were doing in their Society. Betbuel P. Morris was the fii-st president, and James 
M. Ray secretary of it. An Agricultural Society was formed, too, with Henry 
Bradley and Calvin Fletcher at its head; but it was, like the Medical Association 
and the theatre, premature, and died soon. There was not enough agriculture 
within easy reach of the town to have furnished the Society with a subject, if it 
bad been ever so well attended. The land Office was removed here from Brook- 
ville, and the new capital then had the benefit of the patronage of the General Gov- 
ernment, such as it was. The first Methodist church was built, or rather bought, 
in the summer of this year. It was a hewed log building on the south side of Ma- 
ryland between Meridian and Pennsylvani£^ streets. It was supplanted in 1829 by 


the old building on Meridian street on the site of the Sentinel office, which was 
succeeded in 1846 by Wesley chapel, and by Koberts chapel, on the northeast corner 
of Pennsylvania and Market streets three years earlier, the original church dividing 
in 1842 into two congregation?, Wesley and Roberts. 

The indifferent progress the town evinced by the low price of the reserved lots 
on Washington street, sold in 182.5, and the frequent forfeitures of lots bought at 
the first sale, induced the Legislature, in 1826, to enact a protection for purchasers, 
which would, without it, have lost their first'payments, and probably have left the 
place. Besides the usual scarcity of money in new settlements, a good many pur- 
chasers were cramped by a desire to exchange their river lots for others further east, 
where it was thought the annual visitation of chills and fever was less severe. The 
act of the Legislature endeavered to meet both difficulties, by extending the time 
on the deferred paj'ments, and allowing purchasers of mere than one lot to surren- 
der such as they desired, and transfer the payments to others in better situations. 
Under this permission river lots were rapidly abandoned, and the town moved 
eastward so entirely that it is only within the past ten or fifteen years that the 
growth of manufacturing establishments in that direction has largely filled up the 
site of the river settlement. A growing doubt of the navigable capacity of the 
river strengthened this eastward tendency. There was little probability of such 
river trade as would counterbalance the disadvantages of its neighborhood to resi- 
dences. It was, in fact, rather a drawback than a benefit to the town ; for it cut off 
the settlements on the west, in a measure, by crippling their means of communica- 
tion. There was nothing but a ferry to connect the opposite banks, and it was a tax 
on the pockets as well as the patience of the people, though the Legislature did 
what it could to make it efficient by erecting a brick ferry house in the summer of 
the year following (1827) at the foot of Washington street — the National Road had 
not at that time come along, to turn the line of travel and residence away from the 
street, as it is now, and the latter was the main thoroughfare — which considera- 
bly changed and improved, is still standing, though partially burned fifteen years 
ago. This eastward movement of population and business is not the only fluctua- 
tion that has marked the growth of the city. The Internal Improvement system 
of 1836 excited a wild speculation in lots along the site of the Central Canal and 
drew settlement in that direction, till 1840. Then it shifted eastward again ; then, 
with the completion of the Madison Railroad, it pushed southward, leaving busi- 
ness mainly along Washington street; and then, with the completion of other roads, 
it scattered in other directions, and began marking the outlines of that develop- 
ment which have been since so astonishingly filled up. 

But all that the Legislature, and all that the prospects of the future capitaj 
could do, added but little to the growth attained directly after the first sale of town 
lots. The population in February, 1826, was seven hundred and sixty-two souls, 
of whom two hundred and nine were children, and one hundred and s xty-one 
attendants upon the Union Sunday School. The unfortunate reputation for sick- 
ness created by the epidemic of 1821 was still an active retarding influence, and 
occasional general attacks of other diseases kept its strength undiminished. A 
very wet spring, in this year, raised all the streams, stepped the mails, interfered 
with farming, and the influenza joined forces with the weather to resist immigration. 
The local incidents of this year are few and of no special interest. An artillery 
company was formed under Capt. James Blake, and a cannon obtained from the 
Government, mainly to make a noise on the Fourth of July, and provide cripples 
for charity and public support. Two or three of the latter were the trophies of the 


first ten years of its existence. A fire company was formed in June, -with John 
Hawkins as president, and James M. Ray secretary. Mr. Ray's experience is a not 
unusual one in older settlements than Indianapolis. He was not gifted for show 
and parade, but he was a most serviceable workei*, and he was accordingly made 
secretary of pretty much eTery association that was formed, just as be is now put 
forward in every moTement of public interest or directed to bencTolent objects. 
The fire company operated with buckets and ladders, because the town could not 
atford to buy an engine, and did not tHl 1835, when the Marion Fire Company was 
organized and took its place. Lorenzo Dow, the eccentric itinerant preacher, who 
could probably boast with more justice of the extent of his travels than the good 
they had done, preached in June, in a grove south of Sauth street, a little east of 
Pennsylvania, and from the Court house step.=. There was a large emigration 
throngh the town during the fall, as there continued to be for may years afterwards, 
but little stopped near enough to benefit it. The celebration of the Fourth of July 
was the event of the year, after the meeting of the Legislature, and this year it 
brought out the Rev. George Bush — since known throughout the learned world for 
his scholarship and religious vagaries — as chaplain. Dr. Livingston Dunlap as 
reader of the Declaration, and Calvin Fletcher as orator. The coincidence of the 
deaths of John Adams and Thomas Jeff"erson on that day would, with our tele- 
graph, have added an intense and mournful interest to the occasion, but it was a 
month before it was known in the heart of the White River wilderness. On the 
Vlih of August a public demonstration was made in honor of the illustrious dead, 
so singularly associated and opposed in all the great events of our national history, 
and still more singularly associated in their deaths. The meeting was held at the 
Court house, and B. F. Morris and Douglass Maguire pronounced eulogies on the 

The opening of the year 1827 was signalized by an attempt of our Indian 
Agent, General John Tipton, to procure a lot of stock, farming cattle, hogs and 
wagons for the Indians, of whom some considerable land grants had been obtained 
by the treaty of Fort Wayne in 1826. It created some activity in business, but the 
failure to deliver the articles, caused by the high waters of the spring, disappointed 
the Indians, and did as much harm as good. But a worse disappointment was pre- 
pared for the whites, though it was longer coming. Premature enterprise is almost 
as bad as no enterprise at all. Probably it is worse, for it leaves a forbidding pre- 
cedent behind it. The beginning of this year inaugurated by far the greatest of 
the eflbrts that was ever made, till the railroads came, to establish manufactures 
here, and the most deplorable failure. It is not easy, looking back from this time, 
to understand how prudent men could have imposed on themselves the notion that 
manufacturing, on any considerable scale, could be carried on without any means to 
obtain raw material or dispose of the manufactures; but some of the shrewdest men 
of that day, or a later day, thought it could be done, and tried it. The Legislature 
led the way, on the 26th of January, by ordering the sale of seven acres of land 
fronting the river and Fall Creek bottom, as a site for a steam mill. During the 
year an association was formed called the Steam mill Company, with $20,000 capi- 
tal in $50 shares, whieh was chartered by the Legislature on the 28th of January, 
1828. The active men were James M. Ray, James Blake and Nicholas Mc('arty; 
but with all the confidence felt in their integrity and judgrrjent, there was a healthy 
doubt in the public mind whether they were not, in the language of the country, 
"setting their coulter a little too deep." The profit was not visible, where the cost 
was so evident and the returns so uncertain. Stock was sloirly taken during the 


two years following the granting of the charter, and in 1831 the work was com- 
menced. It was to comprise a grist mill, a saw mill and a woolen mill, and it 
made preparations equal to its pretensions. The saw mill was to be placed on th« 
west side, on the slope of the bluff, and the other building on the plateau abov^ . 
with three full stories, and two formed in the high sloping roof, making five in all. 
The grist mill was to occupy the lower, and the woolen mill the upper, stories. 
James Griswold, a gigantic carpenter, still famed in local tradition for honest work, 
made the frame, and it was so well made that it might have stood a life time longer, 
when it was burned in 1853. It took a. hundred men two days to raise it, and it 
was noted as a memorable incident that no whisky was used on the occasion, which, 
on the " Brick Lane Branch" theory, will account for the soundness of the timbers. 
The steam apparatus was "wagoned" out from Cincinnati in 1831, a feat but little 
less in magnitude than hauling Pittsburg over the Alleghanies in these days It 
was to have come by steamer, but the steamer could not come. This was the first 
steam engine ever brought to the place. It was set to work in the saw mill soon 
after it was put in place, and later, in 1832, the grist mill was set running. The 
woolen division never did much. The enterprise showed in a year that it was not 
going to pay. "Wood was handy and cheap, but not cheap enough to compensate 
for the lack of business. There was no sawing or grinding to do except for local 
consumption, and so large a mill soon did that and was left idle. In 1835 the thing 
was given up, the machinery offered for sale, but much of it never sold, except 
for old iron, and the vast building left as a haunt for idle boys on rainy days, who 
played cards in the saw pit, and taken for an extemporaneous brothel and hiding 
place for thieves and their plunder. For many a year the boilers, that it had cost such 
tremendous effort to get here through the mud, lay and rusted, and the really fine 
engines were battered and broken as it pleased the destructive whims of loafers. la 
1847, when the railroads opened up a prospect of business, the Geisendorffs took 
the old mill, and made a little headway with it in their business of wool carding, 
and spinning, but they left it in five years, and the next year after, on the night of 
the 26th of November, it was set on fire and utterly destroyed, and came very near 
destroying the National Koad bridge too. Ho speedy a collapse of so great an 
enterprise had a dispiriting effect, and nothing in the manufacturing way was 
attempted till facilities for transportation opened a reasonable prospect of business. . 

At the same time, January 26th, that the Legislature ordered the sale of the 
steam mill site, it ordered several other improvements. First among these, proba- 
bly to raise money for the others, was the sale of all the unsold, forfeited and reserved ^ 
lots, and the vacation of several alleys and squares. These sales were made in May 
following, 7th and 8th, and one hundred and sixty were sold, at $180 an acre, and 
thirty-eight four-acre blocks at $23 an acre. The fund thus raised or secured, , 
helped to build the Supreme Court Clerk's oflice on the site of the present county 
building, and a residence for the Governor on the Circle, which he never occupied. 
The Clerk's Oflace was a little one story brick building, placed close to Delaware 
street, on a line with the Court house. It was eighteen by thirty-six feet, and was 
divided into two rooms, the eastern one used as the working office, the other as a 
depository of records, and of what was left of the Indiana Historical Society. It 
was torn down in 1855 to make room for the present county offices, and the Clerk's • 
ofiace was removed first to the Governor's Circle, and afterwards to the Supreme 
Court room at the State House. 

On the 26th of January an appropriation of $4,000 was made to build a resi- 
den(Jb for the Governor in the "Circle" lot. Why this locatSon was never deemed- 


suitable for the State House, it is not easy at this day to conjecture. It is large 
enough, it is the highest point in the original plat of the city, it is central, and it 
lies off the main business street with its disturbing uproar and constant crowd of 
passengers. But it was here that the Legislature resolved to place the Governor's 
house. The act making the appropriation ordered the Circle to be enclosed by an 
elegant and tasteful " rail " fence, by the first of May of that year, so as to be ready 
for the work on the house which was let on the 17th of March, to Smith, Culbert- 
son. Bishop and Speaks. The building never was finished. It was found to be 
utterly unsuitable for a private residence, and no attempt was made to carry the 
work beyond the point necessary to suit it for public offices. It was a large square 
building, two full stories high, with a low slightly inclined roof, covering an attic 
story which was lighted by a dormer window on each of the four sides. On the 
roof was a "flat" about twelve feet square, surrounded by a low balustrade, which 
was intended for a resort in the "cool of the evening," and a pleasant place to 
overlook the town. The floor of the first story was raised some four feet or so 
above the ground, and was reached by a broad flight of steps at each side. The 
■basement was about half cellar and half ground floor, and was for many years the 
resort of school boys for playing " hide-and-whoop," and "circus," and whatever 
"fun was uppermost. One of the rooms was used by the Union Literary Society, 
until the State Auditor gave it permission to occupy a first-floor room. These 
basement vaults were used for worse purposes often, and were held by school girls 
-and the younger boys in some dread, as a place of unclean spirits, which supersti- 
tiyn was only so far wrong as it disallowed the spirits to be in the flesh. The first 
.floor was divided from north to south and east to west by two wide halls, crossing 
• at right angles, making a large room in each of the four corners. The second story 
was formed into smaller rooms. The attic was open, and used chiefly for a place 
of deposit for abandoned United States muskets and equipments, placed there at 
some unknown period, and plundered by the boys as they saw anything in the arms 
they wanted. The upper rooms were occupied as "chambers" by the Supreme 
-Judges, and Judge Blackford kept one from the time the house was built until it 
•was torn down. A bachelor lawyer, also, occasionally had a room there. The first 
floor was used by the State officers for many years, and contained, at different peri- 
ods, the State Library, the State Bank, the State Engineer's office, the Clerk's office 
of the Supreme Court, the Common Pleas Court when first created, the Union Lit- 
erary Society, Cox and Waugh's Temperance Panorama, and nobody now knows 
what besides. In 1829 a proposition was made to add wings to the east and west 
sides and turn it into a State House, but it was hardly pretentious enough for that, 
..and the project failed. In 1857 it was ordered to be sold at auction, and in April 
it was sold and torn down, the material going to build the Macy House. 

The Marion Fire Engine House also stood on the Circle, on the north side — if 
there is a side to a Circle — and was for many years a spot of no liitle interest to the 
emulous and devoted young gentlemen who ran " wid der machine." The old 
house was frequently broken into and occupied by prostitutes, and it was once or 
twice set on fire, and was finally destroyed in 1851. 

The Circle was made a park by the city, but misused for a cow pasture and a 
play ground till its trees and grass were ruined, and then (1867), it was closely and 
elegantly fenced and shut out from the public entirely. Now it is a beautiful spot, 
and annually becoming more beautiful. It will soon be as pretty a little park as 
can be found anywhere. Handsome residences and imposing business houses are 
rising round it, and making it the center of the most impressive portion of th« city. 


Another appropriation of lots to public uses was made on the 26th day of 
January by the Legislature, that of square 25 for a State University, and square 
22 for a State Hospital, This was done in connection with an order for the sale of 
forfeited and reserved lots and the vacation of certain alleys and squares. The his- 
tory of one of these appropriated blocks, that now called University Square, has 
been even more eventful than that of the Circle. Tn the first place its dedication 
to a "State University," has enabled the State University at Bloomington to make 
a color of claim to it, and out of that claim has grown a succession of controversies 
that have ended in nothing but a determination on the part of the city that the 
Bloomington institution shall not have it, and this determination is mainly based 
on the sufficient argument that Bloomington has no right to it. The arguments on 
both sides, though interesting enough, are rather voluminous for this work, and, 
besides, are hardly relevant. It is enough to say that legal opinions have been 
expended on it at the proverbial length of legal documents, without deciding any- 
thing, and the Legislature has authorized the city to make a park of it till some 
better use can be found for it, and the city has done it. 

The first purpose to which it was applied was as the site for the county seminary^ 
In 1832 the Legislature authorized the lease of it to the trustees of the seminary 
for thirty years, with the proviso that they should build on either the south east or 
south west corner, and if it should be needed for Unversity purposes before the 
expiration of the lease, a half acre about the building should be sold or otherwise 
secured to the school. In 1833-34 the trustees built, on the south west corner, the 
old county seminary building, which to many a man of middle age in the city 
embodies the best recollections of his youth. It was two stones high, fronting New 
Tork street, with a projecting lobby at each end, ostensibly for stair cases to the 
upper story, but really for the boys to put away their shinny clubs and ball bats. 
It was divided into two rooms of unequal size below, and a lecture room, and a 
teacher's private room, with a small room adjoining, above. The lecture room was 
the scene of annual terror and joy to the pupils for many a year, as there were held 
the examinations and exhibitions, which, in those days of primitive simplicity and 
few public pleasures, constituted nearly as attractive an entertainment as the opera 
does now. It was also the first church of Henry "Ward Beecher, and of Rev. B. 
F. Foster, the Universalist. In fact, in very early days, the lower room of the 
seminary was used as a meeting place for several churches which were too weak to 
erect a building. The Christian congregation, or what afterwards became so, used 
to hold meetings in the larger of the lower rooms, and there the Rev. James 
McVey, who will be remembered by many of the older members of the church, as 
a very eloquent and rather "uncertain" preacher, first held forth in this city. 

The lower rooms were first put in charge of Mr. E. Dumont in September, 
1834. But then, and for several years afterwards, the school had formidable rivals, 
for, though owned by the county, and the teacher was appointed or approved by 
the trustees, it was essentially a private school. Mr. Dumont was succeeded in the 
following January by Mr. W. J. Hill. He by Thomas D. Gregg, in the following 
May. William Sullivan next took the school, in December, 1836, and Wm. A. 
HoUiday in August, 1837. Up to this time no teacher had kept the school a year. 
But Mr. HoUiday managed to retain it till October, 1838 and he had a formidable 
rival in Oilman Marston, since well known as Hon. Gilman Marston, meojber of 
Congress frooa New Hampshire, and as General Marston, who lost an arm early in 
the war, and now as Gov. Marston of one of our new Territories. He taught in 
the frame building erected on Circle street, on the lot next to that where Beecher's 


church, now the High School, was built. In October, 183&, the seminary fell into> 
the hands of Eev. James Sprigg Kemper, destined to make it memorable as the 
best school the city had ever had then, or has had since, till the public schools 
were established. He was fresh from the Cincinnati College, a thorough scholar, 
and possessed of the requisite tact to manage boys and make them study. More 
than one prominent man now living here owes the spirit that pushed him ahead to 
Mr. Kemper. He left the school in 1843 or 18 44, and studied for the ministry 
(Presbyterian), and has been for many years pastor of a church in Dayton, Ohio. 
He was succeeded by Kev. J. P. SaflFord, in 1843, who gave place to B. L. Lang in 
1844. He retained it about two years, and after he retired the building was often 
unoccupied for the next four or five years, when it was made the City High School. 
It was used for that purpose from 1853 to 1859, and was torn down in 1860. 

Authority was given in 1837 to lease the north west corner for twenty years to 
the Lutheran church, but the site was not deemed eligible, and the church was 
built on Ohio street, just east of where Mr. Pyle's boarding house stands now. 
Another abortive lease was made of the same corner for a Female Seminary in 
1838. In 1850 the Governor and State Officers were authorized to sell an acre of 
the block to Indiana Asbury University, for the medical department of that institu- 
tion, but the appraisement, $3,566, was deemed loo high, and the sale was not made. 
The west half of the square north of the school house was reserved, or used, as the 
play ground of the pupils. The east half was for a long time a clover field or 
cow pasture. Subsequently a lumber yard was established upon the south end. In 
1850 Mr. J. B. Perrine built a very high fence round the ea&tern half of the square^ 
and with the addition of seats and a shed roof, made a grand show place of it for 
balloon ascensions and fire works. The finest exhibition of fire works ever given 
in the city was made there on the 4th of July, 1860. Subsequently the square was 
cleared and used as the drill ground of the 19th Eegular U. S. Infantry, and in 1863 
as the parade ground of the Home Guards, who were assembled to do battle with 
the redoubted John Morgan. As before stated, it is now, by authority, handsomely 
railed, planted with trees, and made a park, and such it is likely to remain. 

The town, as heretofore stated, received an impetus from the acquisition of the 
capital in 1825, but a slighter one than might have been anticipated. Its growth 
had been but little more rapid than that of any other county town, and it was des- 
tined to expect as much, and be as grievously disappointed, in the location of the 
National (or Cumberland) Eoad, made in July, 1827, as in the possession of the 
capital. The year 1827 was the high-water mark of speculative growth, and what 
that was may be judged from an estimate, or rather inventory, of the town, made 
in February, 1827. The Journal of that date stated that they then had a Court 
house (also State house); a Presbyterian church, with thirty members; a Baptist 
church, with thirty-six members, using a cabin as a church building ; a Methodist 
church, with ninety-three members, just putting up a new brick building; a Sab. 
bath-school, five years old, (the Union), with twenty teachers, and one hundred a;nd 
fifty scholars. There were twenty-five brick houses, sixty frame and eighty log 
houses, hewed and rough, in thfe town ; the Governor's house was going up ; six 
two-story and five one-story brick houses, with a number of frame houses, had been 
built within a year; manufacturing establishments were needed. The town had 
received and consumed $10,000 worth of goods in the past year, embr icing seventy- 
six kegs of tobacco, two hundred barrels of flour, one hundred kegs of powder, four 
thousand five hundred pounds of spun yarn, and two hundred and thirteen barrels of 
whisky, to which was to be added seventy-nine barrels made here. One hundred kegs 

THE TOWN IN 1827. gijf 

of powder is such a proportion as shows that the people still largely depended on 
ihe rifle for their meat, while two hundred and eighty-four barrels of whisky shows 
that they did not largely depend on milk or water for their drink. A census taken in 
November gave a result of four hundred and twenty-nine white males, and thirty- 
four colored males, a total male population of five hundred and sixty three; and 
four hundred and seventy-nine white females, and twenty four colored females, a 
total female population of five hundred and three, and a total of both sexes of one 
thousand and sixty-six. This is a fair showing for a town only seven years old, but 
not by any means promising of great future results. The streets were mainly cleared 
on the plat, but there was no clearing on the donation outside, and many lots still 
retained through necessity the large trees that the owners would be glad to pay to get 
replaced now. Hunting was good all around the town, as proved by the sale of 
powder, and there were no marks of town life off Washington street. The streets 
were muddy, but as, Mr. Brown justly remarks, the drainage was better than the 
-engineers Jbiave since made it. 

h a p t ^ r W 


tHE year 1828 was marked by no striking local event, except the establish- 
ment, in July, of a stage route to Madison by a Mr. Johnson. About the 
same time the Indianapolis Library Association was formed, upon the very 
easy plan, where the members are liberal and able, of having all the books donated 
by the members. It was kept up for several years, and when it died its books re- 
mained uncared for and unclaimed — in fact few of them were worth claiming — till 
about the year 1845, when the remains of them passed into the hands of the Union 
Literary Society, the precursor of all the Literary and Lecture Associations we 
have had. When it died the books were scattered among the members. And thus 
disappeared the remains of the Indianapolis Library Association of 1825. A cav- 
alry company was organized by Captain David Buchanan, in August. A musical 
association called the Handelian Society, was also formed, and furnished the sing- 
ing at the celebration of the Fourth of July, which was maintained in those early 
days with a zeal in singular contrast with the observance or rather indifference to 
it now. The review of them is principally interesting now from the names of the 
men whose prominence gave them a place in them. In that of 1828, Hiram Brown 
was President, Henry Brenton Vice President, Rev. George Bush, since so widely 
known for oriental scholarship and theological vagaries, was Chaplain, Andrew 
Ingram reader, and Bethuel F. Morris orator. The Sunday Schools took part in 
this celebration for the first time, though subsequently, and till near the breaking 
out of the war, they constituted the main part, if not the whole, of the affair. A 
rifle and artillery company also took part, and ate their customary dinner in Bates' 
Grove in East street, above Market, while the school children marched back to the 
churches and were sent home. In 182&, the year following, the children took the 
"show " out of the older hands entirely, forming a procession of two town and 
five country schools on the circle, and marching, under the direction of James- 
Blake, who, for thirty years afterwards held the same conspicuous position, to 
Bates' Grove, hearing a prayer from Rev. Jamison Hawkins, reading the Declara- 
tion from Ebenezer Sharpe, and a speech from James Morrison, and getting the 
long stereotyped feast of rusk and water. 

At the August election of 1828, nine hundred and thirteen votes were cast in 
the county, and in the following November election nine hundred and sixty-one 
were given, of which Adams got five huudred and eighty-two, and Jackson threfr 


hundred and seventy-nine Very much of the original plat of the town, twenty- 
eight blocks and seventy-two lots, remained unsold in the winter of 1828. But 
little of the donation outside had been sold. A severe winter, with an unusually 
heavy snow, ushered in the year 1829. 

During the year, as has been briefly noted before, the Methodist Sunday School 
was organized and separated from the Union School. It began April 24th, with 
eleven teachers and forty-six scholars, and at the close of the year it had twenty- 
seven teachers and one hundred and forty-six scholars. The Indiana Colonization 
Society was organized in the fall, with Judge Isaac Blackford as President. This, 
except the churches and Sunday schools, was the only association of that day that 
survived till ours. It seems to have been endowed with a vitality proportioned to 
its uselessness, for a more thoroughly useless affair was never known. The Legisla- 
ture, by the exertions of a trifling little minister, Mr. Mitchell, was induced to ap- 
propriate $5,000 a year to the thing, and if any of it went for anything else than 
Mr. Mitchell's salary as secretary, it did not go to the colonization of negroes, for 
in twenty years the society sent to Africa from Indiana but one solitary negro. 

There was a great deal of sickness and very little growth in the town in this 
year, 1829, and there was a vast deal of emigration passing through on its way to 
Illinois and Missouri. In the fall many of the contracts on the National Koad 
were let. That for the bridge, still standing and still serviceable, was given, in 
1830, to William H. Wernwag and Walter Blake, for $18,000, audit was completed 
in 1834. The work on the road was fltfully prosecuted for nearly ten years, and 
then was abandoned, at the same time the State's Internal Improvement system 
failed, in 1839. But one of these contracts was the direct cause of an event that 
startled the town and excited more enthusiasm and more reasonable hope than the 
arrival of the capital. This was the arrival of the steamer "Robert Hanna" in 
April, 1831. 

General Hanna and others had taken a contract on the National Road, and to 
facilitate the transportation of stone and timber necessary to the work, resolved to 
have a steamer brought up the river to tow barges and do other like service. The 
result was the arrival, April 11th, 1831, of the "Robert Hanna," a small steamer, 
but too big for our river, as it soon appeared, for during an excursion, on the 12th, 
with a crowd of delighted passengers, the limbs of the overhanging trees knocked 
downher chimneys and pilot house and smashed a wheel-house, and when she started 
on her down voyage, on the next day, 13th of April, she ran aground at Hog Island, 
where she lay six weeks, and did not get out of the inadequate stream till fall. 
But as the people did not foresee all this, chiefly because they did not think of the 
water being considerably lower in the summer than the spring, they received the 
"Hanna" and a barge she was towing, with every demonstration of joy. Captain 
Blythe's artillery company greeted her with a noisy salute, which the crowd 
equalled with their shouting. All along the river, as she came up, the noise of her 
"scape pipe" drew spectators from both sides for two or three miles inland. She 
excited confident hopes of a conimercial prosperity that had never been cherished 
before or had been given up. She confirmed for the time all that Mr. Engineer 
Ralston had asserted of the navigable capacity of the river. Even the most mod- 
erate anticipated that for half the year light draught boats could run, and that 
was but little less than is done on the Ohio, and a good deal more than is done on 
the Wabash. A public meeting was called, over which Judge Blackford presided, 
and of which James Morrison was Secretary, urging the improvement of the river, 
and inviting the owners and officers of the boat to dinner. This finished naviga- 


tion on White river till the construction of the " Gov. Morton " in 1865, and the 
navigation of White river finished her after a few ineflfectual attempts to run up 
to Cold Spring, and one to run down to Waverly. Nobody expected much of her 
before they saw her first trip, and after that they expected nothing but her entire 
loss to her owners, unless she could be canverted to the ignoble use of scraping up 
and carrying boulders for paving the streets. 

But though the navigation of the river ended thus indifferently, the arrival of 
the " Hanna '' in 1831 was, as already said, but a confirmation of one opinion that 
many had long entertained. So confident was Gov. Noble of the navigability, or 
capacity to be made navigable, of the river, that in 1829 he offered a reward of 
$200 to the first steamer that should reach the town. In the spring of 1830 two 
steamers got pretty well up, the "Traveler," Captain Saunders, reaching Spencer, 
and the " Victory " reaching within fifty-five miles. As has been heretofore noticed, 
keel boats had several times got safely up and away. In 1822 the "Eagle " came 
up with fifteen tons of salt and whisky from Kanawha, the "Boxer" with thirty- 
three tons of goods from Zanesville, and the "Dandy," in 1824, arrived with 
twenty-eight tons of salt and whisky. In 1825 the Legislature appointed Alex- 
ander Ralston, the Scotch surveyor, who had done most of the work of planning 
the plat and laying out the town, Commissioner to survey the river, and report 
the practicability and cost of keeping it in navigable condition. He reported 
that from Sample's Mills, in Randolph county, to the Wabash, four hundred and 
fifty-five miles — one hundred and thirty to this place, from here to the fork two hun- 
dred and eighty-five miles, and from the fork to the Wabash forty miles — could be 
kept navigable for small boats, three months in the year, at a cost of $1,500. 
Backed by this report the Legislature memoralized Congress for the improvement 
of the river, and made appropriations to be expended under the direction of the 
authorities of the counties along its course. Some years later, one John Matthews 
proposed a system of slack water navigation, including dams, locks, levees, and the 
necessary means, and urged arguments enough for his project if the feasibility of 
it were left out of view. But while it was easy to prove that the navigation of 
the river would be a good thing, it was hard to prove that the navigation would be 
an easy thing. But he pressed his suggestions constantly, and in 1851 the Legisla- 
ture chartered the White River Navigation Company. The company has doHe noth- 
ing, simply because no power less than Omnipotence can do anything with so un- 
promising a case as White river. It falls annually lower and lower. It has but 
few reaches of deep water, and very many of very rapid ripples, up which it would 
be no little job to tow a skiff, and an impossible job to row a skiff. These are 
worse every way, shallower, swifter, more impassable, than they were ten years 
ago. It is very doubtful if there is much more than half the water in the stream 
now that there was in 1840. The reasons need not be discussed here, but the 
fact is palpable to those familiar with the current and condition of the river. Its 
navigation never was practicable, except on so small a scale as to leave little 
chance of benefit, and now it is utterly impracticable on any scale at all. 

The year 1830, like that before it, was uneventful. The town was stationary* 
and beyond trivial local incidents, there is little to notice. The usual Legislative 
session was held, with less than its usual attendance of hangers on, for a winter of 
great severity made traveling, always uncomfortable, a serious evil ; and some com- 
pensation for customary excitements was sought in a legislative celebration of the 
8th of January. A. F. Morrison, subsequently so long and well known in the pol- 
itics of the State, delivered an address on the occasion. A theological debate fol 


lowed a week or so afterwards, between Rev. Jonathan Kidwell, a Universalist, 
and Rev. Edwin Ray, a Methodist, with the usual result of convincing nobody of 
anything he didn't believe before. No theological debate since Luther ever did. 
The Indiana Democrat was established in the spring by A. F. Morrison, and took 
the place of the Gazette^ which was discontinued after eight years of the languid 
life of a country paper in a new town and a poor country. This paper, in 1841, 
was superseded by the Indiana Sentinel. A history of the changes in both will be 
found in the detailed notice of the newspapers of the city. The Fourth of July, 
the great event of the year, was this year made the source of dissension, that came 
near ending fatally. The Sunday Schools were celebrating, and so were the citi- 
zens, the former under James Blake, the latter under Demas McFarland, and each 
leader attempted to enlarge his own crowd at the expense of the other, by speeches 
at opposite street corners. The result might have been a fight, if a fortunate rain 
had not separated the crowds, forcing the schools into the Methodist church to 
complete their celebration, and sending the citizens to a neighboring grove to com- 
plete theirs. They did it by a speech from Judge W. W. Wick, and reading by 
A. St. Clair, under the presidency of Judge Isaac Blackford, and with the usual 
dinner and drinking. They attempted to enhance the divided interest of the oc- 
casion by firing a salute from the cannon, but the artillery company was Captain 
Blake's, and be was "in the opposite" in this case, and the gun had to be handled 
by raw hands, one of which, belonging to Andrew Smith, long county jailor, was 
blown off in the third round. The year was further distinguished by the arrival 
of the first "show," McComber & Co.'s menagerie, which was exhibited at Hen- 
derson's tavern, July 26-27th, and was followed a month afterwards by another. 
The Indiana Historical Society was organized in December, with Benjamin Parke 
for President and B. F. Morris for Secretary. This association "spread itself' in 
a fashion that promised to make it permanent and of constantly increasing value. 
It elected Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, Lewis Cass, John Calhoun, and pretty 
much all the political notorieties of that day honorary members, and received neat 
little autographic acknowledgments of the honor, which were a long time in the 
office of Heni-y P. Coburn, the last secretary. John Farnham gave the society its 
most vigorous life and power while it lasted, and enabled it to make some important 
collections of documents and other material of the history of the State and the 
Northwest- A gift enterprise by T. A. Langdon, who offered the Indianapolis Ho- 
tel as the highest prize, closed the year, which was exceedingly cold, a state of the 
weather that continued the whole winter, and in February covered the ground 
with more than a foot of snow, and brought the thermometer down to 18° below 

The year 1831 was marked by several events of no little importance in them- 
selves, but promising far more in their consequences. On the 2nd and 3rd of Feb- 
ruary the Legislature chartered companies, recently formed, for the construction 
of no less than six railroads, to center at Indianapolis. Thy were the first active 
manifestations of the spirit of enterprise engendered by the then recent introduc- 
tion of railways, exhibited in the State, and led the way for that wholesale system 
of internal improvements four years later, which, promising such ample benefits, at 
first loaded the State with such unmitigated evils. They were immature as well as 
premature. No adequate means had been provided, or even forseen, for their con- 
struction, and in the condition of the country at that time, there would have been 
no profitable use for them all. Twenty years later, with ten times the population, the 
country was unable to maintain even a smaller number of centralized railroads, and 


if these could have been built, there is no doubt they would have been disastrous 
failures for a time long enough to have rusted the rails ofiF. But new settlers and 
settlements are enthusiastic, confident and uncalculating, and they took little 
heed of any consideration but that a railroad to every point of the compass from 
the capital would do a vast deal of good. The necessary condition — "if it can be 
made to pay and kept up " — was not thought of. So charters were granted for 
the Madison & Indianapolis, Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis, Harrison & Indianap- 
olis, New Albany, Salem & Indianapolis, and Ohio & Indianapolis railroads. The 
wild character of these enterprises can be seen from the proposition to make rail- 
roads from New Albany and Harrison (Corydon) to Indianapolis, two lines that 
would start but a few miles apart, and inevitably " cut each others' throats." Sur- 
veys were made on four of them, the Madison, Lawrenceburg, Jeffersonville and La- 
fayette, but nothing more done, and their obvious impossibility caused them to be 
given up. But the growing favor of internal improvements impelled a new effort 
on a larger scale, and later they were re-chartered and some work done upon them. 
But in 1836 the State took several of them into her own hands, together with the 
combined canals and turnpikes of the great system, and carried them on till she 
broke down under the load. 

On the 10th of February it was resolved to build a State House, on the report 
of a committee at the preceding session. The unsold lots of the donation, it was 
supposed, would furnish $58,000, and the house, it was estimated, would cost $56,- 
000, and as a proof that the wild calculations of the railroad mania did not affect 
other business, it Is to be noted that the house actually did cost but $60,000, a very 
little advance upon the estimate for a public work of any kind. James Blake was 
appointed commissioner to supervise the work, obtain plans and materials, and 
prepare generally for active operations, with an appropriation of $3,000 for these 
preliminaries. The plan (for which he was authorized to offer $150) was to include 
a senate chamber for fifty members, a hall for one hundred representatives, rooms 
for the Supreme Court and the State library, with twelve committee rooms and the 
necessary appurtenances, at a cost of $45,000. The commissioner did his work, 
and obtained a plan from Ithiel Town and I. J. Davis, of New York, which when 
reported to the Legislature of 1832 was approved, and Gov. Noah Noble, Morris 
Morris and Samuel Merrill, appointed to superintend the construction. The build- 
ing was to be finished by November, 1838, and received upon the examination and 
approval of a committee of five from each house. These commissioners contracted 
with Ithiel Town, the architect, for the work at $58,000. He began early in 1832, 
and finished in December of 1835, in time for the meeting of the Legislature. The 
work was well done, but of bad material in the foundation. It was blue Bluff 
stone, far less durable than brick, but easily obtained and easily worked. It was 
slaty, and showed its disposition to scale in a few years after it was put into the 
building. It has now decayed so greatly as to disfigure, if not endanger, portions 
of the walls. The style of the building is Grecian, following the Parthenon, ex- 
cept in the preposterous little dome. If that had been left off it would have been 
handsome and tasteful, though the Grecian style is not fitted for a level country 
Its heavy architrave, low roof, square form, and lack of elevation, make it look 
squatty in a plain. It is intended for hilly and broken countries, where, capping 
natural elevations, it will harmonize with the scenery, which high and peaked 
buildings would not. Like all productions of real genius, it is adapted to its cir- 
cumstances, and shows to less advantage anywhere else. This would have been a 
grave but not insuperable objection to the style of the State House. But the in 


congruous, contemptible dome should have condemned it utterly. It don't belong 
to the Grecian style, it is Roman. The Greeks knew nothing of domes or arches. 
And it looks just as well with the columns, pilasters, deep architrave and inclined 
roof of a Grecian structure, as a duck-billed cap on a Quaker coat. 1 he stucco, 
too, was a bad suggestion. No plaster work will last in the extreme vicissitudes of 
our climate. It is wet one day, frozen the next, thawed the next, and rotting off 
in a few years. So the building soon looked ragged and old. Now it looks dis- 
gusting. But it was thought a fine thing thirty-five years ago. It cost $60,000, 
but $2,000 more than the contract. It is 200 feet long and 100 wide, or about these 
figures. No doubt it will be soon replaced. It is in constant need of repairs. In 
December, 1867, the vaulted ceiling of the Kepresentatives' hall fell, and if there 
had been anybody in the "bar" it would inevitably have killed them. It made a 
work that cost several thousand dollars to repair completely. In 1834 a plowing- 
match began the work of throwing dirt from the outer side of the square to the 
center, and this, with a good deal of foreign addition, made the elevation on which 
the State House stands. The ground was raised about nine feet, and the trees, the 
larger ones now growing, planted the year following. 

About the same time that the construction of the State House was decided, the 
Agent of the State was ordered to divide the donation outside of the town plat into 
out lots and sell them in the May following. The subdivision included about nine- 
teen hundred acres, offered for sale in lots of two to fifty acres, at the minimum 
price of ten dollars an acre. A portion only was sold. As if to concentrate into 
the month of February all the startling events possible, Samuel Henderson, the 
Postmaster since the establishment of the office in 1822, was removed to make room 
for John Cain. And Mr. M. G. Rogers, the first artist, a portrait painter, visited the 
capital. The steamer " Robert Hanna," arrived on the Uth of April, producing, in 
conjunction with the newly awakened spirit of railroad enterprise, an extraordi- 
nary excitement, and great hopes of a commercial importance destined to be real- 
alized only in the next generation. A case of small pox, in May, created an 
excitement of a less pleasant kind. A public meeting was called to consider the 
ease of Sophia Overall, a colored victim of the dreadful malady, and Dr. S. G. 
Mitchell, Isaac Coe, L. Dunlap, John E. McClure, C. McDougal, John S. Mothers- 
head, Wm. Tichnor and John H. Sanders, were appointed a Board of Health, to 
see that the disease did not become epidemic. But the case, if it was small pox, 
was deterred by these formidable preparations for resistance from spreading, and 
the matter ended. The first soda fountain was put up by Dunlap & McDougal » 
the first elephant was exhibited, and the first three-story brick house, near the cor- 
ner of Meridian street, on the north side of Washington, was erected during the 
summer. The August election brought out 950 votes. The first Methodist Confer- 
ence was held in October, and the Indianapolis Lyceum, for the delivery of scien- 
tific lectures and debates, was organized about the same time. 

The spring of 1832 brought with it nothing important. But in June came 
news of the Black Hawk war, and the then celebrated but now forgotten " Bloody 
Three Hundred," who deserve a place beside Tennyson's " Six Hundred," organized 
to represent Indiana in the fatal fields of that last of the Indian wars east of th© 
Mississippi. One hundred and fifty mounted men of the fortieth regiment of mili- 
tia, and as many from the regiment in the adjoining counties, were called for by 
Col. Alexander W. Russell, and rendezvoused in the grove on Washington street* 
where John Carlisle's residence now stands, then part of the military ground. 
They came with the regular equipments of Indian fighters, backwoods rifles, torn- 


ahawks, knives, a pound of powder in each man's horn, and a buckskin "shot- 
pouch," with an adequate quantity of bullets. Tkey were organized into three 
companies under Captains J. P. Drake, J. W. Redding, and Henry Brenton. Col. 
John L. Kinnard.was one of the party. Col. K. was subsequently elected to Con- 
gress over W. W. Wick, and was blown up in a racing explosion on the Ohio, on 
his way to his second session of Congress, and scalded to death. He was one of the 
most popular and decidedly the most promising young man of his day in the 
State. He began as a school teacher. The morning before the march to Chicago 
the grove was full of boys throwing tomahawks, and soldiers preparing arms and 
knapsacks. The street (for there was but one) was full of crying women and 
wondering children, and Col. Kussell, as he rode up with a big sword in a leather 
scabbard, was regarded as a second — not a third — Napoleon. The "Bloody Three 
Hundred " marched for Chicago, but never got any further. They met no adven- 
tures, and did no duty except marching, and came home again covered with dust 
if not glory. It was told of them, at the time, that one of them, who was standing 
guard at night up near the Lake, got frightened at a cow and fired, raising an alarm 
and bringing out the whole valorous host to the perilous encounter, but it was 
probably a calumny. The war was ended before they " got a smell." They got 
back on the 3d of July, and had a share of the celebration and dinner the next 
day, where they were regarded as "veterans." They were guided — for there were 
no roads up north in those days — by Mr. W. Conner, the same whose early settlement 
in the White River region was noted in the first chapter of this history. He was 
certainly capable, if any man was. The troops were paid in the January follow- 
ing, by Major Larned. Their departure was signalized by more blood shed than 
their campaign. In firing a salute from the caonon, William Warren had both his 
arms blown oflF. Injuring its gunners seems to have been about all the service that 
Captain Blake's gun ever did. 

In August and September meetings were frequently held, under the inspiration 
of John Givan and Charles I. Hand and others, to build a market house at some 
convenient point, and it was done the year following — contracted for in May and 
finished in August — on the half square north of the Court house. Josiah Davis, 
Thomas MeOouat and John Walton were charged with the supervision of the work, 
Dr. L. Dunlap, J. L. Hall and Demas McFarland were appointed the first Trustees 
of the County Seminary The first Foundry was started in August, in Stringtown, 
Tjy R. A. McPherson, and continued in operation some years. The cholera created 
a good deal of alarm this summer, and public meetings were held and sanitary 
measures suggested, but the epidemic passed us by. 

On the 3d of September the first steps were taken to form a municipal govern- 
tnent for the capital. Before that it had been simply a more densely populated sec- 
tion of the wilderness, with no cohesion or control more than any other square 
mile of land. It was governed by State laws and State officers. On that day it 
was resolved to become an incorporated town, under the general law, and an elec- 
tion was held shortly after for the five Trustees provided by the law for towns thus 
organized. Samuel Henderson, late Post master, was made President of the Boards 
J. P. Griffith Clerk, and Samuel Jennison, Marshal and Collector. It was an 
exceedingly loose organization, but it answered well enough for a little town of a 
little more than a thousand inhabitants. Five wards were formed, divided by Ala- 
bama, Pennsylvania, Meridian and Tennessee streets, running the whole length of 
the plat. Certain ordinances were adopted, and a certain portion of townly dignity 
assumed, A connected history of the municipal government will be given, with 


all its appurtenances, in another place, and nothing more need be said of it here. 

Early in the ensuing year, 1833, General Harrison visited, for the first timci 
the capital of the State, of which, in its territorial condition, he was so long Gov- 
ernor, and in which the greatest achievements of his honored career were accom- 
plished. He was given a public dinner at Washington Hall, on the Hth of Janu- 
ary, where he made a speech touching the exciting political issues of that day — 
nullification and its accompaniments — and of course for the Union. His visit, with 
the usual excitement created by the session of the Legislature, gave a deg'ee of 
animation to social life and public feeling certainly not equaled since the arrival 
of the Hanna in 1831. He came back in 1835, but never afterwards. 

There was engaged, at this time, either on the National Road bridge with Mr. Wern- 
wag, or on some work on the west side of the river, a young man of good appearance 
and manners by the name of William McPherson. He was accused by the scandal 
of the day of licentious habits, and of intrigues that did him no credit. From 
some cause he obtained the ill will of Michael Van Blaricum, the ferryman at the 
Washington street ferry. There were many reports of the origin of the diflSculty, 
and among others, one that inculpated McPherson with Van Blaricum's wife. On 
the 8th of May, 1833, be was crossing the ferry with the ferryman, when the latter, 
in the middle of the river, and in full sight of several persons, purposely rocked 
the boat, upset it, and threw McPherson, who could not swim, out, and drowned 
him. It was the first murder that had been committed in the town, and it created a 
great deal of excitement, which was increased by the difficulty of finding the body. 
Captain Blake's cannon was taken down to the blufi" bank, where Merritt & Cough- 
lin's woolen factory now stands, and it was fired to raise the corpse, ineffectually. 
It was recovered the next day after the murder. Van Blaricum, who belonged to 
the family of one of the very earliest settlers, was a bad man, but from some cause, 
probably the opinion that his " domestic peace " had been damaged, he was sentenced 
to but three years in the penitentiary, and had served but half the term, when 
Gov. Noble pardoned him. He returned and lived in the city, just at the west end 
of the bridge, for several years afterwards. 

The cholera panic was renewed this year. A case or two suppos-ed to be chol- 
era, with its prevalence elsewhere, created so much alarm that the 26th of June 
was observed as a day of fasting and prayer, and in July a public meeting sub- 
sci'ibed f 1,000 to provide hospital conveniences, appointed a committee often — half 
doctors, half citizens — to act as a Board of Health, and assigned minor committees 
to each ward. Suitable measures were taken; the Governor's Circle building was 
taken for a hospital, and Dr. John E. McClure appointed to the charge of it. No 
case occurred, and the preparations were, happily, lost. Following the cholera 
came the first circus, in August (Brown & Bailey's circus and menagerie), and 
placed itself in the open lot south of Henderson s hotel, then and for several years 
afterwards the only spot used for these exhibitions. It created a great deal of talk 
among the religious, who were willing to see the animals, but condemned the circua 
as immoral and irreligious. The feeling was almost universal then, and is not 
wholly dead yet. The "show" did a good business, as "shows" of all kinds almost 
invariably have done from that day to this. 

The great meteoric shower of November 13th excited an alarm, not quite so 
general, but in some minds far more intense than did the cholera. It was deemed 
a portent of some great Divine display of wrath, if not the herald of the Last Day 
itself. It was certainly the most awful exhibition, to an uneducated mind, and the 
most sublime to an educated mind, that can be concieved. The sky rained fire as 
thickly as it ever did rain drops, apparently, till the rising day put the lights out. 

Chapter t|J, 





^|Ok^N the 28th of January, 1834, the Legislature chartered the State Bank of 
sMTlndiana, with a capital of $1,600,000, in $50 shares, the State taking half the 
♦ stock, and private holders the remainder. The charter was to run twenty- 
five years. The State raised the money for her interest by the sale of what were 
known as "Bank bonds," and her share of the dividends, after extinguishing these 
bonds, it was provided should go to the establishment of a general School Fund. 
A Board called the Sinking Fund Board, was constituted to manage this fund of 
dividends, and was authorized to lend it, in any desired amounts, upon landed secu- 
rity, at seven per cent, interest. By this wise provision, poor borrowers, settlers 
who desired to buy land, and all who wanted loans on long time, were accommoda- 
ted, and during the whole life of the Bank the Sinking Fund was a most important 
adjunct. Its loans went into every county of the State, and being amply secured? 
and renewable ad libUum, they made at once an immense profit for the ultimate 
school fund, and an incalculable benefit to the people. When the magnitude of the 
fund began to be apparent, on the recommendation of Gov. Wright its avails were 
ordered by the Legislature to be invested in the State's five per cent, bonds, issued 
in the place of those issued in 1836 for internal improvements. By this arrange- 
ment a double advantage was secured. The public debt was extinguished to the 
amount of the avails of the school fund, and a permanent inyestment of the fund 
was made in the credit of the State. The foreign debt became a domestic debt, art a 
low rate of interest, and the taxes that would otherwise go abroad remained at 
home to teach our children. It was paying a debt and levying a school tax both. 
The final yield of this fund of the State's dividends, thus vastly increased, was 
$3,700,000, after paying the "Bank bonds." 

Of the Bank itself the history belongs rather to the State than the city, but a 
general sketch of it will not be out of place here. The Legislature reserved the 
right to elect the President and half the Directors. The stockholders elected the 
other half of the Directors. Samuel Merrill, late State Treasurer, was elected the 
first President, and Calvin Fletcher, Seaton W. Norris, Robert Morrison and Thos. 
R. Scott Directors. The organization was made oh th« 13th of February, begin- 
ning with ten branches, but ultimately increasing them to sixteen. Books for stock 
subscriptions were opened on the 7th of April following, and remained open thirty 


d^ys. The stock was, of course, readily taken. James M. Kay was made Cashier, 
and he held the position till the bank was " wound up." 

The Bank and its branches began business on the 20th day of November, 1834. 
The " mother bank," as it was called, was first kept in the Governor's Circle build- 
ing. It was afterwards removed to Washington street, and kept there till 1840. 
In the meantime the Directors had been building a very substantial, and by no means 
unornamental, structure on the narrow peak between Illinois street and Kentucky 
avenue, on the site of an old pottery establishmont, one of the first erected in the 
city. In 1840 a removal was made into this building, and there the bank remained 
during the remainder of its corporate life. The Bank of the State of Indiana — a 
sort of successor, or meant to be, of the State Bank of Indiana — next occupied the 
huilding, and remained till it collapsed under the National Bank act. The build- 
ing has since been occupied as an insarance office and head quarters of one of the 
political parties. The Indianapolis Branch of the State Bank was organized on 
the 11th of November, by the appointment of Hervey Bates, President, and B. F. 
Morris, Cashier. They were succeeded in a few years by Calvin Fletcher as Presi- 
dent, and Thomas H. Sharpe as Cashier, and these very efficient officers remained 
in the management of the Bank till it was wound up. Very few institutions of 
any kind have continued so long in the same hands as this bank. It was first kept 
in a building belonging to Mr. Bates on Washington Street and Virginia avenue, 
but in 1840 the building on the corner of Pennsylvania street and Virginia avenue 
was completed, and the bank removed to that When the bank was wound up, 
this building (which contained the Cashier's residence as well a? the bank), was 
sold for $16,000, to the Sinking Fund, which, though an adjunct of the bank in 
its origin, had an independent existence and business, and many a year to run 
before it could close out its wide-spread loans, and secure its mortgages. But in 
1867 the Fund had worked its way through so nearly to the end that its business 
was transferred by the Legislature to the State Auditor, the building became unne- 
cessary, and it was sold to the Franklin Insurance Company, for $30,000. 

No Bank ever organized in the United S:ates was managed more prudently 
or to greater advantage both of the borrowers and of the stockholders than the 
State Bank. The Indianapolis Branch would loan but $200 to any one person, except 
when engaged in hog or grain buying, and then it would lend liberally. Ttiis reso- 
lution caused a good deal of complaint of "narrowness" and "stinginess," but it 
prevented wild speculation, and saved the Bank from many a loss. The effect 
of it was that business men in need of immediate accommodation were accommodated, 
and those whose annual traffic in stoci< was the life of the farming interest, were 
supplied as far as a perfect knowledge of the trader's judgment and means indicated 
would be safe. In 1837, May 18th, the State Bank suspended specie payments, and 
resumed again on the order of the Legislature, June 15th, 1842. 

In 1855, in anticipation of the expiration of the charter of the State Bank, the 
Legislature, by a close vote, and after a vast deal of intriguing and management, 
suspected to be not entirely free from corrupt elements, chartered the Bank of the 
State of Indiana, an institution somewhat like its predecessor in general features, 
but solely a stock holders' affair. The State had no interest in it. Gov. Wright, 
believing it to be the work of speculators, who had arranged to snatch all the stock 
and allow no fair competition for its possession, vetoed the bill, but it was passed 
over his head. When the stock books were opened for the seventeen branches, there 
was some appearance of the "grab game" which the Governor apprehended, and 
at the next session of the Legislature he made a long argument before the Senate 


to show that fraud had been practiced, and that the charter should be canceled. 
But the Bank was too strong then to be overturned, and lived till the National Bank 
system of Mr. Chase killed it. Its branches were generally converted into National 
banks. It was organized on the 1st of November, 1855, with Hugh M'Cullough, 
late Secretary of the Treasury, as President — he was, also, President of the State 
Bank during the last four years of its existence — and James M. Kay, also of the 
State Bank, Cashier. It began business with the beginning of the year 1857, with 
a capital of $1,836,000, and continued prosperously till, as before remarked, the 
National Bank system overwhelmed it. In 1865 it was authorized by the Legisla- 
ture to "wind up," and did so as soon after as practicable. It. was kept in the old 
State Bank building on Kentucky avenue, which it bought, and subsequently sold 
to the Franklin Insurance Company. Hugh M'Cullough, G. W. Rathbone and 
James M. Kay were Presidents, and Mr. Kay and Joseph M. Moore Cashiers. The 
Branch in this city was organized July 25ih, 1855, with $100,000, capital, afterwards 
doubled, and with "W. H. TalboLt for President. It began business in 1857, with 
the "mother"' bank, in the room where Cobb's drug store now is. George Tousey 
was then the President, and C. S. Stevenson Cashier. In 1861 Stevenson was 
appointed Paymaster in the army, and David E. Snyder was made Cashier. The 
bank was shortly before removed to the corner room of Tohn's block, Washington 
and Meridian streets, where it has since remained. D. M. Taylor was made Cashier 
in 1866, and Oliver Tousey President. As a branch of the Bank of the State it 
was wound up soon after this, and converted into a National Bank, in which charac- 
ter it still keeps its old place. A general notice of Banks will be found in another 

In the spring of 1834 a railroad meeting was held here to obtain subscriptions 
to the Lawrenceburgh road, and the practice, now so general, of making county 
subscriptions by county Boards, to be paid by taxation, was inaugurated. The 
railroad fever, which reached its climax two years afterwards, was now rising fast. 
As stated in a preceding chapter, lines had been projected from Indianapolis, La- 
fayette and Madison, as well as Lawrenceburg and other points, and nothing hav- 
ing been done with most of them, they were rechartered in this and the following 
■year, and in 1836 assumed by the State. Nothing came of the Lawrenceburgh 
line, except a little grading at one or two points. 

Besides the chartering of the State Bank, and of the several railroad compa- 
nies, the year 1834 witnessed the first local organization of the Whig party. The 
first meeting was held May 17th in the Court house — which continued to be the 
common political forum as long as it lasted — under Kobert Brenton, familiarly 
known in the "unrespective" vernacular of the backwoods as "Old Bob Brenton," 
and speeches were made by Hiram Brown, a most unwavering Whig to the last 
hour of his life, and a man of extraordinary, though not persevering, talents, and by 
Wm. Quarles, a greatly overrated criminal lawyer, John H. Scott and John Hobart, 
the latter the first native poet of whom our city or its vicinity could boast. The 
first brewery did not grow out of this "Whig movement, as we of the "lager beer 
period " of politics might easily conjecture, but out of the enterprise of John L. 
Young and Wm. H. Wernwag, and was got ready for work during this summer 
It was located just west of where the canal was afterwards run, at the west end of 
Maryland street. It did not do a very large business, and Mr. Young subsequently 
failed in it, when it passed into other hands. A few years ago it was abandoned. 
A rope-walk was also established during the year, near the market house, and the 
Pension Agency was removed here from Corydon. 


The cDmpletion of the State House in 1835, in time for the meeting of the 
Legislature in December, was the most noted event of the year, though less 
■directly connected with our municipal history than another event that sprang from 
it. A^s it approached completion, and the invaluable deposits of public laws and 
records which it would contain began to rise into full appreciation, the Legislature 
saw the necessity of protecting it, not only by insurance, but by preventive agen- 
cies, and authorized the Treasurer to procure twenty-five buckets, with suitable 
ladders for reaching the roof, and to pay half the expense of getting a fire engine, 
if the citizens would make up the ether half. A meeting was held on the 12th of 
February to effect this object, and the existing fire-bucket company — which had 
done little more good thaa furnish the harness-making establishments with pretty 
fair contracts for leather buckets like small barrels, awkward in shape and unman- 
ageable in service, for it was hard to throw v/ater out of them on account of their 
contracted mouths — was reorganized as the Marion Fire Engine, Hose, and Protec- 
tion Company, with Caleb Scudder as the first captain. The meeting requested 
the town trustees to raise their half of the cost of an engine by a tax, and to levy 
■at the same time enough to construct five public wells. The engine called the 
"Marion," an "end-brake," of the best construction, by Merrick of Philadelphia, 
and ^y far the most serviceable " machine " the city ever had, was bought during 
the year, and received in September. It was placed, as before stated, in a small 
frame house on the n«rth side of the Circle, subsequently enlarged to a two-story, 
and made the Council chamber, in the upper story. Thus was commenced the City 
Fire Department, always a prominent feature of a city government and history. A 
detailed account of it, and its abrogation for the present paid steam department, 
will be found in another place. 

About the same time that the engine company was formed, the first State Agri- 
cultural Society was organized, with James BJake, Larkin Simms, John Owen and 
M. M. Henkle as directors, of whom Mr. Blake was President and Mr. Henkle Sec- 
retary. Steps were taken to diffuse a knowledge of, and interest in, agriculture by 
premiums for essays, and to organize county auxilliary societies. A State conven^ 
tion was held on the 14th of December, in the State House, at which little was 
accomplished, and not much more was done at the few meetings which folio-wed, and 
the affair died. It was premature. The country was too new, the means of 
transportation too inadequate, to allow of Fairs and a competition and comparison 
of agricultural efforts, and without these practical results and illustrations a 
Society can not hope to be mere than a debating club. A county society was formed 
here in June, with Nathan B. Palmer as President, and Douglass Maguire as Sec- 
retary. Some money was obtained by subscription for premiums, and the Board 
of Justices donated fifty dollars of public money, so that, altogether, the society 
was enabled to distribute in premiums at the first fair, held on the last two days of 
October, about $18-0. Subscriptions to the amount of $400 were made for the next 
fair, and there was enough local interest manifested to warrant the hope that the 
exhibition would become permanent, but it failed with the State society in a few 

The internal improvement fever was now almost at its hight. Even sober, cal- 
culating men began to see lines of raiJ^way stretching off to every point of the 
compass, and canals with long processions of loaded boats pouring wealth into the 
capital, and enterprise through every corner of the State. Speculation began to 
grow vigorous. Of all the projected lines of improvement, there were few that 
did not aim at the capital. Property was bound to rise in val«e as business crowded 

50 30LL0WAT8 INmASAP0l6m.- 

the streets. And as imagination saw property rising, it did rise. It Iiad been doing 
so for a year or two. Lots had doubled in yalue since the first projected set of 
defunct railroads had been chartered. On Washington street they were worth $60 
to $75 a front foot. This was something promising; for a y&uth, with his first vote 
to cast, may recollect when lots on Washington street, between Illinois and Meri- 
dian, with buildings upon theui — buildings now standing: as incorpoi-ated parts of 
palatial structures — were sold for $120 a foat. The settlement whiah, since the 
great ague epidemic of 1821, had been crowding eastward, began to surge back 
towards the river again. Lots along the probable line of the canal became valuable, 
and sold rapidly, in the proportion that the canal now impairs their value. More 
than one family established itself close to the ditch, as a choice spot for a residence, 
with a blindness to unsuitability that puzales one now. Among others^, William 
Quarles, the lawyer, with considerable aristocratic pretensions, built a houee on the 
east bank of the canal and south side of Washington street, under this strange 
delusion. The fever went frff, in a few years, in a prostration that came near being 
fatal. This was the first speculative era in the history of the city. In the earlier 
years, when lots were still sold by the State's agent, there was not money enough? 
to buy for speculation. Most of it was done with the pui^pose of holding on. 

In November the Benevolent Society was organized, with very much the same 
structure that it still retains. Having little to do, and appealing for support directly 
to every householder by its visiters, it was kept up when more pretentious afi"aira 
failed. No small part of its sustaining influence came from the character of the- 
contributions it asked. Like "Bill Crowder's" charity sermon, it wanted "old 
clothes, old coats, old hats, or any good-for-aothing old thing that nobody else would 
have." And these were readily given, and used with increasing benefit every year. 
Money was not usually solicited at the outset, or for a number of years afterwards,- 
though it was often given, and of course, judiciously used. Now it is really a very 
important and indispensable institution, managing large sums of money, and vast 
accumulations of clothing and other benevolent material. Its system of collection 
and distribution has remained unchinged, and its management is in very much the 
same hands, except as death has removed them, that first undertook it. Visitors — 
a gentleman and lady of the highest respectability always^ — are appointed to- 
designated portions of the city, and they apply, armed with baskets, at every house 
for anything that poverty and distress can make serviceable. And these 001100- 
tions are kept in charge of an ofBcer, who gives them out on the order of the mana- 
gers. A necessitous person has only to see any one of the score of managers and' 
show that there is no imposition, to get relief. 

A literary Society was formed this year, too, taking th« place of the Lyceum. 
It was a young men's affair, and devoted itself to the ordinary exercises of such 
associations, debates and essays. It was subsequently merged into, or compounded 
with, -the Union Literary Society, organized by the elder pupils of the Seminary, 
and by the latter name it was known during its last and most important years, 
when it was incorpoi-ated under the general law (1847), and had, by much solicita- 
tion, obtained money to procure lecturers of celebrity. Its own members some- 
times delivered its addresses, but the ministers of the city more frequently were- 
the speakers, and their churches the lecture halls. Henry Wai-d Beecher delivered 
one, Dr. Samuel Johnson, the amiable and gifted Episcopal rector, delivered two or 
three, Dr. Fisher, of Cincinnati, was obtained for a course of fjur lectures in 1848. 
Horace Greeley delivered one lecture in 1853, in Masonic Hall, and Rev. J. C 
Fletcher, who was one of the menabers that had lectured before it in 1847, on his 


return from Brazil made an address in the same Hall. It was the predecessor, and 
an efficient one, too, of the present Y. M. 0. A., and other lecturing associations. 

The meteorology of 1835 is noteworthy. The spring and summer were remark- 
able for the frequency and volume of their rain falls. At Fort Wayne, it was reported 
by Mr. Jesse L. Williams, says Mr. Brown, that ten inches of rain fell in two hours. 
This was equal to a water spout. Hardly less remarkable was the occurrence of a 
severe frost on the night of the 1st of July, and the succession of a period of unu- 
sual heat and drouth. On August 18th a furious tornado swept over the country, 
greatly damaging houses, fences, trees and stock. And the winter of 1835-36 was 
almost unbroken till April. 

The year 1836 is memorable both in State and municipal history, as that which 
gave form and active life to the wild schemes of improvement so often adverted to. 
The National road was in process of construction. The New York and Erie Canal, 
a gigantic State enterprise, had for ten years been successful and remunerative. 
Improvements were going on everywhere, and stimulating a spirit here which 
necessity created. The country was rapidly filling up, and its lands thickening 
with crops of grain, and teeming with hogs. But there was no outlet except 
through vast forests and almost impassable roads. A railroad or canal would be of 
incalculable benefit. This was clear. The difficulty through which very few saw 
clearly, or saw at all, was that every section of the State wanted a railroad or a 
canal, and no one would concede its claims to another, and none couTd be made a 
State work without the consent of the others. Thus when it was proposed that the 
State should undertake the work of internal improvement, these sectional jealous- 
ies, co-operating with the general confidence that every work when completed would 
pay an immense revenue to the Treasury, making taxation an obsolete necessity, 
forced the assumption of, or contribution of help to, nearly every enterprise that had 
been projected, in which there was any appearance of life or prospect of final 
advantage. The State took them all up, and issued $10,000,000 of bonds, to raise 
the money to prosecute them. The act was passed and approved on the 26ih of Jan- 
uary, 1836, but it was ascertained by a test vote on the 16th that the Internal Im- 
provement Bill would pass, and the town was illuminated at night, and a scene of 
enthusiastic congratulation and jollification enacted which many now living will 
remember, not only for its brilliance, but for the period of suffering and stagnation 
to which it led so speedily and certainly. It was good while it lasted. The con- 
sequence of that measure was a State debt of some $15,088,000, on which no inter- 
est was paid for six or seven years. The great financial crash of 1837 broke down 
the enterprise in 1839, and at that time it was abandoned. The combined railroads, 
canals and turnpikes amounted to 1,289 miles, and only 281 in the aggregate had 
been completed, at an expense of $8,164,528 21, while the remaining 1,008 miles it 
was estimated would cost $19,914,244 more. The work never paid the State a cent. 
The whole cost was money thrown in the water. In 1846 an arrangement was 
made with our creditors to take the Wabash and Erie Canal with some 2,000,000- 
acres of land donated to it by Congress, to complete the work to Evansville, and to 
keep it in serviceable condition, in payment of half the debt. For the other half 
of the principal, 5 per cent, bonds were issued, and for the unpaid interest 2| per 
cent, bonds were given. Within the present year the last of the bonds has been 
redeemed, and the last dollai of the burthen created by the measure for which the- 
town was illuminated in 1836, thirty-four years ago, has been paid. The State is 
out of debt, and has a surplus. As remarked in the first part of this chapter, a 
large portion of these redeemed bonds have been paid out of the school fund, and. 


thus the State has become the debtor of her own children instead of foreign cred- 
itors. The interest she pays now goes to the diffusion of free education instead of 
the pockets of plethoric capitalists. 

An attempt was made at the Gubernatorial election in the year following, to 
stem the torrent of popular caprice, by the concentration of all opposition upon 
John Dumont for Governor, against David Wallace, the candidate of the Improv^e- 
■ment party, pretty much the same as the Whig party. The Dumont men called 
themselves the "Modifiers," who wanted to take up a work at a time, and, carrying 
less weight, be more likely to get through. It was sound policy, but there were too 
many interests involved in the combination of enterprises to be overborne by rea- 
son, and the " Modifiers" were beaten. Gov. Wallace was eloquent and invincible on 
ithe "stump" in his exposition of the advantages of the possession by the State of 
"these great works. Their revenue would make taxation unnecessary, the develop- 
ment of business they would create would give profitable employment to every man, 
• and "two dollars a day and roast beef ' would be as little as any one would put up with. 
'.That " two dollars and roast beef" made a very effective Democratic war cry during 
cthe "hard times/' from 1839 to 1844, when employment was scarce and money 

The same disaster that overwhelmed the State's credit crushed private business. 
.Merchants owing bills for goods in the East, made unusually large by the freshet of 
•speculation and the unhealthy inflation of trade of the preceding years, found them- 
selves " broken," and hog speculators " went down " as fast as ever their droves did 
before the slaughter house hammers of the Cincinnati packing houses. The Bank, 
as already noted, suspended specie payment. Property bought at the big prices of 
the enthusiastic era could not be sold at all. Nobody had any money. Men with 
thousands of acres of rich land, and dozens of eligible town lots, were no better able 
to piy than those who had not ground enough for a grave. Several rem<'dies were 
devised for this State of affairs. First. Eastern creditors were wise enough to see 
that debts pressed to execution would realize nothing, for property could not be 
sold; so they gave liberal terms of settlement in most cases, trusting to the revival 
of business and the growth of the town to. put" their debtors "on their feet," and 
enable them to pay in full, as they did. Second. The Legislature enacted that no 
property taken in excution should be sold for less than two-thirds of its appraised 
value, and a certain amount of household property was exempted from execution 
■ altogether. This secured debtors against the entire loss of their property with no 
material alleviation of their debts. Third. The Legislature issued bills, secured by 
the credit of the State, popularly known as "scrip," beai'ing six per cent, interest, 
and receivable for taxes, to supply the deficiency of currency. Two or three later 
.issues were made, bearing a smaller rate of interest, and more largely discounted 
than the first. This resource afibrded some relief, but less than it should, for the 
ireason that the "scrip" had little credit or value outside of the State. This kept it 
below par at home. For a long time the usual question of a customer, " What 
is the price?" was answered by another, "Scrip or State Bank paper?" And a 
difference of one dollar in five was the result of the answer to it. In Cincinnati 
the first issues of six per cents were long worth no more than forty or fifty cents 
on the dollar, and it was a common speculation for our merchants to take an extra 
hundred or five hundred dollars along when they went to lay in stock, to buy scrip 
■with. They could use it at home at seventy-five to eighty-five cents on the dollar, 
and make twenty to fifty per cent, by the speculation. Graduall}'^, though, the 
"scrip" passed back in taxes to the State Treasury. Its six per cent, interest 


added considerably to its value, and it began to command a premium. It was worth 
nearly two dollars for one before it was all redeemed, fifteen years afterwards. 

Business began to feel an upward impulse in 1843, but it was not till the Madl- 

railroad began creeping towards us from the river that a visible and active 
spirit of enterprise appeared. 

In February, 1836, the Legislature gave the town a special charter of incorpora- 
tion, a new board of trustees was elected in April, and the old one retired aftet 
four years of service. Their settlement sheet showed that the revenues of the cap- 
ital were not enormous enough to be worth fighting for in those days. The receipts 
for the year ending April 1st, 1836 were only $1,610, and most of that had been 
collected by a special levy to pay for the "Marion" engine, for public wells, and 
other fire provisions. The new government inherited $124 from its predecessor, and 
passed some stringent ordinances against disorderly and riotous conduct. These 
•would have been more important if they could have been enforced, for the town was 
full of wild, reckless, dangerous men, brought here by the work on the National 
Road, and increased by the influx brought by the canal. 

The full fruit of the seeds of disorder sown here by these public works was not 
witnessed till a year or two afterwards, but from about this period till the return 
of "good times" and adequate employment for labor, the riotous population made 
so prominent a figure that a history would be incomplete without a notice of it. 
The central figure of the crowd was a square built, " chunky," agile and courageous 
man, of a naturally generous temper, and a rioter more through reckless love of 
mischief and adventure than real depravity, named Burkhart, and Qsually called 
" Old Dave Buckhart." He was generally seen on the street with an old slouch hat, 
breeches kept up by a single suspender, no coat or vest, and barefooted. His asso- 
ciates were like himself in appearance, but better disposed to serious outrage. They 
lived west of the canal, or near its line, in what is now called " Bucktown," and 
supported themselves mainly by stealing their neighbors' corn, pigs, poultry and 
potatoes. Their whisky they got by occasional jobs of rude and exhausting labor. 
They dug wells, excavated cellars and moved houses. "When not thus engaged, 
they were rioting, and not unfrequently robbing outright. They were called the 
"chain gang," and the terror of their name was not quite lost when young men 
now living were born, A feud between them and the colored residents was a mat- 
ter of course. They were all of that political faith which holds a negro as noth- 
ing, and makes him a fit subject of outrage and oppression. They frequently 
sacked negro houses and abused their inmates, and kept the northwestern corner of 
the town in a perpetual turmoil. The feud culminated in a collision with " Old man 
Overall," a negro of rather a plucky disposition, who had some sons as willing to 
fight as any white man could be, and who lived on the open common near the pres- 
sent line of Ohio street, east of the military park. The " chain gang " gave out 
that they meant to "go for" the Overalls on a certain night, and the negro gathered 
his forces, barricaded doors and windows, loaded guns, and prepared for a siege. 
The assailants made a demonstration before the "colored" fortress, but a few shots 
and the formidable preparations warned them oflp, and the warfare resulted in a 
victory for the negroes. This was pretty near the termination of their career. It 
•was eflFectually ended shortly after by a collision as novel as it was effective. The 
Methodists were holding a camp meeting in the military ground, and, under the 
ministrations of Rev. James Havens, then in the prime of his enormous physical 
strength and impressive but uncultured eloquence, were making many converts. 
On the third day of the meeting Burkhart, barefooted, and considerably drunk 


wandered into the woods and around the camp ground, keeping himself quite orderly 
and unobtrusive. An additional drink or two, however, "started" him, and he 
began marching around the outer line of the seats, shouting a dirty couplet of some 
original rhyme, at the top of his voice. The preacher several times stopped and 
kindly asked him to go off and not disturb the congregation, but without effect. At 
last he came down from the pulpit, walked right up to " old Buck " — a bit of pluck 
that astonished him — and asked him again to go off and leave the worshippers 
alone. He swore he wouldn't, and Mr. Havens at once knocked him down and 
whipped him till he roared. His defeat by a preacher, the object of supreme con- 
tempt to the "gang," ruined the leader's power. Shortly afterwards he was arrested 
for some misconduct and taken before 'Squire Scudder, where he " cavorted " and 
boasted furiously, till Samuel Merrill — as he used to tell the story to the writer — 
good humoredly took up his challenge for a scufHe, and threw him violently upon 
the floor of the 'Squire's office. These successive humiliations, and the growth of 
the moral element of the town, were too much for "Old Buck," and he moved off 
to the Bluffs, where he reformed and died at an advanced age. This was the end 
of the "chain gang;" but a number of the members remained in the town and 
made a hard and uncertain support by well-digging and house-moving. The lead- 
ing men were " Big John Fletcher," a gigantic fellow, a perfect Hercules in form, 
but not as courageous as his physical powers might lead one to fancy he would be, 
and John Sparlan, a powerful man, of less stature but hardly less strength than 
Fletcher. Though they created a good deal of annoyance by irregularities and 
petty crimes, the "gang" was not the formidable thing it had been, and it was 
killed entirely less by actual resistance than discountenance. Sparlan was stabbed 
and killed in a street fight with John Pogue, the son of the iirst settler of the town. 
Fletcher died of dissipation, and his sons followed him, one or two by murder, one 
by drowning, and one by the effects of a disorderly life. 

A favorite amusement of this period was running "quarter races." The course 
was a wide lane, covered with turf, except where an occsional wagon had cut down 
to the soil, bordered by a "staked-and-ridered fence" the whole length, on the east 
side, and a portion of the way by a similar fence on the west, and the open woods 
of the Military ground. It was the portion of what is now West street, lying 
north of the "mill race," and extending to the Michigan road (Indiana avenue), 
at Laquatt's residence. Crowds of idle men and truant school boys would flock out 
to this lane and line the fences on both sides like crows, to watch two horses, just 
taken out of the wagon and stripped of their "gears," run on a bet of five dol- 
lars. The races were usually, however, conducted on Saturday, so that school boys 
did not have to play "hookey" to see them, and they were the bulk of the specta- 
tors. "Selling races" were occasionally run on this quarter course, and provoked 
ugly suspicions sometimes, and sometimes desperate fights. On one occasion a gen- 
tleman somewhat known in connection with the history of the city, was thought by 
some of the spectators to have helped in one of these tricks, and the celebrated 
Nat. Vice, the pride and terror of the city, chased him home through innumerable 
dodges and back alleys. Nathaniel Vice was so prominent a figure of this era of 
the city, and so remarkable a character, that it would be improper not to speak of 
him a little more fully. He was a young man, not over thirty, at the time, of the 
middle hight, compactly though not heavily formed, with dark hair, eyes and skin, 
and a power of muscle absolutely unequaled. No professional acrobat or gymnast 
approached him, for his feats he performed with no preparation of cords or bars or 
years of training. He was utterly fearless, always ready for a fight, generous in 


^temper, manly, open and honorable. He was a contractor on the canal in 1839, 
"when the public works were abandoned by the State, and found himself with a con- 
siderable amount of arrears to his Irish employes, and with no money in the State 
"Treasury to pay them. He called his "hands" up, explained the case to them, 
■showed them all his money, and dietributed it among them to the last cent in pro- 
^portion to the amount due, promising tkat he would pay the balance as soon as the 
iState paid him. For a little while the Irishmen seemed content with this arrange- 
ment, but coming up town and getting a drink or two ahead, they began to feel 
cheated, and resolved to punish the contractor. He came up the street shortly after, 
and seeing eight or ten of his "boys" round the door of the "Union Hotel" saloon, 
he invited them in and treated them. He left the room and they followed him. On 
Teaching the street, they began cursing him and demanding their money. He ex- 
plained to no purpose, and saw thai he would have to fight. Eight of them set 
upon him together, and in two minutes he had whipped the whole of them so badly 
that they were more than willing to quit. He fought with feet as well as hands, 
;and as he prostrated ene man with a blow of his fist he sprang into the air and 
kicked the leader in the face so fearfully that he fell senselss and helpless, and was 
for a time thought to be dead. That was the biggest fight ever known in the town, 
^though " Big Bill Crowd-er," the son of our first restaurant keeper, and the man who 
gave the name to the "Crowder farm" and "Crowder's ford" in the river, once or 
twice whipped three or four of the " Waterloo," crowd' a set of uncouth country 
cubs from the ague-infected region of what is now called " Lanergan's Lake," in 
the east bottom of White River. 

The fighting in the early days of the capital was quite a feature in its social, or 
unsocial, life. No Saturday passed without one, or commonly, a half dozen. And 
a good deal of lit was desperate and mischieveus enough for the hungriest hunter of 
gladiatorial fun. It was not done to attract attention and create notoriety either; 
at least not in many cases. It is authentically related that Andrew Wilson and 
,Zadoc Smith, while engaged in the mill on McCarty's bayou — a stream now pretty 
much used up — quarrelled, and agreed to go into the woods alone and fight it out. 
They did, and came back together in a half hour, with torn clothes and fearfully 
bruised faces, but no report as to the result of the fight. Nobody ever found out 
which whipped. Capt. Alexander Wiley and "big Jim Smith," the tailor, once 
■quarrelled, and adjourned, alone, to the vacant State House square to settle the 
■diificulty with an amicable fight. TJiey did it, after a fearful combat, and came back 
together on excellent terms. A large, strong, sHrly fellow from " Waterloo," by 
the name of Bob Stevens, was for a long time the terror not only of the "bottom," 
but of the town, in which he invariably had a fight whenever he emergod from the 
mud and iron <weeds, of his "native heath," to indulge his taste for Jerry Collins' 
whisky. He had whipped and eruelly hurt so many courageous boys who were too 
plucky to fee " run over " by him, and not strong enough to fight him, that he was 
regarded as a sort of "ogre," and was allowed to "tear about" pretty much as he 
pleased. Finally he encomntered a short, very square-shouldered, deep-chested 
young man by the name of Eli Glimpse, and, as usual, attempted to " ride rough 
■shod " over him. The result was a fight, in which Stevens was nearly killed ; his 
face was knocked to pieces, one of his eyes destroyed and his arm broken, while his 
antagonist had a thumb bitten round and round below the first joint, clear to the 
bone, as a boy bites a pawpaw stick to break it. It ruined his left hand. These 
will serve as specimens of the Saturday diversions of the people along about the 
■time under consideration. 


The impulse given to business and speculation by the internal improTement 
system soon reached its climax. The general financial convulsion of 1837 followed 
close upon it, and warned shrewd rnen of the peril of spreading more sail than 
was absolately necessary to give "steerage way." Speculation was checked and 
soon killed outright. The costly lots on the canal were given up, and business 
shrank back to its old chaanel of Washington street, east of Illinois. But still there 
was a good deal of improvement going on, and some manufacturing growing into 
profi^table proportions. The "^Washington Hall," so long the leading hotel of the 
State, and as well known as the Whig headquarters of Indiana as Tammany Hall 
is as Demcratic headquarters in New York, was this year (1836) erected on the 
site of the frame tavern of Samuel Henderson. It was, at that time, the finest and 
costliest private structure that had been built or projected in the town. It was 
owned by a company, and opened by Edmund Browning, on the 16th of November, 
1837, and by him retained till 1851. A full account of it and of our hotels gener- 
ally will be found in another place. 

On the 27th of April Arnold Lashley, a fiery-blooded Eentuckian, 5vho wa^ 
carrying on a carriage manufactory on the square of Odd Fellows' Hall and the 
Post office, fronting Pennsylvania street, quarrelled with a man named Zachariah 
Collins, who was hauling timber for him, or engaged in some like labor about the 
establishment, and in a fury struck him with a single-tree and killed him. This 
murder created an intense excitement. Lashley was "aristocratic," "put on style," 
and " held himself too high for common people," and if the population of new settle- 
ments hate any one thing more than another it is a man or woman who sets up a 
little social superiority. Collins was a poor man, and he had been killed for 
Hothing. There was serious danger that the murderer would be lynched. He, how- 
ever, had a preliminary examination and was held to bail, which he forfeited. H& 
ran off and was never heard of again. 

The County Agricultural Society held its second fair on th-e 7th and 8th of 
October, and Calvin Fletcher stated in bis address that there were thirteen hun- 
dred farmers in the county, and that they produced an average of one thousand 
bushels of corn each. If he had only told us the average number of acres to a 
farm, or assigned to corn growing, his statement would have been of real value, as 
enabling us to compare the productiveness of the country at that time with its pro- 
ductiveness now, and tO' see whether there has been a material deterioration. A 
map of the town was published in the fall by Dr. Luke Munsell, and one of the 
county, by William Sullivan, surveyor, since better known as 'Squire Sullivan, who 
held the office of Justice of the Peace for nearly one generation, and still lives 
happy and honored among us. Dr. Munsell was a " queer genius," a deeply learned 
man, of various and valuable attainnaents, who yet never made all of them of half 
as much service as an inferior man would have made one of them. He pub- 
lished a map of Kentucky when he was State Engineer, before he cam-e here. He 
also opened here the first, or among the first, Daguerrian establishments. A mat- 
tress and cushion manufactory was commenced by Hiram Devinney, on West Ma- 
ryland street, near the canal, and a linseed oil mill was operated by his son, Frank 
Devinney, in the alley south of Maryland street. In February, 1836., the first 
home Insurance Company was chartered, with $290,000 capital, and valuable 
banking privileges. The charter ran for fifty years. Its direction was organized a 
few weeks afterwards, with Douglass Maguire as President, and Caleb Scudder as 
Secretary. It never did much, and died in the "hard times." In 1865 the old 
worthless stock was bought up, the charter renewed, and a new and vigorous cons- 


pany organized, as the Indianapolis Insurance Company, with "Wm. Henderson as 
President, and Alexander C. Jameson 8S Secretary. The old Branch Bank building, 
on Virginia avenue and Pennsylvania street, was bought and is now occupied by 
it. Until within the past ten years, the business of Insurance, though considera- 
ble, was trifling to what it is now. The agencies were usually held by lawyers, who 
took them rather as accommodations than as profitable enterprizes, and no attempt 
was made to push business. The companies were all of the East. Now this is & 
vast interest, with a score or two of agencies, and some flourishing domestic compa- 
nies and it plays no subordinate part in the statistics of the city's business. 

hafit^t tfll» 


4T THE time of the organization of the State Government, Indian wars were 
so fresh in the memories of the settlers, and the danger of their renewal, or 
at least of local outbreaks and murders, so evident, that a preparation for 
military service was wisely enough deemed indispensable, and laws were enacted 
-constituting the State militia of all able bodied men of a certain age, forming 
them into regiments, usually of counties, and enjoining general "musters" for the 
purpose of drill and keeping alive the mllitai-y spirit, from which no absence was 
allowed without reasonable excuse, and for neglect of which fines were imposed. 
The system was really too broad ever to be made very efficient, and it gradually 
broke down into total disuse. But for many years the annual or semi-annual 
"musters" were kept up, and constituted, next to the Fourth of July, the great 
holiday and spectacle of the season. The regiment of this county usually turned 
out from three hundred to four hundred men, most of them armed with squirrel- 
rifles, but some with hoe-handles and others with corn-stalks, a fe\v hours were 
spent in elementary drills in the " manual," and in marching, sometimes in the 
pasture north of Market street, called "Bates Grove," and sometimes in the 
common south of Maryland street and west of Tennessee. The display was of lit- 
tle value in any respect, as the enforeeement of discipline was impossible, and the 
attention given to drilling too slight to enable even a willing tyro to learn much. 
It was usually made the occasion of a great deal of boisterous fun, and the provoca- 
tion to fights enough to have nourished the military spirit richly if fist- work could 
do it. To the boys of those days it was a very exciting spectacle to see the long 
line of men marching down the street with Glidden True playing the fife, and " old 
Peter Winchell" beating the drum, at its head, while the gallant Col. Kussell, with 
flashing sword and brilliant epaulets, and his hat decorated with a tall plume of 
white feathers tipped with red, rode dashingly along, from front to rear or rear to 
front, shouting his orders and stirring up the dust distractingly. The utter useless- 
ness of the militia system would doubtless have killed it sooner than it did, but for 
two causes: 1st, the "fun of the thing," which was no little matter to a hard- 
working community, with few holidays, and little opportunity to enjoy even those 
few; and second, the facilities afibrded by it for electioneering. The militia was 
then about as straight a road to political preferment as the law is now, and there 
were few Congressmen or Legislators or county oflicers, who did not trace their 
popularity to ther militia connections and positions. 


The decay or desuetude of the militia parades left the town with no military 
attractions for some years, but still the spirit was only sleeping, not dead. Vol- 
unteer companies began to be formed, and as they were h^ld by a constitution and 
laws framed expressly for each case, there was a good deal of effective attention 
given to the dry duty of learning elementary work. They were not large in num- 
bers, but they were uniformed handsomely, worked and performed the manual 
well, and made a very different impression from the motley half armed mob of the 
militia days. The spirit thus rekindled never again died out so entirely but that 
some military organization was in existence to be stirred into occasional displays. 
The first of these companies was organized in February, 1837, under Col. Russell as 
Captain, and was called the " Marion Guards." Their uniform was of gray cloth, 
neat and tasteful, with black "patent leather" shakos, or high, bell-shaped hats, 
with short, bulbous cockades of black cotton. They were armed with the old fash- 
ioned flint-lock musket, as the cap arm had not been supplied to all the States by 
the General Government. They were drilled in the old stately Prussian fashion, 
and were really well drilled. Their monthly or quarterly parades were a time of 
general jubilee to the younger population. Thomas A. Morris, then recently grad- 
uated from West Point, succeeded Capt. Russell in the following summer, and under 
his thorough mastery of the art the company soon reached the perfection that 
made it so attractive. A year afterwards another company was organized and 
incorporated (February 14, 1838), under Capt. Thomas McBaker. It was called 
the "Marion Rifles" or Riflemen, and was armed with a sort of breech-loading 
rifle, which was among the first attempts to introduce that class of arms into the 
military service in any country. The lower part of the barrel next to the lock was 
detached from the main portion, and worked upon a hinge at the breech, which 
allowed the upper end to be pushed up by a rude, awkward trigger, that protruded 
below, and enabled the soldier to push his cartridge into the chamber with his 
finger. A blow with the hand pushed it back to its place, and the gun was ready 
for firing. But the movable breech was flat, broad and ugly, the weapon cumbrous 
and unhandy, and so liable, in haste or excitement, to leave the breech with the 
cartridge imperfectly pushed to its place, and thus fired, so as to endanger itself 
and the soldier, that it was not retained more than two or three years. The uniform 
of the Rifles was a blue fringed hunting-shirt, and blue pantaloons, with caps, a 
less soldierly looking but decidedly more comfortable dress than that of the 
"Guards." The latter, from their pepper and salt dress, were called " Grey Backs," 
the others were "The Arabs," a name of purely conjectural derivation. These 
companies sometimes, by agreement, fought sham battles along Washington street, 
the "Guards" marching up with stately tread and firing by platoons, while the 
" Arabs," practicing the "Skirmish Drill," would lie down in the dust, fire, and load) 
rise, retreat in a run, drop down and fire again, to the intense admiration of all 
beholders. In 1842 the two formed themselves into a battalion under the command 
of Lieut. Col. Harvey Brown, and Major George Drum. The Mexican war replaced 
this pacific military feeling with one more to the purpose, and company organi- 
zations languished again, with short intervals of resuscitation, till a few years 
before the Rebellion called for all the war spirit and skill the nation had. A more 
particular notice of our military companies will be found in another place. 

E^rly in February Calvin Fletcher and Thomas Johnson were appointed com- 
missioners by the Legislature to procure subscriptions of money from the citizens 
to drain the swamp on the northeast, which frequently sent very annoying streams 
down through the "bayous" or ravines spoken of in the first chapter of this his- 


tory. Sometimes, when flooded with heavy rains, or by the overflow of Fall Creek 
it became a serious mischief, filling houses along the bayous and overflowing gar- 
dens, breaking down fences, and damaging property generally. The commissioners 
raised the money and dug a ditch westward to Fall Creek, through Mr. Johnson's 
farm, and through a portion of the present Fair Ground. This answered the pur- 
pose until the extraordinary flood of 1847 occurred, which will be noticed in its 

In 1821 the Legislature gave the town, for a west market ground, the north 
half of square 50, now lying north of the mill race, and between the canal and 
West street, but needing it for the use of the Board of Internal Improvements, an 
act was passed donating in its place the north half of square 48, the present West 
Market space, and deeds were exchanged for the lots. At this time the first appear- 
ance of a movement, which has since become quite a conspicuous feature of politics, 
occurred. The carpenters formed an association and fixed a day's work at ten 
hours, though there is no record that they expected to get twelve hours' wages for 
it. In this they differed from the demands of Mr. Trevallick and the venal, self, 
seeking, half-brained fellows like him,- who are trying to make labor ridiculous by 
making it demand pay for what it don't do. 

In the spring of the year 1837, the Episcopalians who, though not a numerous 
body, were among the foremost citizens of the place in wealth, enterprise and edu- 
cation, organized a church, with Rev. James B. Britton as rector. They had held 
occasional meetings since 1835, making them more frequent and with increas- 
ing attendance during the next year, and this spring concluded they were strong 
enough to organize and build a church. Preliminary steps were at once taken, and 
"ground broken" for the building, on the northeast corner of Circle and Meridian 
streets, in November. On the 7th of May, 1838, the corner stone was laid, the first 
edifice in the city, the writer thinks, that was provided with that bit of ceremonial 
masonry. Mr. Foster, the jeweler, then just returned from the East, deposited in 
the cavity of the stone some coins of the new issue, with the "Goddess of Liberty' 
upon them. They were the first that had been brought to the town. The usual 
newspapers and documents were also enclosed. The church was opened for wor- 
ship in November, 1838, and used till 1857, when it was sold to the African Methodist 
church, removed to West Georgia street, and burned by incendiary rowdies a few 
years aftewards. A superb stone building of Gothic architecture, with stained 
•windows and a chime of bells, replaced it in 1857-59. A further notice will be 
made of it in its place. 

About the time the Episcopal church was organized the Evangelical Lutherans 
concluded that they were strong enough to make and maintain an organization 
and they held their first church meeting on the 14th of May, with Rev. A Eeck as 
pastor. An attempt was made to put a church building on the northwest corner 
of University Square, as mentioned in the notice of that square, and authority was 
given by the Legislature for a lease of the necessary ground; but it was thought to 
be too far north at that time — and really there was but little of the town north of 
the Seminary in 1837 — and the location was changed to Ohio street, near the corner 
of Meridian. 

This year witnessed the commencement of the first female school that 
approached the rather indefinite grade of an Academy, that the town had known. 
It was called the "Indianapolis Female Institute," and was chartered by th» 
Legislature during the preceding winter, and opened on the 14th of June by two 
maiden sisters of considerable attainments and capacity as instructors, Misses Mary 


J. Axtell and Harriet Axtell. It flourished vigorously for twelve years, and filled 
about the same place among the future mothers and household managers of the 
town that the Seminary under Mr. Kemper did among the fathers and business 
managers. It was a good school, but the Misses Axtell were strongly imbued with 
the rather intolerant religious ideas of the old New England dispensation, and 
made them unnecessarily prominent in their discipline. Its reputation was so 
high that not a few pupils came from other towns and the adjoining States to attend 
it. Towards the end of its course Rev. Charles Axtell, a brother, gave his assist- 
ance in some of the departments, but no help could supply the place of the princi- 
pal, whose failing health withdrew her more and more from her assiduous attention 
to her duties, and compelled her to close the Institute in the fall of 1849, and 
betake herself to a milder climate. It proved a useless effort. She died on her 
way to Cuba the same year. 

In the fall of 1837, a school house was completed on Circle street, just north 
of the corner of Circle and Market, and next to the lot upon which Henry Ward 
Beecher's church was subsequently placed. It was a neat frame structure, divided 
into two rooms by sliding doors, and surmounted with a little belfry. It was first 
occupied by Mr. Oilman Marston, who had previously taught a little school in the 
second story of one of the buildings east of the Union Hotel, or Capital House — 
recently the Sentinel office — and had earned a good reputation as a faithful and 
painstaking teacher, whom the boys liked because he rarely whipped. Discipline 
with him was subordinate to acquisition, and if scholars studied well and made 
good progress, he did not inquire with savage strictness into the exact responsi- 
bility for the wad-throwing that covered the walls with little dabs of unfinished 
paper-maohe, or the real sinner in the buzz that broke out of some knot of young 
heads and interrupted an older boy's recitation of the oration against Cataline, 
or Virgil's account of the way to make bees. With him, in charge of the Fe- 
male Department, was Mrs. Eliza Richmond, for many years after one of the 
most energetic and efficient of all the workers in benevolent projects in the 
the city. Mr. Marston remained nearly two years. He has, as noted in a preceding 
chapter, since reached a position of national influence, as a member of Congress, 
a gallant and disabled General during the war, and now as Governor of one of 
our Rocky Mountain Territories. He was succeeded by Orlando Chester, who died 
the year following, and the school was taken by Mr. John Wheeler, afterwards a 
Professor in Asbury University. He retained it for several years, and on leaving 
it for the Professor's chair, it was discontinued. It was called the " Franklin 

Preceding this school by several years, and rivaling even the County Seminary in 
point of age, was a school on the north wtsi corner of Market and Delaware streets, 
kept by teachers who either had taught in, or were subsequently transferred to 
the seminary, except the last one. The house had been a carpenter's shop, and was 
rudely benched about with the faces fronting the wall, and provided with rough 
slabs with tressels, for seats. Its last occupant was Mr. Josephus Cicero Worrall, 
as incompetent a teacher and as accomplished a "blatherskite" as ever worried 
either end of a pupil. He was a very indifferent scholar and very indifferent to 
the progress of his pupils. His pay was all he cared for. His inordinate fondness for 
tobacco, which he chewed incessantly even when he smoked, his penuriousness, bis 
making scholars help him in his household work, to carry water, saw wood, dig po- 
tatoes and do general gratuitous service, with his unremitting severity, which was 
as indiscriminate as it was harsh, made him the thorough detestation of every boy 


and girl that ever was under his care, and the ludicrous pomposity of his quarterly 
announcements of a new term, invariably signed with his full name " Josephus 
Cicero Worrall," made him the laughing stock of older persons. He was a "char- 
acter" and a very unpleasant one. The first and only successful attempt at "bar- 
ring out" ever made in the city, was instigated by dislike of him. His scholars of 
both sexes "barred" him "out" on the Christmas of 1837 and forced him to treat 
to apples, which all the older ones threw contemptuously away before his face. He 
was forced, by the general dislike he had created, to abandon school teaching about 
the year 1843 or '44, 4xnd leave the city. He returned ten or twelve years after- 
wards and was engaged in the stove and tinware trade, with little success, for a 
shoi't time. 

At the same time that Mr. Worrall was teaching in the old carpenter's shop, an 
old man by the name of Main, a Scotchman, of excellent capacity and attainments, 
but the most completely "distrait" and absent minded creature ever born, taught 
in the house near the opposite corner, on the south, where Aquilla Noe, the black- 
smith, and for many years a constable of the township, had lived. At this school 
a pupil could learn if he chose, or play if he liked that better, and most of them 
did. With his head squeezed between his hands, except when one of them was 
shoveling great heaps of snuflF, strong enough to sneeze the neck of a rhinoceros 
into dislocation, from an old horn " mull," into a nose that looked as if he had 
smeared it with molasses to make the tobacco stick in lumps and strings all round 
his nostrils, he would pore over Stewart or Hamilton and forget that he ever had a 
school. The most unruly disturbances did not disturb him. The boys could fight, 
play marbles, pull pins and throw books without arousing him. To run out into 
the back yard and play " hide and whoop ' among the mustard stalks was an every 
day amusement. Not unfrequently he would hear but a single recitation and for- 
get the others, unless a pupil reminded him — a bit of thoughtfulness that pupils are 
not given to obtruding upon a teacher — and the best of it to the boys was that if he 
did unexpectedly come out of his reverie, he rarely remarked anything wrong in 
the disorder which could not possibly have escaped his eye, if it did his mind. He 
might have sat for Dickens's delineation of the old schoolmaster in the "Curiosity 
Shop." He subsequently removed with his brother, a stone mason, to Arkansas and 
wa$ never heard of here afterwards. * 

On Alay 29th a convention of the editors of the State was held in the town, in 
the council chamber, and the attendance evinced considerable interest in the busi- 
ness among the fraternity; more, at all events, than can be created now. There were 
twenty present, a larger proportion than has ever been collected since. Fifty-two 
papers were then published in the State, and no editorial convention in the past 
thirty years has had so nearly one-half of the whole "press gang" as it. John 
Douglass, the proprietor of the Journal was President, and John Dowling of the 
Terre Haute paper, the Secretary. A constitution and rules were adopted, of 
course, and never thought of again, and rates of advertising agreed upon and nev- 
er adhered to, as has been the case ever since. 

The National road was now in course of being " metaled " or covered with the 
broken stones of the "McAdam" plan of road making, through the town, and in 
June the trustees were urged to improve the sidewalks too. Something was done 
in this direction and a fresh advance made to something like municipal street pro- 
priety. The sidewalks were first made fifteen feet wide on "Washington street and 
ten on the others. Afterwards the former were made twenty feet — to the intense 
disgust of the property owners who had to pay for the extra work — and the latter 


twelve feet. Since then the sidewalks of ninety feet streets have been widened to 
fifteen feet, making the clear roadway sixty feet. A hail storm of remarkable se- 
verity, both for duration and the siae of the hail stones, occurred on the 6th day of 
June, and bi'oke all the glass in the town, nearly. The Ladies' Missionary Society 
held a fair — the first ever attempted in the town — -to raise money for their especial 
purpose,on New Year's Eve, in the Governor's Circle building, and obtained $230, 
quite equal to a contribution of $2,000 now. 

Early in 1838 the town government was re-organized by an act of the Legisla- 
ture of February 17th, made more effective, and extended over the whole donation 
for all purposes but that of taxation. Only property within the limits of the ori- 
ginal plat could be taxed. Six Wards were formed, instead of five, and were 
divided by Alabama, Pennsylvania, Meridian, Illinois and Mississippi streets. Each 
ward elected a Trustee for one year, and a President of the body was elected by a 
general vote. His position corresponded so closely to that of Mayor, — though his 
duties did not,— that he was generally called by that title. The Trustees were re- 
quired to be free-holders; four were made a quorum, and they were to be paid $12 
a year for one meeting a month. The^ were authorized to enact all necessary ordi- 
nances, improve streets, borrow money, license liquor shops, shows and theatres, 
maintain a fire department, regulate markets, and levy taxes, not to exceed one-half 
of one per cent., nor upon territory outside of the original plat. The President had 
the authority and jurisdiction of a Justice, in addition to his purely municipal au- 
thority, and the Marshal had the authority of a Constable. The Secretary, Treas- 
urer, Collector, Marshal, Supervisor, Market Master, Lister and Assessor, were all 
elected by the Council. The town government, thus changed, became more efficient, 
and prepared the way for a regular city government. On the last Saturday of 
March, 1838, the first election of the "new dispensation" was held, and Judge 
James Morrison,— -one of the ablest lawyers and most estimable men the city has 
ever had, — was elected the first President. Ordinances were at once passed to se- 
cure quiet, order and safety. The town was full of the " hands " employed on the 
canal and on the National Road, and the most rigorous government possible would 
not be likely to do more than was needed. It was, ia fact, a town for a despotism. 
The Irish on the canal were frequently embroiled in faction fights ; and on one oc- 
casion in this year, the war assumed the proportions of a battle, all the hands on 
the "sections" adjoining the town hurrying from both directions to the scene, and 
*' falling in " with their respective preferences, "Corkonians" or " Fardowus," till 
some three or four hundred were engaged. The 'chain gang" was busy and mis- 
chievous, and the whole community greatly unsettled. 

The "sickly season" this year, was unusually fatal From the first visitation of 
1821, till within the last twenty years, that season, — extendiag from about the mid- 
dle of July to the middle of September, or to the first frost of fall, — was a regular and 
dreaded visitant. This year, the large aggregation of ill-fed, ill-housed, disorderly 
and dirty men, doubly subject to the malarious diseases of the locality, spread the 
epidemic wider, retained it longer, and made it more fatal than it might otherwise 
have been. 

In the very beginning of the year, a Mr. John Wood, who was doing a banking 
business in the room of the old Branch Bank, on Washington street, established a 
"Steam Foundry," in connection with Mr. Underbill, a Quaker, on Pennsylvania 
street, north of the University square. It was kept in operation for many years, 
and was really the pioneer of the iron business in the city. Benjamin Orr opened 
the first ready-made clothing, or "slop shop," in the city, during the year. 


Up to the year 1839, the Governor had no official residence. He bad to live in 
his own house, if he had one, or rent one, if he hadn't. Governor Noble resided in 
his own mansion, about a mile east of the town plat, during his two terms, and died 
there. Governor Wallace lived, when he first came here, in a two-story frame 
house near the west bank of the canal, south of Washington street. On the 13th of 
February, 1839, the Legislature ordered the State officers to purchase a suitable build- 
ing for the Governor's house, furnish it, and keep it exclusively for an Executive 
mansion. They accordingly bought a large two-story brick house, erected some 
three years before, on the north west corner of Market and Illinois streets, by Dr. 
John H. Sanders, and at that time the handsomest and most capacious dwelling 
house in the town. It had the whole of the south east quarter of the square for its 
grounds, — three lots, — and, being within a square and a half of the State House, 
was as convenient as it was capacious and comfortable. It was first occupied by 
Governor Wallace, in 1839, and successively by Governors Bigger, Whitcomb, 
Dunning, (Lieutenant Governor, succeeding on Whitcomb's election to the United 
State's Senate), Wright, Willard and Moiton. But, as the street grades were fixed 
and side walks made, it was found that the hbuse was so far below the line of drain- 
age, that in rainy weather it was surrounded with quite a pond of water, which kept 
the walls damp, moulded the paper, spoiled provisions, and created constant sick, 
ness. Governor Whitcomb's wife died there; so did the first and second wives of 
Governor Wright. Governor Willard's family was constantly afflicted, and Gov- 
ernor Moi-ton's suffered su severely and unremittingly that he resolved to abandon 
it, whether the Legislature made any other provision for a residence or not. He left 
it, and took rooms at the Bates House, in 1864; and the Legislature, at the session 
of 1865, ordered it and the entire grounds to be sold. They were disposed of in 
small lots, at a good price, and furnished the money to build the State Offices on the 
site of the old Treasurer's Office, south west corner of Tennessee and Washington 
streets. The Illinois street front of the ground is now filled with a block of hand- 
some business houses. At the time the Executive residence was ordered to be sold, 
the Legislature appropriated $5,000 per annum as a provision for rent and house- 
hold (Expenses; but intended, also, to make a nece-sary addition to the Governor's 
salary, which, during the great depreciation of the currency, was quite inadequate. 
The Constitution forbids any increase of a State Oflicer's salary during the term for 
which he is elected ; and the only way that the imperative addition to that of the 
Governor could be made, was by this appropriation for house rent. There has been 
several attempts made to build another State mansion, on some of the State's unoc- 
cupied lots, or to buy a suitable residence already built; but so far nothing has been 
done in this direction. Doubtless a new house will be provided before long. 

In Majch the second election under the new municipal " dispensation " was 
held, and Judge Morrison declining to be a candidate, Nathan B. Palmer, one of 
the oldest and most respectable citizens, and formerly Treasurer of State, was 
chosen. The total vote was 324, indicating a population of about 2,000. The 
town government was not much of an affair in those days, in any respect. It had 
no police force, left its ordinances but indifferently enforced, and made but few 
street improvements. Indeed it had little to do anything with, for it was not 
allowed to tax over fifty cents on the hundred dollars, and that was confined to the 
original plat, and there were neither manufactures nor mercantile business of value 
enough to pay any considerable revenue. For the year ending March 27th the 
receipts were $7,012 the expenses $6,874, more than half of which went for the 
erection of the West, and the extension of the East, Market house, by Elder, Colstock 


& Co. Something was paid for the repair of the public wells, and $145 went for 
grading and graveling streets — a sum that shows clearly enough how little was 
then thought of a work which, sooner or later, always makes the big item in city 
expenses. Printing cosf $58, and Michael Shea was paid $443 dollars for clearing 
and fencing the "old grave yard," at that time the only burial place of the town. 
Portions of it were long little better than a wild forest, and many graves were 
irrecoverably lost during that period of neglect. Among others that of Alexander 
Ralston, the surveyor who "laid out" the town plat, has disappeared utterly, and 
it ought to have been preserved, and some monument by the city erected upon it. 
The town council, thi^ year, also ordered all the streets to be opened; Several of 
them were still fenced up, and the ground plowed over and planted as regularly as 
any other part of the enclosure. 

Cow pastures formed no inconspicuous feature of the town at this time, and 
for many a year after. Quite a number of squares in all quarters were fenced, and 
filled with milch cows, driven out by the boys in the morning and back again at 
night. " Going after the cows" was as much a regular duty of the sons then, ag 
attending base, ball clubs or concert saloons is now, and possibly a little more healthy 
and improving. " Sbeets's pasture," composed of two squares between Georgia and 
South and Tennessee and Mississippi streets, was about the last of these relics of 
primitive fashions that disappeared from the town plat. "Van Blaricum's," south 
of South street, and covering the site of the Rolling mill, was another, and 'Nor- 
wood's," now densely covered with residences, bordered the "Bluff road," since turned 
into Illinois street. Tn the north part of the town there were even more — so many 
that it would be hardly profitable to recall them. Many a middle-aged memory 
will travel back, in reading these lines, to the pleasantest days they can recall, 
when, barefooted, and with "shinny-clubs" or ball bats, they played all the way 
to the "pasture" and back, or left the easy-natured cows to saunter home, while- 
they ran off for a swim in " Noble's hole," or " Morris's hole," in ihe creek, or at the 
"old snag," in the river. 

These swimming "holes" were so important an element of the social economy 
that it is clear the citizens would have done a wise thing to provide them at any rea- 
sonable expense, if nature had not done it- They filled up healthily the spare hours 
of summer evenings, and the opportunities for mischief on Saturdays. Ihey kept 
the most inveterate mud-sprawler clean in person, however dirty his clothes weroj. 
and they averted many a mischievous foray upon orchards and watermelon-patches - 
that would have been bred in the heads that could not get to the water. The creek, 
was the favorite resort of the smaller boys, those of the north and east flocking to 
" Noble's hole," near where Market street bridge is, and those of the centre and 
south to "Morris s hole," about where the creek passes out of the culvert under 
the Union depot. Another favorite place was a deep " elbow " near the Gas WorkSi 
•' Noble's hole " was particularly affected for the advantage given its frequenters by 
a stratum of blue clay in the bank, which, sloping pretty steeply to the water,, 
gave the boys a delightful slide, which their wet bodies made as slippery as greased, 
glass. An "otter slide" was nothing to it. The facilities for impromptu imitations 
of Indian war paint were an additional attraction, and the pasture adjoining the 
creek might be seen on any pleasant evening horribly variegated with boys spotted, 
streaked, barred and striped in all directions, running, playing "leap-frog," and^ 
splashing into the water from the steep bank as recklessly as St. Patrick's frogs.. 
The larger boys and stronger swimmers went to the river, usually either to the foot' 
of Washington street, the old ferry landing, or a long snag, bending in an arc low 


over the Water, about where Kingan's po k house stands. The latter was the favor- 
ite place, as the bank was covered with line turf, the water deep, and the snag a 
delightful place to dive from. Very often a visitor might see, near sundown, a 
hundred boys at once, playing, splashing, diving, ducking each other, and laughing 
around that snag, with as joyous an indifference to the fact that the bottom was fifteen 
feet below them, and that drowning was possible, as if they had been porpoises in 
a tide-way. But fatal accidents did occur sometimes. Dr. Brown, a very estima- 
ble and promising young physician, went bathing on a little bar running down 
into the deep water at the snag, without being able to swim, and without know- 
ing that the shallow bar made a sudden "step off." The water was thick with 
boys shouting and splashing about, and when the Doctor waded off the bar into 
drowning water, and cried for help, it was thought he was only "funning," as a 
score of others were at the same moment, and he drowned in the midst of a crowd 
any one of whom could have saved him as easily as he could turn his hand It 
was a very sad affair. The boys and young men built fires to give light and dived 
for the body a long time, but uselessly. It was found the next morning, by John 
Morrison, son of Judge Morrison. The very short bend in the river, below the 
Vincennes Railroad bridge, was, in those days, "in the woods." The town did not 
• approach near it. The water was very deep, and the current very strong. Fatal 
■accidents occurred here frequently. The usual resort for recovering drowned bodies 
was by diving. Among those always pressed into this disagreeable and dangerous 
service, were Kev. Amos Hanway and his younger brother, Samuel, now well 
known as a contractor of public works. Both were skillful fishermen, and almost 
lived on and in the river, and both possessed the capacity of lungs which would 
have made them a fortune at the Ceylon pearl banks. Samuel Hanway has 
■frequently dived from the east to the west side of the river, at the old ferry, 
when the river was wider than it is now. The brothers never refused to 
'Come at call, rarely or never failed to recover the corpse, if the current had not 
■carried it clear away, and did their inestimable work gratuitously, generally, if not 
always. These incidents are not important parts of the history of the city, cer- 
tainly, but they will not be without interest to those who care to know something 
more of its early life than the records of its government and business changes. 

In July 1839 the ordinances were revised, arranged, and published; and meas- 
ures were taken to buy another fire engine in the fall. Three hundred dollars were 
appropriated for that purpose, and a committee appointed to get one for $600, if 
possible, and obtain donations to make up that amount. — The first sale of lots for 
•delit.quent town taxes was held on October 25th at Washington Hall by James 
Van Blaricum, the Marshal. — A resurvey of the donation disclosed the fact that in 
the first survey a mistake had been made which included eight acres that belonged 
to the United States. The lots had been sold in 1831, and some arrangement had 
to be made to save the purchasers from loss. The Legislature represented the case 
to Congress, and Congress donated the extra eight acres and saved a possible "My- 
ra Gaines " case. — In November, Mrs. Britton, the wife of the Episcopal minister, 
opened a Female Academy near University Square, and made it quite successful. 
It subsquently passed into the hands oi Mrs. Johnson and was changed to the 
building on Meridian street near the Episcopal church and called "St. Mary's Sem- 
inary." — On the 4th of November Gov. Wallace issued the first Proclamation ap- 
pointing a day of Thanksgiving. He fixed the 28th, and the Thursday that is, or 
comes nearest, the 25th of that month, has been uniformly fixed for Thanksgiving 
day ever since. 


The Presbyterian church of the town having, in May of the year before, 1838, 
followed the split that was running through the entire denomination in the United 
States, starting, as all church divisions did then and for long afterwards, from sla- 
very, the "New School," consisting of fifteen adherents, formed a congregation on 
the I9th of November and worshipped in the lecture room of the County Seminary, 
under the ministrations of Kev. J. H. Johnson. In May 1839, Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher was invited from Lawrenceburgh, where he had his first congregation, and 
took the pastorate in which he was destined to lay the foundation of the fame he has 
since reared so high. A year after his arrival a new church building was erected 
on the north west corner of Circle and Market streets, and occupied by him until 
he removed to Brooklyn in 1847, and by his successors, as will be elsewhere noted, 
till a new church was built on the corner of Vermont and Pennsylvania streets at 
a cost of $75,000, and the old one enlarged and improved and converted into the 
City High School in 1867. 

The abandonment of the public works this year (1839), as noticed in the account 
■of the adoption of the system of internal improvements by the State, gave the prospects 
of the town a terrible blow, wh'ch only appeared more disastrous as time devel- 
oped the improbability of the completion and availability of any of the enterprises 
upon which so much really depended, and so much more was speculatively built. The 
canal was the only one that had reached the town, and as it was really in g od 
condition "as far as it went," to use "Mr. Nickleby's" favorite qualification, some 
preparation of boats had been made for the trade it might be expected to develop. 
It was opened from the feeder dim at Broad Ripple June 27th, 1839, by an excur- 
sion to that point. The section above to Noblesrille, and that below to Martins- 
ville, were so far advanced that a comparatively small amount of money and labor 
could have made a complete channel of water communication for about forty-five 
miles through the center of the State, and been found of very great value to the 
people. But everything was left, the spado in the dirt, the wheelbarrow on the 
plank, where the news of the State's bankruptcy overtook it, and not another lick has 
been struck from that day to this, except to repair the breaks and preserve the wa- 
ter power which the leases made obligatory upon the State or her assigns. All the 
way are still visible the inarks of this futile improvement; in some places filled up, 
in some overgrown with underbrush and trees, in others still clear and capable of 
easy conversion to use. Below the town about three miles, the bed of the canal was 
turned into a country race course, and many a bet was lost there that would, but 
for this State provision, have been decided on the town course on West street. As far 
down as "Pleasant Run," where the canal was carried over that stream by an un- 
finished aqueduct, the water was kept a navigable depth for some years, and ran out 
into that creek a little way from the river, and made it a choice place for fisher- 
men. But gradually the wooden locks south of the town decayed, the canal through 
the swamp then called "Palmer's Glade" became obstructed with weeds, grass and 
mud, and the water disappeared. A small channel was then dug from the wooden 
locks straight across to the river, just below the mouth of Pogue's creek, and 
through that the water is discharged now, and probably will continue to be for the 
next generation. It was in this little stream that Mary Hennerby and her little 
companion were drowned, or thrown after being murdered, by the villains who out- 
raged the elder, in June 1870. 

The admission of the water into the canal for the first time, in the spring of 1839, 
was the occasion of a general jubilee, not among the adults, — who already began 
to see that the eight finished miles were all we were likely to get, — but among the 


boys, who watched its coming away above the Fall Creek aqaedact, and marched 
before it, as it slowly crept down, filling the little holes, spreading out in level beds, 
and purling pleasantly down little descent-, till it began to rise up along the banks, 
and its yellow tide filled the bed from side to side completely. Not much traffic 
was ever carried on by the canal ; but a good deal of wood came down it occasion- 
ally, and some loads of grain and lumber were helped here by it. Its chief use was 
as a huge mill-race. An arm had been dug on the west side, near ihe line of Market 
street, which led westward about nine hundred feet, to a basin entering it in a north 
and south direction, at a declivity that gave a considerable fall and available power. 
At the north end of this basin another channr 1 led off to the west and south, and 
formed abasin in the bed of one of the old "ravines," which gave ample power to mills 
upon the river bank below, — thus providing power upon two levels. On the 11th of 
June, the State leased power to one Woollen Mill, two Cotton Mills, two Paper Mills 
an Oil mill, and two Grist and two Saw mills, — an addition of ten mills, and a business 
that could not but be a very material help to the town. But the canal was not 
as efficient as expected. It had too little fa'l for a "race," and it was grievously ob- 
structed by an annual growth of grass, which was only imperfectly cleared out at 
the expense of some money, and turning off the water for a week or two. Mill- 
owners were dissatisfied, and refused to pay their rent. Suits were defeated by evi- 
dence showing constant loss from the failure of the State to supply water according 
to the contract. It is doubtful if the rent paii in the ten years that the State re- 
tained the canal, would cover the costs of her suits against the lessees. At last, on 
the r9th day of J anuary, 1850, the Legislature ordered the canal to be sold. A com- 
pany called the "Indiana Central Canal, Hydraulic Manufacturing and "Water 
Works Company," bought it in October, 1851, for a trifle, from Gould & Jacks-on 
who bought of the first purchasers; and th'y retained it till 1859, giving no more 
satisfaction to lessees, and making no more profit out of it. than the State did. In 
1859 a company, composed chiefly of citizens of Rochester, New York, bought it, 
and have been at some pains, and a good deal of expense, to keep it in serviceable 
condition. Several new mills have been connected with it, and now its supply of 
power is a very important element of city business, though most of the mills have 
provided steam machinery to supply any failure of water. About the first of the year 
1870, the City Council chartered a company for water supply and fire protection, 
which is now actively engaged in completing its preparations, and it will take its 
forcing power from the canal. Indeed, it is now pretty evident that the demand 
for this power will be limited only by its capacity. Mills are thickening around it, 
and if it can only be assured of a constant and full current, it will be lined with 
machinery wherever a sufficient fall can be found. The portion below the stone 
lock, on Market street, will hardly be kept up long. It is a nuisance at all times; 
and when the water is out of it, it is a pestilence. This year, ISTO, the chills and 
fever have infected the region along its banks so generally, that an "old settler" 
might be reminded of the great epidemic of 1821 and the cause is certainly the 
empty, feculent bed of the canal, from which a break of the Fall Creek aqueduct kept 
the water during the entire summer and fall. There have been many projects, and 
some serious efforts set on foot, to fill up this lower section, and restore Missouri 
street to a useful condition again ; but nothing has come of them. The Company 
3wns it, and is bound by leases to supply the old Rolling Mill and the Grist Mill 
tailed "Underhill's," near the wooden locks; and unless these obligations can be 
cancelled or compounded for, there is no very clear legal way to fill it up. Some 
miles north of the town, a freshet in the river, many year? agO' was-hed off a long 


3ine of the bank, where it approaches close to the stream. Bi-eaks below have been 
frequent. In 1847, during the heavy freshets, Fall Creek poured over into the 
"swamp" alluded to in a preceding passage of this Chapter, and sent tremendous 
streams down the old " ravine " beds, flooding many houses, and emptying a vast 
volume of water into the canal. Pogue's creek, also, rose enormously, and banked 
up against the mouth of the culvert under ihe canal, threatening to tear it away. 
The rising water in the canal at last burst the bank, just below the site of the old 
"Rolling Mill," and the whole flood poured down into the creek, swelling its torrent 
irresistibly, and in five minutes the culvert was torn out. This double disaster left the 
canal empty for a year. The culvert has since been two or three times torn out and 
replaced, always inadequately; and another heavy freshet in the creek will repeat 
the disaster and the lesson, with the same effect, probably. So much feeling was 
excited against the canal, by the frequent destruction of the creek culvert, that some 
years ago an attempt was made by a mob to resist the effort to replace it. The 
Company would gladly surrender this section, if they could be released from their 
obligation to supply water to the two malls upon it. The great State improvement 
has thus become a mere mill-race, so far as it possesses any value at all, and is little 
better than a mud-hole, and a deposit for the offal of slaughter houses, in its lower 

The only other work tending towards the capital, upon which so much labor 
had been put as to make it of any use, was the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad- 
This enterprise was signalized by a monstrous cutting through the hills at Madison' 
called the "Deep Diggings," where most of the money given it by the State, was 
wasted; and where the use of the track was always perilous, and often fatal. It 
was completed to Vernon, twenty miles, in 1839, and was run regularly by the State's 
lessees, D. C. Branham & Co., till 1843, when a law was passed by the Legislature, 
authorizing its sale for a "song." The State never got anything worth mentioning 
for her vast outlay, and for a vast deal of really important work on this rugged sec- 
tion of the road The Company, however, made a "good thing" of it. They com- 
pleted the road by instalments, — first to Scipio, then to Clifty Creek, then to Co- 
lumbus then to Edinburg, then to Greenwood, and finally, — in October, 1847, — to 
Indianapolis. And then it "coined" money. No road in any State, ever paid so 
well. It did all the business of the center and North of the State, with the East, 
South and West, at its own exorbitant rates; and, mad with prosperity, atteinpted 
enterprises which, in connection with the rivalry of the Jeffersonville and Cincin- 
nati Railroads, broke it down so utterly, that its stock sold for two cents on the dollar, 
and its old rival, the Jeffersonville Company, bought it as a feeder for the upper 
end of its own line. So the great Internal Improvement system "ran out" and 

^hnpie^v Mill. 


tHE local events of 1840 were unimportant, or so largely compounded of the 
political excitement of the great "hard cider" and "log cabin" campaign, 
that is impossible to eliminate them. From the time of General Harrison's 
nomination till the Presidential election, little was done or thought of but a change 
in the national administration and policy, which would restore the prosperity bro- 
ken in the great panic of 1837. Party lines were rigorously drawn for the first 
time since the town was founded, and campaign papers, speeches, processions, con- 
ventions, and all electioneering arts, since so widely applied, maintained party feel- 
ing at fever heat. In March the municipal election was carried by the Whigs, in a 
clear party contest, indicating the result in the greater contest still to come. But 
the Democrats had not been "unfaithful stewards" of town interests by any means, 
and were washed out of oSice by the national tide and not by currents of local hos- 
tility. They had collected during the preceding year, to March, $5,915 and ex- 
pended $4,753, leaving a balance for the use of their sncces'^ors. The market 
houses received $1,984 of this sum, streets and bridges $1,350, the fire department 
$197, salaries $974, and incidentals $244. Two fire cisterns were ordered by the 
new administration. They were the first of a system of water supply which has 
since grown to be a very important department of the city government. They were 
of three hundred barrels capacity. A horticultural society was organized. August 
22d, and maintained an active and beneficial existence for several years, under the 
inspiration of Henry Ward Beecher and other devotees of good taste and local 

The " Palmer House" was begun this year, by Nathan B. Palmer, on the south- 
east corner of Illinois and Washington streets, and completed the year following, 
when it was leased and opened by John C. Parker, of Charlestown, Clarke county. 
Its site had formerly been occupied by the blacksmith shop of James Van Blari- 
cum, which was removed to the open ground on Meridian street, south of Black- 
ford's block. A large cabinet establishment also stood on or near its site, which is 
memorable for a fire that occurred there some years before, which was kept down 
and prevented from proving a destructive conflagration by showers of snow balls and 
armfuls of snow gathered up and thrown upon it by the spectators. The "Palmer 
House" was at first a two-story and a half building, the half story being frame. 
As the "Washington Hall" was Whig headquarters, the " Palmer House" became 


Democratic headquarters, and has remained so ever since. The Whigs, "People's 
Party" and Kepublicans changed theirs to the Bates House, on the completion of 
that then magnificent edifice. 

As before remarked, the principal events of the year were of a political char- 
acter. As the capital and central point of the State, partisan demonstrations were 
frequent in Indianapolis, and not unfrequently the occasion of serious difficulties. 
The Whigs, especially, exceeded everything ever known before in the way of new 
and attractive features in their displays They hauled little lop; cabins in wagons, 
and lengthened their processions with enormous "dug-outs," arriving by some species 
of partisan punning, incomprehensible in rational times, at the conclusion that the 
battle of Tippecanoe, which was fought on a prairie and a bluflF, was fitly symbol- 
ized by a " canoe." Barrels of cider were conspicuous also, and quite as appro- 
priate. Mixed with whisky at times, they added a good deal to the excitement of 
the occasion, if they did nothing else. A cabin of buckeye logs was built on the 
site of the Bates House, and kept constantly provided with cider. Pictures of rude 
backwoods huts, with "puncheon" doors, and latch-strings conspicuously long and 
loose hanging outside, were the favorite thing for banners. Campaign songs, 
usually set to some negro air. for the first time became a prominent electioneer- 
ing appliance. Choirs of vocalists, composed of ladies as well as gentlemen, 
usually did this, the most pleasing portion of the campaign work. A gooi singer 
was frequently interlarded between the orators at conventions, and the whole 
length of enormous processions was sometimes vocal with musical inquiries as to 
"What has caused this great commotion, motion, motion, the country through?" 
and the answer, " It is the ball a rolling on, for Tippecanoe and Tyler too, With them 
we'll beat little Van." Assurances that " Van, Van is a used up man," were always 
sure of " bringing down the house-" Speeches were more violent and inflammatory, 
-and with far less provocation, than those made during the war for the Union. Cap- 
tain George W. Cutter, since widely known as the author of the "Song of Steam " 
and " Many in One" — the latter the finest and most original patriotic song we have — 
was then ayoung, pock-marked, fluent, unstable politician and poetaster, representing 
Vigo county in the lower branch of the Legislature. He had published a poem, 
now forgotten, called " Elskatawa," or the " Moving Fires," and was counted by 
the Whigs as one of their ''coming men." He made a speech in the portico of 
the State House, in which, after repeating and intensifying all the stereotyped 
denunciations of the Democrats, he excited himself to such a pitch of animosity that 
he concluded his invective in a hoarse whisper — all the voice his violence had left 
him — while the foam flew from his lips, with the delightful sentiment: "D — n the 
Locofocos!" It tells the intensity of partism feeling prevailing at that time, far 
more plainly than an elaborate description could do, to state that this bit of stupid 
profanity was received with hearty cheers as a choice effort of vituperative elo- 
quence. Captain Cutter subsequently married Mrs. Drake, once a celebrated actress, 
but then "falling into the sere and yellow leaf," and quite old enough to have been 
his mother. He was a man of genius, but unbalanced and easily led astray. He 
ruined himself by dissipation, after many efforts to reform, and died a few years 
ago in or near Cincinnati. 

Quite an exciting incident, and one not likely to be soon forgotten by its cotem- 
poraries, grew out of a monster procession during the winter of 1840. As before 
remarked, ladies figured quite prominently in the demonstrations of both parties? 
but chiefly on the Whig side. In the procession alluded to, a gigantic canoe was 
pretty well filled with young ladies of the most estimable families in the town, and 


two of them, at tlie rear end of it, attracted especial attention, by waving a flag, or a 
sword, or some other apparatus symbolizing General Harrison's services. It was a 
trifle, and, in the general enthusiasm of the scene, neither a solecism in manners, nor 
a trespass on womanly propriety, but it was unusual, and a Democratic correspon- 
dent of a Terre Haute paper made an allusion to it that fell scmething short of 
courtesy, if not decency. A brother of the young ladies went to Terre Haute 
and got the name of the writer, and came back prepared to administer condign 
punishment for the insult. One cold morning, when the pavements were icy and 
slippery, he found one of the men concerned in the correspondence in Turner's bar- 
ber shop, getting shaved, waited for him to come out, and then "pitched into" him 
and caned him, all hands slipping up and falling, ungracefully enough, on the ice. 
The names need not be told. Those who remember the affair, know who the parties 
were. Talk of duels and blood, and other dangerous results, was excited by the 
affair; but it ended with the "big thing on ice," in front of the barber shop. 

Two men were prominent among the Whigs in 1840, who have since disap- 
peared, not only from earth, but almost from the memories of their associates. 
Jonathan McCarty, of the White Watet region, was one; and he had few, if any, 
superiors, on the "stump," in hard-hitting, and that sort of plain, direct talk that 
fires level with the heads of a mixed audience. He subsequently removed to Iowa, 
and was a candidate for Congress in the first State election held there in the fall of 
1846. His political I'ecord was not clear of tergiversations; and, in spite of his abil- 
ties, he was never trusted or liked by the Whigs, though he served one session in 
Congres.e, on one side or the other. Joseph Little White, of Madison, was the 
other of this pair. He was much such a man as the more celebrated Sargeant S. 
Prentiss, a born orator, to whom striking phrases and impressive illustrations 
came as spontaneously as flowers come to an apple tree; and, like all really great 
orators, with a strong infusion of poetical sensibility, and disposition to put facts , 
into the more plastic form of philosophj' and generalizations. His figure was rather 
comical than otherwise, shorty squat, fat and waddling ; but his strong features and 
intellectual head considerably impaired the comic effect of his body, and five 
minutes of his speaking took it all away, and left in its place an embodied glow of 
eloquence. He was the finest extemporaneous speaker Indiana ever bad. In the 
election of 1840, he was sent to Congress from the Madison district, and made a 
mark there, which nothing but the speedy overthrow of the Whigs, and of his aspi- 
rations, prevented from being placed well up to that of his leader. Clay. He 
accompanied Clay in the latter's visit to this town in 1842; and of the four speeches 
on that occasion, — Clay's, Crittenden's, Gov. Metcalfs, of Kentucky, and White's, — 
the latter's was so far the best, that the others were hardly thought of afterwards. 
He removed to New York a few years after he left Congress, and was prominent in 
the Van Buren campaign of 1848, on the "Free Soil" side. He and John Van Buren 
were the leading champions of the "Buffalo Platform," and were, probably, the main 
cause of the defeat of Cass and the Democracy. 

Although the Whigs surpassed their opponents in the frequency and enthu- 
siasm of their demonstrations, the latter made vigorous efforts to "keep even." On 
the 14th of October, they had an immense meeting in a Walnut grove where the 
Blind Asylum now stands, and were addressed by Col. Richard M Johnson, then 
the Vice President, and candidate for re-election. He was the first great officer of 
the Government that had ever visited the town, and his coming attracted the largest 
crowd that had then ever been collected here. The National road was crowded 
with carriages and wagons, and the fences liued with spectators, for a mile or two 


out, waiting to catch the first glimpse- of the "man who killed Tecumseh." His 
speech was a very wretched affair, and disclosed the fact that the Indian-killer was 
not a man of much ability. He mortover had the bad taste to speak, in a boasting 
way, of his "five wounds," and to chuckle when he said he wrote his "Sunday Mail 
Report" on Sunday, — as if the violation of the day were a good jok?. Col. John- 
son's demonstration did not help the Democrats at all. They needed better material 
than a warm-hearted, fat headed, jolly, hospitable old planter, with a stronger ten- 
dency to miscellaneous miscegenation than moral example, to help them out of the 
mire. And they had it in the speaker who followed Col. Johnson, Hon. Tilghman 
A. Howard, one of the nob'est specimens of manhood, physically and intellectually, 
that ever belonged to Indiana. He was the Democratic candidate for Governor, 
having resigned a seat in Congress to accept the nomination. His speech was admi- 
rable, and contrasted strikingly with the mumbling imbecility of the Vice President. 
He was our first Minister to the young Republic of Texas, and died there. If he 
had lived to this day, he would have been one of the foremost men of the nation ; and 
quite probably have been President. His personal presence was very impressive. 
He was tall, straight, athletic, graceful in carriage, striking in features and expres- 
sion, dark almost as an Indian, with the aquiline nose that traditionally belongs to 
men of achievments ; long, straight, black hair, and a smile indicative of unusual 
amiability and tenderness. He was the idol of his party, and deservedly so. He 
Was as powerful a man as Douglas, with none of the latter's moral offsets against 
intellectual advantages. 

The vote at the Presidential ehction embraced as nearly every poll in the town 
as it was possible to obtain. The Township, — mainly composed of the town,— gave 
1,387 votes, of which Harrison had 872, and Van Buren 515. The annual Metho- 
dist Conference met here in October, and was presided over by Rev. Bishop Soule. 

In March, of 1841, the town authorities procured Mr. James Wood, a Scotch 
surveyor, to make a plat of street grades and drainage, which was approved in 1842 
by the Council, and wtiich has since been followed with more zeal than benefit. It 
preceded upon the assumption that the whole town must be drained off at the south 
west corner, into the creek or river; and accordingly made it an inclined plane, 
tilted up by high grades at one end, and sloped off at the other. The effect has been 
to make the upper end of some of the streets pretty nearly as high as the fences, 
and to turn the lots into permanent puddles. It has doubled the cost of street im- 
provements, besides incidentally damaging city lots to an enormous amount. The 
only thing that can be said for it is, that the making of it and the "profile," only 
cost $300. 

The death of General Harrison, within the first month of his administration, 
excited here, as every where, a great deal of feeling. A funeral celebration took 
place on the 17th of April, at which addresses were delivered by Governor Samuel 
Bigger and Rev. H. W. Beecher, and all places of business were closed. The 14th 
of May was kept as a day of thanksgiving and prayer. 

The "hard times" bore hardest along through the years 1840, '41 and '42; and 
though some improvements were made, the general condition of the town was one 
of depression and inactivity. The resumption of specie payments by the State Bank 
June 16th, 1842, made no material change. Everybody put off enterprise till the 
"timesgot better." "The grass-hopper became a burden ; " for though the muni- 
cipal expenses of 1842 were but little more than half of those of 1839, an effort was. 
made in '42 to abolish the town government, on account of its cost. The receipts 
of 1841 were but |3,197, against $5,975 two years before; the expenses $2,975 


against $4,753,— salaries $767, against $974. The municipal salaries were certainly 
moderate, — the Council getting ^12 a year, the Secretary $200, the Treasurer $100, 
the Marshal $100, Supervisor $200, Collector $200, Assessor $75, Market Master 
$140, Fire Messenger $100. But light expenses are heavy to men who have no 
money, and who owe more than they believe they can ever pay; and a tax of 25 or 
30 cents on the $100, was a serious matter. The town government, however, was 
not abolished. 

"What newspapers call a "sensation," was produced on the 25th of April, 1842, 
by the attempt of a German, named Frederick Smith, to kill himself. He was keep- 
ing a grocery and beer shop in a little frame building on Washington street, near 
Delaware, and appeared to be doing well. But his life was troubled by some haunt- 
ing horror, which he tried to tell by writing it with a piece of chalk on the open lid 
of his desk, but so unintelligibly, that all that could be made of it was that somebody 
"envied him his bread," and he resolved to rid himself of it by suicide. He blew 
himself up with a liberal portion of a keg of powder; but the explosion was chiefly 
spent upon the building, which was made a terrible wreck, leaving him blackened 
and senseless, but living, in the midst of it. He recovered, after a time, both his 
health and his senses. 

T. W. Whitridge, since quite widely known as an artist, opened a Daguerreian 
establishment here in the summer of 1842, but soon gave it up to others, and devoted 
himself to painting. Henry Ward Beecher was a frequent visitor at his siudio, and 
has several of his pictures in his house in Brooklyn. Before Mr. Whitridge came, 
a Mr Brown had made an attempt to establish himself here as a portrait painter, 
but with little success. William Miller, the miniature painter, also came here about 
this time, and made his home with Dr. G. W. Mears. His success could not have 
been great; but still the associations formed here, brought him back for a few days 
every year, for several years. Joseph Eaton made the commencement of his artist 
life here, during that period, in a little room over Dr. Pope's drug store, near where 
George F. Meyers' cigar store now stands. Some of his pictures attracted a great deal 
of attention ; but procured him more prophecies of success than patronage to assure 
it, and he removed to Cincinnati, where his fame and fortune grew large enongh to 
bear transplanting in New York. Mr. Jacob Cox, a citizen and most estimable gen- 
tleman, was also working at portrait painting at such leisure moments as he could 
obtain from the stove and tin-ware business; and with such success, that he unques- 
tionably holds the first place among Indiana artists, and an enviable one among 
those of the whole Union. His pictures, particularly his landscapes, — "compositions" 
of our own back-woods scenery, — were among the best attractions of the Cincinnati 
Art Union exhibitions, during their continuance. For nearly twenty years he has 
devoted himself exclusively to his art, and makes it amply remunerative. 

On the 11th of June, President Van Buren visited the town, on a Western tour, 
and was received with as much honor as if he hadn't been ridiculed and denounced 
in every form of vituperation, from stump speech to doggerel songs. A procession 
of four military companies, the fire companies, and citizens generally, met him east 
of Pogue's creek bridge, and accompanied him to the Palmer House, where he made 
a pleasant little speech from the carriage, in reply to a formal welcome from Gov. 
Bigger. In the evening, he had a " reception " at the Suite House, and the next 
day, (Sunday,) attended church, once at Wesley Chapel and once at Mr. Beecher's 
church. He left on Monday, by the stage, for Terre Haute, and was upset near 
Plainfield. His appearance, and the general courtesy of his manners, weakened the 
dislike created by the Whig songs and caricatures for the "Fox of Lindenwald." 


On the 5th of the following October, Henry Clay came. He, too, was making 
an exploration of the political field ; and he made it to such purpose as to secure 
the next Whig nomifiation. The crowd that welcomed him, was unprecedented- 
Nothing approaching it had ever been seen before, and not many since have sur- 
passed it. Thirty thousand was the estimate of those most likely not to exaggerate. 
The procession was three miles long, and composed of all the military and fire com- 
panies, — the trades, with appropriate banners, — several bands of music from 
different parts of the State, and an army of people, from all directions. Mr. Clay 
was accompanied by John J. Crittenden, Gov. Thomas Metcalfe, Joseph L. White, 
and several others, and was entertained by Governor Noble, at his mansion east of 
town. The crowd enjoyed itself with a barbecue of "barbaric profusion " and in- 
different cooking, in a beautiful grove of Governor Noble's, east of his house. Here 
two or three stands were erected for speakers. Mr. Clay spoke from the main one, 
first of all, and for about an hour, but in no fashion to indicate his great oratorical 
powers. His speech was thoroughly partisan all the way through, and a little ego- 
tistioal at times, as in his allusion to the " Clay men" under Jonathan Roberts in 
the Philadelphia Custom House. But nobody cared as much for the speech, as for 
the sight of the man. He was followed on the various stands by a succession of 
speeches, as alluded to in the notice of J. L. White, and the afternoon was pretty 
much consumed in oratory. The next day was devoted to a military review and 
parade, and the night to fire works, and the third to attending the Agricultural Fair 
and the races. 

Although the "quarter races" on West street were still kept up, they afforded 
very indifferent amusement to the cultivated gambler and jockey, and an attempt 
was made to establish a regular course, supported by a jocky-club, here. It didn't 
succeed ; for there was not then, — probably is not now, — the sort of spirit prevalent 
among the people, which makes gambling fashionable, or even tolerable: but it came 
nearer success than any similar effort has done since, and for one or two seasons 
really attracted racers of reputation from distant States. The course was located in 
a field belonging to David Van Blaricum, on the west side of the river, near the 
Crawfordsville road, and was a mile in circuit. Several "three mile" races were 
run here during the time of Mr. Clay's visit, — one between " Bertrand" and "Little 
Eed ; " but no "four mile" heats were attempted. Racing has now degenerated into 
a "moral" attraction of State Fairs. 

During the fall of 1842, a Mr. Keeley lectured in the Court House on Mesmerism, 
and excited a g eat deal of curiosity, and no little credence, by exhibiting the clair- 
voyant powers of his subjects. He held daily levees in one of the upper rooms of the 
Court House, where he professed to cure some diseases of a chronic or constitutional 
character, and to relieve all. He had no lack of patients, and made money. He 
was followed by others, and several home-made mesmerists began experimenting; 
and among them they created an excitement about diabolical influences, that pre- 
pared the way easily enough, for the Millerite fancy of the succeeding winter. Two 
boys by the name of Beck, became quite notorious for their facility of handling in 
the mesmeric sleep, and the pleasure they took in having pins stuck through their 
fingers, or the backs of their hands scarred with knife-cuts. The folly lasted for 
several months. 

Along with the "diablarie" of the mesmerists, came the Millerite excitement. 
Of its general history, it is unnecessary to say any thing here; but its local impor- 
tance forbids a dismissal of it with a mere allusion. The capital shared the feeling 
of tne whole country; and while few really believed the prediction of the world's 


destruction, very many were so far impressed by the ingenious interpretations and 
combinations of scriptural prophecies, as to give a closer heed to religious sugges- 
tions of a more important character, and not a few conversions date from that era. 
All ihrough the winter travelling lecturers and preachers visited the town, swelling 
the excitement, and the circulation of the "Midnight Cry," and other papers devo- 
ted to this subject. As the spring approached, the feeling deepened. The "(fies 
tree" was coming close, and in the very crisis of the feeling, a Mr. Stevens, a young, 
eloquent and thoroughly informed preacher, came and delivered a series of lectures 
in different churches on the prophecies rega' ding the second coming of Christ. The 
first were given in the old Christian Church, on Kentucky Avenue, the last in the 
Lutheran Church, on Ohio sti-eet, near Market. The effect of his sermons was to 
nearly obliterate sectarian distinctions for a little while. All denominations 
thronged to hear him, and in the common interest in the catastrophe he elucidated, 
all sank their special interests and attachments. The lecturei; professed no adhe- 
sion to any particular church, joined in the worship and communion of all alike, 
and was as readily received by <ine as the other. Though the world did not come to 
an end, the excitement was the origin of a great and general religious revival, prob- 
ably unequalled in fervor and effect by any that have followed it. The "Second 
Advent" alarm died out utterly in a little while after the fated day of April passed^ 
notwithstanding Mr. Miller fixed several other appointments for it; but the revival 
continued even more effectively after, than before. Probably natural phenomena 
lent some force to the appeals of religion. The winter was protracted far into April, 
and for several days, when in ordinary seasons the flowers are opening and fruit 
trees budding, the ground was covered with a heavy snow, upon which had fallen a 
hard, dense sleet, which froze so compactl3', that the boys skated all over the 
commons, to school, and upon all sorts of errands, upon it. This unusual weather 
was made almost horrible, to simple apprehension, by the accompanying ter- 
terrors of the comet, one of the la'gest ever witnessed, since man occupied the earth. 
Its slightly curved train, like a narrow, white cloud, stretching all across the wes- 
tern sky to the south western horizon, was a nightly spectacle for two months. 

The "Second Advent" excitement was intensified by an accident into a ludicrous 
incident in the spring of 1843. Mr. Stevens had delivered at the Lutheran church, 
a very impressive lecture on the signs and portents that should accompany the end of 
the world, and his vivid descriptions, heightend by the flaming comet that glared in 
the west, produced a good deal of audible sobbing among the women, and some marks 
of feeling even among the men. The audience was dismissed, and as they passed the 
doors they saw the whole western sky a mass of red, angry looking light, which could 
be traced to no origin, and seemed spread upon, or glowing through, the thick clouds — 
for it was raining — and filling some of the lecturer's descriptions with alarming accu- 
racy to minds preoccupied with that very horror. There were some suggestions of 
fainting, and a goo4 many exclamations of pious terror or resignation. But the light 
disappeared after a while, and was found next morning to have been caused by the 
burning of some hemp or fodder stacks.near "Crowder's fixrm." The position of the 
clouds, as is frequently the case, allowed the light to be reflected from one to another 
till the dreadful blaze covered the whole sky. 

In February of this year, the Washington Hall took fire in the third story, upon 
one of the coldest days of the winter. It threatened for a time the entire destruction 
of the building, for water had to be passed in buckets by lines of citizens, from the 
well at the corner andthe drug store where Haskitt's now is, and the intense cold made 
the work doubly difficult, and the supply for the engines very inadequate. But water 


and mushy ice were poured on till the lower rooms were ankle deep, and supplied 
the workers above as well as the engines below. Everybody worked, and everybody 
was coated with ice. Mr. Beecher was one of the foremost in carrying the hose-pipes 
right into the burning portion of the house, and, after two hours work, came out a 
mass of soot and dirt and ice, and blood from his cut hands, but with the fire subdued. 
The loss was about $4,000, much the heaviest that the town had ever suffered. 

During the session of 1842-43, the Legislature took the first effective steps to 
establish a State Hospital for the Insane. As early as 1839 attention had been 
directed to the subject, but the State was in no very good condition to undertake new 
enterprises, and an appeal was made to Congress for a grant. Nothing came of it. 
The county assessors were at the same time ordered to make a return of the deaf mutes • 
in their respective counties, as a preliminary step to a provision for this class of unfor- 
tunates. The State's financial embarrassments stopped all further effort in either 
enterprise for some years. Early in 1842 the Governor was directed to procure all 
possible information in regard to the subject of Hospitals for the Insane from the 
States that had them, and a year afterwards Dr John Evans lectured before the Legis- 
lature on the subject of insanity and its treatment. The result of the two efforts was 
a decision to "do something" at once. On the 13th of February, 1843, the Governor 
was directed to obtain plans and suggestions for a Hospital from the Superintendents 
of Hospitals in other States, for submis'sion to the Legislature at the next session. 
This put the enterprise finally in motion. At the next session plans were examined, 
a mode of operations determined, and a tax of one cent on the hundred dollars levied 
to carry it out. On the 13th of January, 1845, Dr. John Evans, Dr. L. Dunlap and 
James Blake were appointed commissioners to obtain a site containing not to exceed 
two hundred acres. They selected Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel 
Bolton, formerly editor of the Indiana Gazette. He and his wife, the gifted "poetess 
of Indiana," here kept a country tavern for several years. This site, with a plan of 
building, was reported to the Legislature at the next session, and approved, and the 
commissioners ordered, February 19th, 1846, to proceed with the work. They were 
authorized to sell Hospital Square No. 22 — alluded to in a preceding chapter — and 
apply its proceeds to this purpose, and an additional appropriation of $15,000 was made. 
The central building was begun in 1846, and finished next year at a cost of $75,000. 
It has since been enlarged by wings, and still other wings larger than the main build- 
ing, till it now is an immense structure, supplied by its own water works from Eagle 
Creek, and contains the population of a very respectable country town, something 
over five hundred. Its entire cost has been about half a million of dollars. 

At the same time that the Governor was directed to obtain plans from insane 
hospitals, February 13th, 1843, a tax of one-fifth of a cent on the hundred dollars 
was levied to provide for the Deaf and Dumb. The first work in this direction was 
done by William Willard, one of the assistants in the Asylum now, who was himself 
a mute, and had long been a teacher of mutes in Ohio. He came here in the spring 
of 1843, and in the fall opened a school on his own account for mutes, with an 
attendance of sixteen pupils. In 1844 the Legislature adopted his school as a State 
institution, and appointed a Board of Trustees for it consisting of the Governor, Treas- 
urer an,d Secretary of State, ex officio^ and Revs. Henry Ward Beecher, Phineas D. 
Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. 
They rented the large two-story frame building, then recently erected by Dr. G. W. 
Stipp, on the south east corner of Illinois and Maryland streets, and opened the first 
State Asylum there, in October, 1844. A site for a permanent building was selected in 
January, 1846, just east of the town, consisting, at first, of thirty acres, but after- 


increased by a hundred more, for the agricultural instruction of the pupils, and 
a building begun in 1849. It was completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. 
Meanwhile the school was removed from the Stipp house to the Kinder building, on the 
south side of Washington street, near Delaware, where it remained till transferred to 
its own building, in October, 1850. This structure has also been greatly enlarged 
since its erection. 

The Blind were not provided for at the same time that their fellow sufferers were. 
The first effort on their behalf was instigated and directed by James M. Ray, to whom 
the Indiana Institute for the Blind is more indebted than it is to any other man liv- 
ing. By his efforts William H. Churchman was brought here in the winter of 1844-5. 
and gave one or two exhibitions in Beecher's church, with blind pupils from the Ken- 
tucky Asylum. The effect was so good that the Legislature, for whom the perform- 
ances were mainly intended, and who attended them with astonishing unanimity and 
interest, decided to levy a tax of one-fifth of a cent on the hundred dollars, to estab- 
lish a Blind Asylum. James M. Ray, George W. Mears and the Secretary, Treas- 
urer and Auditor of State were made commissioners to apply the fund, either to the 
establishment of an Asylum, or to the providing for our Blind at the Ohio or Ken- 
tucky Asylums. They set Mr. Churchman to lecturing throughout the State on the 
subject, and gathering statistics of our blind population. On the 27th of January, 
1847, James M. Ray, George W. Mears and Calvin Fletcher — the latter, declining to 
serve, was replaced by Seton W. Norris — were appointed to erect buildings and put 
the institution in operation. They ^were given $5,000 to pay for a site and defray 
other incidental expenses, and they purchased two blocks north of North street, 
between Pennsylvania and Meridian, and began the building in 1848. While it was 
in course of erection the school was opened on October 1st, 1847, in the Stipp house, 
where the Deaf and Dumb school had recently been kept. It had nine pupils at first, 
but increased to thirty during the year. In September, 1848, it was removed to the 
building now used as a work shop, on its own ground. The Asylum proper was 
finished in 1851, at a cost of $50,000, and at once occupied. A notice of the present 
condition and attendance of the various Asylums will be made in the proper place. 

During the summer of 1843, a Mr. Robert Parmlee began the manufacture of pianos 
in the town, in a shop on Washington street, a little west of Hubbard's block. It 
could hardly have been a flourishing business, but it was continued for two years or 
so, chiefly by repairs on old instruments. In the fall a company called the " New 
York Company of Comedians," gave concerts in the upper room of Gaston's carriage 
shop — on the site of the Bates House — and concluded each entertainment with a 
theatrical performance. The leading actors were John Powell and his wife, Tom 
Townley, who did the dancing, and Sam Lathrop. Mrs. Drake and Augustus Adams 
appeared as stars during the season, which lasted pretty well through the whole ses- 
sion of the Legislature. The "theatre" was fronted on the east by a wide platform, 
where Mr. Gaston exposed his carriages to dry when varnished, and this platform 
was unprotected by any railing on the east and south sides. One night Mr. Corbaley, 
one of the settlers of 1820, coming out of the theatre in the dark, stepped off this 
platform and hurt himself so severely that he died in a few days. Subsequently Mrs. 
Drake and Mr. Adams played here when the theatre was "fixed up" in the one-story 
brick, where Temperance Hall now stands, which had formerly been the oflSce of the 
Indiana Democrat. This was managed by Mr. Lindsay, who had conducted several 
theatrical seasons before this. As early as 1836 or 1837, he had opened in Ollaman's 
wagon shop, on Washington street, opposite the Court house, and delighted the Capi- 
talians with the "universally popular" comic songs of the "Tongo Islands," and the 


" King of the Cannibal Islands," and had been back once before the New York troupe 
opened in the carriage shop. These, with Mr. and Mrs. Smith's previous performan- 
ces in Carter's tavern in 1823 and 1824, comprised the theatrical experience of the 
town until the "Thespian Corps," composed of our own young men, appeared in 

In September, 1843, Miss Lesuer opened the "Indianapolis Female Collegiate 
Institute" in the Circle street house which the Franklin Institute had formerly occu- 
pied, and maintained it successfully for some years. During the same year, the Rob- 
ert's Chapel (Methodist) congregation divided from the parent church, Wesley Chapel, 
and began the erection of their church on the corner of Pennsylvania and Market 
streets, which was completed the year following, at a cost of $10,000, or thereabout. 
The old building was sold in 1868, and converted into a block of business houses, 
and a new one erected on the corner of Delaware and Vermont streets, at a cost of 
$80,000. There is nothing else of consequence to note in tho year 1843. 

The "old grave yard," though capable of containing all the dead the town 
would be likely to furnish for the next ten years, was deemed inadequate in 1844, 
and in April a cemetery, long known as the " New Grave yard," was laid out. 
The old one at that time was in the woods. A dense "bottom" forest lay between it 
and the river on the south, and a considerable width of timber separated it from the 
river on the west. On the east was the Mooresville road and Dennis I. White's pas- 
ture, with an open woods stretching north from the bluff bank of the " grave yard 
pond." The new addition brought the living town closer to the "dead" one, and 
very soon monopolized the burials. Except for those who had near relatives in the 
old grave yard, or for those who had special reasons for not seeking, or not being 
allowed, participation in the new one — as the negroes — the old one soon became almost 
obsolete. North of the new cemetery was a superb forest and pasture extending to 
Maryland street.. The southern portion of this was laid off into a third cemetery in 
1852, extending to the track of the Indianapolis and Terre Haute Raiload, by Messrs. 
James M. Ray, James Blake and Edwin J. Peck. Eight years later the ground in 
the rear of this last addition, bordered by the river, was laid out into a cemetery, 
and a small section along the railway was bought by the National Government for 
the burial of dead rebel prisoners in 18G2. This last addition was little used, and the 
much more eligible arrangement of the Crown Hill Cemetery superseded it entirely, 
sothatwitbin the present year (1870) the Terre Haute Railroad Company have obtained 
a release of the Government cemetery, removed all the corpses, and built there a fine 
and capacious engine house. The eastern half is still a cemetery, but that next the 
river is returned to less melancholy uses. The "grave yard pond'' was once as well 
known a feature of the topography of the capital as the river itself. It was three or 
four hundred yards long by a hundred wide, and was supplied partly by springs, 
and partly by freshets, which made the river rise and run through it. For many 
years it was a favorite skating place, and was afterwards a frog's paradise. Now it 
has utterly disappeared. All the dirt, chips and refuse and nuisances of the city are 
emptied into its bed, and the new Rolling Mill has covered the upper end of its site 
with one of its buildings and its railway track. 

On the 5th of August, 1844, a meeting was held to make arrangements for the 
visit of General Cass, who came on the 25th, — spoke in the Military Ground, in reply 
to a welcome from Governor Whitcomb, — had a reception at the Palmer House, and 
went on to Dayton the same evening. 

The year following, 1845, was distinguished by the culmination of the only native 
theatrical company the capital has ever had. Some two or three years before, a large 


frame building had been erected on the north west corner of Market and Mississippi 
streets, for a foundery, that never came to any thing, and during this year the "Indi- 
anapolis Thespian Society" took it, built a stage in it, put in seats, got some fair 
scenery, and during the summer and fall gave some very fair performances there. 
The chief actors were James McCready, — afterwards Mayor, — Edward S. Tyler, James 
G. Jordan, — afterwards City Clerk, and first Secretary of the Bellefontaine Railroad, — 
Davis Miller, — once Door-keeper of the Senate, — James McVey, and, towards the close, 
Nathaniel Cook, a regular actor, and his younger brother John, sons of John Cook, 
once State Librarian. The last, and Messrs. McVey and Miller, took female parts, as 
there were no ladies in the Society. The first performance was of Kobert Dale Owen's 
drama of " Pocahontas," which had little other recommendation than its Indiana au- 
thorship. The " Golden Farmer " was "run" for several weeks, very successfully. 
Mr. Tyler was the favorite as "Jimmy Twitcher," and Mr. McCready as "Old Mobbs," 
and Mr. Jordan as the "Farmer." Home's tragedy of "Douglass" was played when 
young Nat. Cook came out; and it has been Avorse played by actors of more preten- 
sions. Cook played "Young Norval " and James Jordan "Glenalvon; " Davis Miller 
played " Lady Randolph." Jordan was a good actor, with unusual natural talents for 
the stage, and in this day could have made an enviable reputation. Young Cook 
was an actor by profession, but not remarkably good, and never made any figure 
greater than that of a "stock" actor. His brother Aquilla was afterwards connected 
with a theatre in Cincinnati, where he murdered the Treasurer, for some fancied insult 
to his wife, who was a dancing girl. The Cook family made a considerable figure in 
the town about this time; but it went out, as the Hoosier phrase has it, "at the little 
end of the horn." John Cook, the father, — who was State Librarian, — led the choir 
at the Temperance meetings which Mr. Hawkins, the old Baltimore reformer, held in 
the Court House. The favorite air was the " Blue-Tailed Fly," to which a reformatory 
and exhortatory song was adapted by some queer process. — This seasoji of Temperance 
excitement was preceded some years before, by another and more important one, inau- 
gurated by a Mr. Matthews, one of the Washingtonian Society. His speeches were 
strong, direct and very effective ; and he made them more so. by singing some temper- 
ance ditty as an introduction. " What's the News? " was one of these. His cause 
was a new one in the capital, and his language, — though we have become used to it 
now, — was then considered tolerably harsh. One night he roused old Jerry Collins, 
the chief of doggery keepers, so greatly, that he interrupted the speech. Quite a "re- 
vival" was instituted; and many a "soaker" was arrested, for a longer or shorter 
time, by the good influences set to work by it. 

On the 4th day of July, a negro by the name of John Tucker, was brutally mur- 
dered by a mob of white men, for no offense except his courageous defence of himself. 
A young man, named Nicholas Woods, began the difiiculty in a drunken frolic, by 
abusing Tucker, who tried to avoid him. Finding that impossible, he gave Woods a 
thrashing. The latter followed him up, and soon collected a crowd of " roughs " and 
citizens, some of whom began stoning the negro. He retorted, and hurt some of his 
assailants. At this time he was on Illinois street, near where the Bates House now 
stands. Here he was driven upon the east side walk, when a saloon keeper, named 
Bill Ballenger, struck him down with a club. Ballenger made his escape. Woods 
was sent to the penitentiary, which he has since re-visited once or twice, on the so- 
licitation of juries in larceny cases. 

The celebration of the 4th was enlarged this year, by a military addition, and 
speeches were made, on the part of the companies, by Edward Lander, Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and William Wallace, in Henry Ward Beecher's church. 


The report of the murderous afrray going on but a hundred yards frona the church, 
greatly disturbed, and nearly destroyed, the meeting. During the summer, Washing- 
ton street was graded and gravelled. The old McAdamizing was pretty well worn 
out, and the improvement raised the street, — too much, probably, in the middle, — and 
covered it with coarse gravel. The building on the'south west corner of Meridian and 
Washington streets, was erected this summer, by Seton W. Norris. The " Locomo- 
tive," a little weekly paper, was started this summer, by Daniel B. Culley and David 
R. Elder. It was nothing but a boyish affair at first, and was filled with boyish "bread 
and butter " articles ; but in 1848, after a suspension of a year or so, it was revived by 
Elder & Harkness, conducted by Mr. John R. Elder, and made a paper of considerable 
influence. Its circulation, for some years, exceeded that of any other paper in the 
town. The old Methodist church, built in 1828, on Meridian street, near the Circle, 
had, in 1845, become unsafe, as well as inadequate, and it was torn down. Wesley 
Chapel succeeded it, during the fall and ensuing summer of 1846. In 1869 the Chapel 
was sold to Mr. Richard J. Bright, and by him converted into a large and very hand- 
some business house, mainly occupied by the " Indianapolis Sentinel " establishment, 
and that of the " Evening Hews." A new church has just been completed on the south 
west corner of Meridian and New York streets. 

The interest of the next year, 1846, centered in the Mexican war. Governor 
Whitcomb's proclamation, calling for the State's quota of volunteers, was published on 
the 23d of May, and was responded to with great alacrity. Three regiments were 
soon raised and organized, of the first of which our town furnished one company, under- 
Captain James P. Drake, and Lieutenants John A. McDougall and Lewis Wallace. 
Captain Drake was made Colonel of the regiment, in the rendezvous at New Albany. 
This regiment was kept at the month of the Rio Grande, during pretty much all of its 
year's service, and suffered greatly from the diseases incident to the climate and camp- 
life. A year afterwards, two other companies were raised by Captain Edward Lan- 
der and John McDougall, and were attached to the fourth and fifth regiments, which 
were taken by General Scott in his march upon the City of Mexico. These five regi- 
ments constituted the whole of Indiana's contribution to the Mexican war. The 
regiments raised during the rebellion, were numbered from these, the first being the 

The Madison Railroad was now coming so close to the town, that its impulse was 
felt in business; and the first throbbings of the energy which was to develop such 
great results, began to stir the little county town with the hopes of greatness and pros-- 
perity which the visit of the " Robert Hanna" created and disappointed. The Com- 
pany had selected its depot-ground on South street, east of Pennsylvania, then clear 
out of town. But the ground was high, and cheap, and convenient ; and the first 
angry complaints of the citizens at this mislocation, soon died out in the bustle and 
excitement of the actual arrival of the road in 1847. The depot would not come to 
the town, so the town went to the depot, — planted heavy business houses all around it, 
and created, for a time, a sort of commercial center there. The creek was straightened 
from Virginia Avenue to Meridian street, by the property holders, and the streets 
graded and filled across the low muddy space of the creek "bottom." 

The gamblers, who were bold and bad enough for Vicksburg, had become very 
offensive during the year, and the citizens held a meeting, and resolved to clear them 
out by constant prosecutions under the statute. A committee of thirteen or fifteen was 
appointed, consisting of the best and most respected citizens, to carry on the war. 
They began by securing the services of Hiram Brown, — one of the ablest njembers of 
the bar in the days when it was strongest, — to prosecute the scoundrels, and raised a 


considerable sum of money for expenses. These preparations had their effect, and the 
gamblers were chased out without any prosecutions at all, or not more than one or 
two. Lemuel Frazier, who kept the "Capital House," having been stirred up for 
allowing gambling in his hotel, retaliated by suing the committee for malicious pros- 
ecution ; but nothing ever came of it. 



B h npi j^x I 




pAJ^HE year 1847 marks tiie first great change in the condition and prospects of 
ijffi) Indianapolis. Heretofore it had been a mere country town, which owed all 
* its importance to the possession of the Capital. Its business was purely local. 
It proiuced little, and it distributed little that it did not produce. A small amount 
of "jobbing" was done in an irregular way among the smaller dealers and manu- 
facturers of the neighboring towns, but it was neither large enough or certain 
enough to be considered a branch of trad6. The manufacturing, except for home 
demand, was even more trifling than the mercantile, business. Occasional attempts 
had been made at iron, wool, oil, tobacco, hemp, and even ginseng manufacture, but 
none of them amounted to much or lasted long. The only attempt on a large scale, 
that of the Steam Mill Company, was a conspicuous failure. The town was isola- 
ted, and its only chance of trade was like that of the two boys locked up in a closet, 
who made money by swapping jackets. It lacked a way out and in. When this 
opening came, with the opening of the Madison Railroad, there came with it much 
such a change as comes upop boyhood at puberty. There was a change of features, 
of form, a suggestion of manhood, a trace of the beard and voice of virility. Manu- 
facturers appeared, and would not disappear. "Stores" that had formerly mixed 
up dry goods, groceries, grain, hardware, earthenware, and even books, in their 
stock, began to select and confine themselves to one or two classes of their former 
assortment. Dry goods houses which kept neither coffee nor mackerel, appeared. 
Grocery establishments which sold neither calico nor crockery became visible. Busi- 
ness showed its growth in its divisions. The town itself showed the forecoming 
shadow of manhood in larger business houses, and the dropping down, here and 
there, in remote corners, of "family groceries." The price of property advanced. 
A city form of government was adopted. A school system was inaugurated. 
Everybody felt the impulse, without exactly feeling its direction, of prosperity. 

In the first decided development of this change the year 1847 opened. On the 
7th of January the " great freshet " reached its highest point. The river had never 
been so high before, except once, and has never been within three feet of the same 
mark since. It covered all the bottoms, and swept away miles of fences, and thou- 
sands of cattle, hogs and horses. Many fine fields were so covered with sand and 
seamed by the rapid currents that they were ruined, and many a prosperous farmer 


was nearly ruined by its devastations. So great and general were its rarag'es that 
the Legislature allowed a reduction of taxes to the sufferers. In the Capital the 
mischief of the river freshet was confined to West Indianapolis, or "Stringtown." 
It was covered entirely, from the bridge to the bluff at " Palmer's Farm." Many 
houses were filled nearly to the second story. The water rose high enough to cover 
the National Eoad, and in two places currents ran so fiercely that they cut through 
the road-way, and made ugly gaps fifty feet wide and eight or ten feet deep. On 
each side of the road at both breaches, the soft alluvial soil was dug out by the 
whirling eddies into huge holes like the craters of small volcanoes. They were 
fully thirty feet deep, and the southern hole, of the largest gap, was so large that a 
two-story frame house, which had been floated from its place by the current, waa 
left sticking against its eastern bank, all askew, and ready to slide to the bottom 
at any moment. Nearly a half mile of the National Road was covered by the 
water. A considerable breadth of the high bank, along where the pork houses and 
railroad bridges now stand, was cut away, making the first approach to the cbange 
which has since brought the river to the very edge of the cemeteries. There used 
to be a small island a hundred or two hundred yards long, in the river, opposite 
the "Old Grave- Yard," and separated from the eastern bank by a narrow stream, 
sometimes entirely dry in summer. This island was covered with large trees, and 
at the head of it was a drift which for many years was a. favorite place for catching 
"red-eyes," cat-fish, and bad colds. Between the "chute" east of that island and 
the Grave-Tard was a considerable breadth of forest. Now that island and that 
whole breadth of forest are on the west side of the river, on McCarly's sand-bar, 
and the water has actually cut into the Grave-Yard. The river has come one 
hundred yards eastward since the freshet of 1847 began the removal. Although the 
river did not directly damage the town, the freshet in Fall Ci-eek and Pogue's 
Creek did. The former tore out the canal aqueduct, and the latter tore out the 
canal culvert, and between them ruined the canal for a year. Fall Creek, too, sent 
surplus water into the swamps north-east of town, and they poured out a flood into- 
the " ravines " which filled a number of lots, and damaged a good many houses on 
their way through to the river. They emptied into the canal, and caused it to make 
a third break, as before noticed, below where the Kolling Mill now stands. 

The news of the famine in Ireland created here, a? elsewhere, a great deal of 
feeling, and successful efforts were made by public meetings, committees, and news- 
paper appeals to raise contributions for the relief of the sufferers. 

As if to prepare for the material change hastening up the Madison Eailroad, 
the town now took measures to form a city government. The Legislature on the 
13th of February voted a city charter, appointing the 27th of March for an election 
to determine whether it should be accepted. Joseph A. Levy, a blacksmith. Presi- 
dent of the Council, published A proclamation ordering an election on the appointed 
day. It was held, and resulted in a vote of 449 votes for the charter, to 19 against 
it. This was a very light vote, as it would indicate a population of less than 3000, 
and as it was 8000 in 1850, it is clear that either the town nearly trebled its popu- 
lation in three years, or the citizens of 1847 deemed the adoption of the charter a 
foregone conclusion and did not trouble themselves to vote. The population at the 
time of the adoption of the new charter and city form of government, and the com- 
mencement of the netv era in its history, was probably about 6000. The new char- 
ter extended the government over the whole donation, except the "make-weight " 
fraction in Stringtown, and divided it into seven Wards, four north, and three south 
of Washington Street. Those north were divided by Alabama, Meridian and Mis- 


sissippi Streets ; those south by Illinois and Delaware Streets. The Mayor was not 
to preside in the Council, but had a veto power on its acts. He served two years 
and had the jurisdiction of a Justice in addition to his municipal authority. There 
%vas one Councilman for each Ward, who was paid $24 a year for his services. The 
Council elected their own President, and held monthly meetings. It had all the 
customary power? of such bodies, with one now taken from it, that of electing the 
subordinate city officers, as Marshal, Treasurer, Secretary, Street Commissioner, At- 
torney, and all other officers they needed. No tax could exceed 15 cents on the 
$100, except by authority of a spedal vote of the people. The first election was 
held on the 24th of April, and resulted in the choice of Samuel Henderson for 
Mayor, in favor of a tax for free schools, and of the following Councilmen : First 
Ward, Uriah Gates; Second, Henry Tutewiler; Third, Cornelius King; Fourth, 
Samuel S. Eooker ; Fifth, Charles W. Cady ; Sixth, Abram W. Harrison ; Seventh, 
William L. Win gate. The new Council organized on the 1st of May by electing 
Mr. Rooker President, and James G. Jordan Secretary, salary $100; Nathan Lis- 
ter, treasurer, f50; James Wood, Engineer, $300; Wm. Campbell, Collector, paid 
by fees; Wm. Campbell, also, Marshal, $150 and fees; A. M. Carnahan, Attorney, 
fees; Jacob B. Fitler, Street Commissioner, $100 ; J. B. Fitler, also, with David 
Cox, Messengers for Fire Companies, $25; Sampson Barbee and Jacob Miller, 
Market Clerks, $50 ; Joshua Black, Assessor ; Benjamin Lobaugh, Sexton. AVith 
this crew and organization the good ship " City of Indianapolis" set sail on the 1st 
day of May, 1847, 

The new city government, whatever pretentions might be involved in the title, 
started with as little support of metropolitan dignity as any city ever did. The tax 
duplicate showed a possible revenue of only $4,236, and one-fifth of that was made 
by past delinquencies; and street improvements had accomplished little beyond 
what might have been seen in any country road. Stumps and mud-holes were ugly 
disfigurements of the streets, and the first eiforts of improvement were naturally di- 
rected to their removal. The means, no less than the unenterprising disposition of 
the authorities, prevented any more general or permanent effort. Side-walks were 
Dot common off Washington Street, and elsewhere were merely strips of gravel 
with depths of mud on either hand. Large spaces of open ground, or common, 
could be seen in all directions covered by "dog-fennel " of luxuriant growth. The 
ditches were shallow furrows, bordered, and oftentimes choked up, with " dog- 
fennel." Except where travel had worn away the sod, in a sinuous line that dodged 
a stump in one place and a mud-hole in another, the streets were masses of " dog- 
fennel," pleasing enough, possibly, in a picturesque point of view, but decidedly 
otherwise in any view that contemplated the prosperity of the new city. It is only 
within the past few years that this characteristic growth of the city has disappeared, 
and even now there are scattered patches of it clinging, like the Indian, to the 
territory which it once occupied alone and supreme. In any proper sense we had 
Bo streets. They were merely openings which might be used or not, as the weather 
made them impassable mud or insufferable dust. The town was gathered in a loose 
way, in the center of the donation, huddled pretty closely together for four or five 
streets, divided by Market Street, and sprangling off in clumps of settlement at 
other points, while much of the " donation " outside of the original plat was pretty 
good hunting ground for quails and squirrels. Only four or five years before, the 
woods west of Samuel Henderson's fariu, where the "Home for Friendless Women" 
now stands, was a favorite resort for wild turkeys, and they had occasionally been 
driven^ in the fury of the chasCj clear into town. One was cau^-ht^ in this way, in 


the GoTernor's Circle as late as 1841, by Mr. A. D. Olir. On the south, the pasture- 
where the Old Rolling Mill stands, was a capital squirrel ground, and visits of 
quails into the heart of the town, and their capture in back-yards and about stables, 
a very common occurrence. It happens occasionally even now. 

Into this still half village, half forest city, the new government determined to 
introduce a general system of iniproveraents. The plan of grading proposed by 
Engineer Wood in 1841, and adopted in 1842, was readopted, with the addition that 
it should be carried out systematically^ by improving the central portion of the city 
first, and extending improvements outward as opportunity permitted. The cost of 
grading and graveling the streets and side-walks was taxed against the owners of 
the property, and, of course, caused a good deal of ill will and litigation. But as it 
had the advantage of making only those pay who were benefitted, it stood firmly 
against the numerous complaints of its injurious operation. The cost of making 
crossings, which consisted then, and do yet, of little wooden bridges across the 
gutters, was paid out of the Treasury. In this way began the improvements whicb 
have since made tolerable thoroughfares of one hundred and forty-six miles of 
streets, and very good ones of a number of them. Bouldering was not attempted 
until 1859, when Washington Street was paved in this way from Illinois to Meridi- 
an, and in 1860 from Mississippi to Alabama. This year (1870) Delaware Street 
has been paved with wooden blocks, upon the Nicolson plan, from Washington to 
North Street, and its superiority to the noisy, rough bouldering is so marked that it 
is possible it may be extended to all the principal streets. Notwithstanding the 
laudable eff'orts of the first city government, but little, comparatively, was done in 
street improvements until 1860. What is now to be seen has been mainly accom- 
plished since then. 

With the introduction of the first general system of street improvements came 
the free school system. The State fund yielded barely enough to maintain the schools 
for a single quarter, and left teachers and pupils to provide for themselves for the 
remainder of the year. It was hoped that a local addition might be made which 
would enable the schools to be kept open all, or the greater part, of the year. To 
this end a provision was made in the new charter authorizing a vote at the election 
of city officers upon the question whether a tax should be levied for school purpo- 
ses. It was decided, to the credit of the citizens, almost unanimously in the affirm- 
ative. The tax having been assessed, and a provision thus made for a complete 
and permanent system of free education, steps were taken at once to apply the 
provision eff"ectively. Donations of lots for houses, and money for tuition, were 
asked, to eke out the inadequate supply of both the State and city fund. The Coun- 
cil in the winter passed a vote of thanks to Thomas D. Gregg for the donation of 
$100. Others may have been more or less liberal, but no Council vote indicates it. 
Luckily real estate, though rising under the general impulse, was cheap, and lots 
were obtained for $300 to $500 in all the Wards during the following two years. 
Of course provision had first to be made for the erection of houses, and until that 
was done, by the accumulation of the city tax, the Ward schools were merely State 
District schools under city supervision. But the city tax came in, slowly at first, 
but rapidly enough by 1852 to have completed small brick houses, of one or two 
rooms each, but so adjusted as to allow future enlargement, in all the Wards. The 
yield of ISiT was $1,981 ; of 1848, $2,385; of 1849, $2,851. By 1850 it was $6,160 
of which $5,958 had been expended upon houses and lots. Nothing being left for 
tuition beyond the provision of the State fund, it was paid by fees. In other words,, 
the State provision was merely divided among the Wards and maintaiaed in that 


form until the city provision had become considerable enough to permit the inaugu- 
ration of a system of city free schools. This was done in 1853. Three Trustees, 
Henry P. Coburn, Calvin Fletcher, and Henry F. West, were elected by the Coun- 
cil to take entire control of the schools. The separaLe Ward Trustees vrere abol- 
ished, and the whole system brought together and made compact and manageable. 
Calvin Fletcher drew up a series of rules and regulations, and a plan of operations, 
teachers were obtained, matters set in order, and on the 28th of April, 1853, the 
city free schools were really opened, with two male and twelve female teachers. 
This was the beginning of what has since grown through many difficulties and em- 
barassments into one of the most perfectly constructed and admirably conducted 
school systems in the United States. The detailed account of the changes and dif- 
ficulties through which it has passed will be found in another place. 

Like all country towns, the capital had, up to this year, been compelled to hear 
its lectures and concerts in churches or the Court House, with an occasional diver- 
sion to the Hall of Eepresentatives in the State House. No special provision had 
been made for so important an element of city life as a place of public entertainment. 
One of the first manifestations that a new order of things was approaching, was the 
resolution of the Grand Lodge of the Free Masons to erect a splendid edifice to 
contain not only rooms for the Grand and city lodges, but a large hall for public 
uses. In May they purchased the southeast corner of Washington and Tennessee 
streets, and formed a company, of which they themselves took a large share of the 
stock, to carry out this purpose. A plan of building proposed by Mr. J. Willis, 
one of the first architects who became a resident here, was adopted, and measures 
taken at once to proceed with the work, under the supervision of the Hon. Wm. 
Sheets. On the 25th of October the corner-stone was laid with imposing Masonic 
ceremonies, and the singing a song written for the occasion by Mrs. Sarah T. 
Bolton. The work was not very energetically pushed, however, and it was not till 
the spring of 1850 that it was so far completed that the public hall could be opened. 
It was first occupied — if the writer's memory is not at fault — by Mrs. Lesdernier for 
a concert or dramatic reading, and was in frequent request afterward, although the 
upper or lodge rooms were still unfinished. They were completed during the fall 
and winter, and the hall was dedicated by the Grand Lodge, at its annual meeting, 
May 27th, 1851. The Constitutional Convention of 1850, after a few days' session 
in the Representative's Hall of the Capitol, finding its accommodations inadequate, 
and, moreover, having to give place soon to the Legislature, adjourned to the new 
hall which had been prepared for it as fully as possible, and continued there till its 
labors were completed. From its opening until the erection of Morrison's Opera 
Hall, the Masonic Hall was the scene of nearly all public displays and entertain- 
ments given in the city. Political conventions, religious meetings, concerts, theatric- 
al entertainments, lectures, balls, fairs, and panoramas, occupied it in turn. Hor- 
ace Greeley, Henry Ward Beecher, John B. Gough, Theodore Parker, Ealph Waldo 
Emerson, Henry Giles, lectured there, and Alexander Campbell preached there. 
Madame Bishop, Bochsa, Strakosch, the now celebrated Adelina Patti, Carlotta 
Patti, Ule Bull, and a long list of musical celebrities, performed there. In fact, 
for fifteen years it may be considered the embodiment of the intellectual and esthe- 
tic life of the city. The stock has all long been absorbed by the Grand Lodge, and 
recently the building, and hall, too, have been repaired and greatly improved. For 
a while after the opening of the Opera Hall, more centrally situated, and in some 
respects better adapted to public uses. Masonic Hall fell into disrepute, and became 
the resort of second-rate exhibitions. But since its repair, and the burning of the 


Opera Hall in the winter of 1869-70, it has resumed its old position. As the Opera 
Hall has been left out of the new building oh its site, it is likely that the old hall 
will retain its long supremacy a while longer. 

The return of our volunteers in Mexico being anticipated, a meeting was held 
in May to prepare a reception for them, but as they did not come back in a body, 
the reception failed. Subsequently a public demonstration in their honor was made 
in the State House Square, at which Hon. Edward A. Hannegan made a speech, 
but a very rainy, inclement day spoiled it, to a great extent. A number of the vol- 
unteers came out, however, and brought their old battered and honored flags with 
them. Tn July the body of Captain Trusten B. Kinder, of this city, but who re- 
sided in one of the south-west counties of the State when he entered the army, 
and who was killed at the battle of Buena Vista, was brought home, and received 
with one of the most imposing popular displays ever witnessed in the city. 

The lack of female teachers for our schools led to efforts this year to get up a 
sort of " Koopmanschaap " emigration scheme, to supply the deficiency, or rather it 
induced an application for help to Governor Slade of New Hampshire, who had for 
some time been conducting such a scheme. He sent on a small supply of teachers 
in June. They were distributed through the State, and, of course, soon married off. 
So the result, however beneficial in the end, left the schools little better off. 

The Madison Railroad, now advancing rapidly from Franklin, would reach us 
on the 1st of October, and on the 25th of September a meeting of citizens was 
called to make preparations to celebrate the great event — really great for it realized 
all and moi-e than was anticipated by the wildest enthusiasm inspired by the visit 
of the '• Robert Hanna " in 18P.1. About 9 o'clock, on the morning of the 1st, the 
last spike was driven, just in time for the passage of two large excursion trains from 
below, and the locomotive came, for the first time, into the town which has since 
been justly enough known as the " Railroad City." Its arrival was witnessed and 
cheered by thousands of the " natives," most of whom had never seen a railroad or 
engine, and whoso notions of a speed of twenty miles an hour were so indefinite as to 
be slightly mixed with the fabulous. Many of them improved the opportunity to 
make an excursion to Franklin, while the thousands who remained joined in swell- 
ing the monster procession which was to be the feature of the day's ceremonies. 
Spalding's circus was " showing " in the city at the time, with the band of the cele- 
brated bugler Ned Kendall, and the whole troupe, with a cavalry company from 
the country, lent their attractions to the display. Governor "Whitcomb made a 
speech from the top of a car in conclusion of this portion of the ceremony, and then 
all made for the hotels '' up town " for dinner. At night there were fire-works, an 
illumination, and a general " good time." 1 he rejoicings were not extravagant, 
and if they had been they would not have exceeded the importance of the occasion 
which for the first time rendered the Capital indepeadent of mud, ice and freshets. 
The long reign of the "wagoners " — the Peereys, Stucks and Ritchies — was ended. 

The Madison Railroad depot was built, as heretofore stated, on the elevation, 
the site of the old' "Hawkins" place, on South Street, east of Pennsylvania, then 
entirely out of town. The whole unoccupied "bottom" of Pogue's Creek inter- 
vened, and it was then, as it had been from the first, a muddy, unwholesome inter- 
vale, which bade fair to remain unsettled till long after the town had spread inimit- 
ably northward. Consequently, the location of the depot was generally censured 
as unwise. It was built during the preceding year, and speedily gathered a col- 
j ection of groceries and commission houses, saloons and boarding houses, round it, 
and made a little city quite to itself. It has only been within the past ten year^ 


that any considerable progress has been made toward consolidating it with the 
parent city. But it is accomplished now, and Pogue's Creek valley has measurably 
disappeared under foundries, machine shops, mills, and railway tracks. The Com- 
pany erected their machine shops in 1850, and built a frame car house over their 
track, which a hurricane blew down for them a few years afterwards. For five 
years the road was run upon a flat rail, a little more rapidly, but not much more 
pleasantly than a stage coach upon a " corduroy " road. But between 1850 and 
1852 it was replaced by the T rail, and such a business, so far as profit goes, done 
upon it as no road is ever likely to do again. A detailed account of our railroads 
will be found in another place. 

We may note, in concluding the sketch of 1847, that it witnessed the establish- 
ment of the first wholesale Dry Goods Store in the city — that of Joseph Little & Co., 
in the building, or next the building now occupied by James Sulgrove's Saddlery 
Hardware establishment. The firm subsequently became Little, Drum & Anderson) 
and in their hands the store was burned in May, 1848. 

In January, 1848, Andrew Kennedy, an ex-member of Congress, and at the 
time a member of the Legislature, died of small pox, at the Palmer House. As his 
disease was not known at first, his fellow- members had called upon him frequently; 
and, supposing themselves liable to the infection, created a panic, in which the Le- 
gislature adjourned. There was some cause for alarm ; and the City Council, stimu- 
lated by a few fresh cases, set to work to provide a hospital. Universal vaccination 
was ordered, a Board of Health established, a hospital lot bought, material for a 
hospital got together, and a contract made with Seth Bardwell to erect it. But the 
panic disappeared, for the disease never spread widely; and the Council paid Mr. 
Bardwell two hundred and twenty-five dollars for his contract, and gave him the 
material, and thus the hospital enterprise failed. The contractor built a three- 
story frame house of the material, nearly opposite the Governor's House, and it is 
now used as a Hotel, and called the Indiana House. 

The first Telegraph Company, under the charge of Henry O'Eeilly, was char- 
tered on the 14th day of February, 1848, subscriptions of stock received, and a line to 
Dayton built by the 12th of May, on which day the first dispatches were sent through 
it to Richmond. Newspaper dispatches were first published by the Sentinel, on the 
24th of May. The first office was in the second story of Hubbard's block, and the 
first operator was Isaac H. Kiersted. Other lines have since been built, and, until 
recently, were all consolidated in the hands of the Western Union Company. But 
■ within the past year or so, another collection of lines, called the Pacific and Atlantic, 
has been made, which is operated in direct competition with the old one. Its ofBce 
is on Meridian street, opposite Blackford's block, and is under the charge of 
E. C. Hewlett. The first line, after opening in Hubbard's block, was removed 
to Harrison's, on Washington street, — subsequently to the rooms nearly opposite, — 
then to the second story of the building on the north west corner of Washington 
and Meridian streets, and lastly to Blackford's block, where it has an office on the 
ground floor, and operatoi-s' rooms above. It has been in charge of Mr. Kiersted, 
J. W. Chapin, Anton Schneider, S. B. Morris, J. F. Wilson, and J. F. Wallick. 
When the Magnetic Telegraph was first suggested as a suitable subject for Congres- 
sional encouragement. Governor Wallace, of this State,' was a member of the House, 
and of the committee to which the matter of an appropriation was referred. His 
name coming last in the alphabetical order of the committee, it was his luck to de- 
cide a tie vote in favor of the appropriation. As little faith was felt by the great 
body, even of intelligent people, who had not seen the telegraph in operation, this vote 


of the Governor's was used against him with great, if not fatal effect, in his second 
race for Congress, with "William J. Brown. But when the office here was opened, 
and the invention was seen to send and receive instantaneous communications with 
towns seventy miles away, suspicion gave place to amazement, and the general 
feeling was accurately and characteristically expressed by Jerry Johnson, — a very 
eccentric and witty old farmer who lived adjoining town on the north, and was the 
first man married in the town, — when he looked up at the one telegraph wire run- 
ning along Washington street, and said: ''Great Lord! who would ever have thought 
of seeing lightning driven down the street, and with a single line, at that? " Those 
familiar with the fashions of old teamsters, will understand the wit of the suggestion 
of the " single line." As many may not be, it may be well to explain that wagoners 
with three or four-horse teams, did not use a rein or line for each horse, as stage- 
coaches and carriages do, but used one long, heavy line, fastened to the bit of the 
"near leader;" and the "single line" being less easily managed, implied both more 
skill in the driver, and more obedience or intelligence in the horses. 

In June, an attempt to form a Merchant's Exchange was made, with Charles 
W. Cady as Secretary, but it came to nothing. In 1853 it was succeeded by another 
attempt, better considered; but that failed, too, after making some effort to exhibit 
the advantages of Indianapolis as a manufacturing and commercial point. It was 
constructed by J. D. Defrees, N. McCarty, Ignatius Brown, — the author of the pub- 
lication in regard to the city, and the author of a history of the city, from which 
most of the material of this sketch is taken — R. J. Gatling — of Gatling Gun notoriety, 
Austin H. Brown, and John T. Cox. The President was Douglass Maguire, the 
Secretary John L. Ketcham, and the Treasurer E. B. Duncan. It was succeeded in 
1856 by a third failure, for want of money. In 1866 the Chamber of Commerce was 
formed, with Dr. T. B. Elliott as President, and J. Barnard as Secretary, and this 
last seems in a fair way to live. It has excellent rooms in the new ^S'ewiwieJ building. 

The Indiana Volksblalt, the first paper published in a foreign language in the 
city, was established this year, by Julius Boetticher, proprietor, and Paul Geiser, 
as editor. Its ofiice was first a second floor room in Temperance Hall, But its suc- 
cess has since enabled its enterprising proprietor to build a house himself on Wash- 
ington street, a little east of the Court house Square, and it has been published 
there for a number of years. It is Democratic in politics. 

The Central Plank Road Company was chartered in 1848, to use the old Na- 
tional Road, and in 1849 laid their planks and put up two toll gates, one at the Na- 
tional Road bridge, and one just east of town. As this was taking an illiberal advan- 
tage of their franchise, the citizens wouldn't stand it, and the council obtained the 
removal of the eastern one, on condition that the company should not be responsi- 
ble for the repairs of "Washington street, which formed part of the National Road. 

The Union Railroad Company, to which belongs the Union Depot and the 
city tracks connecting the different railroads centering here, was authorized by the 
Council on the 20th of December, 1848. There were no lines yet constructed to 
compete with the Madison, but several were projected, and a common passenger 
depot was so evidently indispensable, that it was devised as soon as the connecting 
roads were. 

The year 1849 was little more than the record of promising but uneventful 
occurrences. The new life of the town was showing itself more and more plainly. 
Three hundred houses were built during the year, and the population was estima- 
ted at 6,500. A debt of $6,000, incurred by the street improvements of the preced- 
ing two years, was ordered, by a majority of eleven in a vote of the citizens, to be 


paid by a special tax, which raised the entire levy to forty-five cents on the hundred 
dollars. This was more than had ever been paid, and more than the State tax, and 
it caused a good deal of dissatisfaction with the city government. In the April 
election Horatio C. Newcomb was elected Mayor, in place of Samuel Henderson. — 
During the summer, Asbury University determined to assume something of the 
real character indicated by its title, and established here the Central Medical Col- 
lege as the medical division of the University. It was conducted by Drs. Jchn S. 
Bobbs, Kichard Curran, J. S. Harrison, George W. Mears, C. G. Downey, L. Dun- 
lap, A. H. Baker and David Funkhouser, and occupied a large two-story brick 
buillding on the southeast corner of Washington and Alabama streets. Its first 
session, from jSTovember to March, was attended by twenty or more students, and s, 
few graduates received diplomas. It continued some three years, and added to its 
faculty Prof. Doming, of Lafayette, who had been quite as much distinguished as a 
politician of the Free Soil school, and as the candidate of his party for Goveraor 
in 1846, as a physician. It lacked supporf. — At the preceding session of the Legis- 
lature a Court of Common Pleas was created especially for Marion county, with a 
jurisdiction compounded partly of the probate business o^ the old Probate Court 
and partly of the civil business of the Circuit Court, and Abram A. Hammond was 
made the first Judge, and was also clerk. He was succeeded by Edward Lander, who 
held the office till the Court was abolished or superceded by a general system of 
Common Pleas Courts, created in 1852, under which the Judges were elected by the 
people. The first was Levi L. Todd, succeeded in the following terms by Samuel 
Corey, David Wallace, John Coburn, Charles A. Kay and Solomon Blair. — The 
"Widows and Orphans' Society was organized in December of this year, to make 
provision for classes of distress that the Benevolent Society could not reach. Its 
receipts for the first year were $113.16, and its expenses $98.30. It was entirely 
dependent on private contributions for awhile, but has been aided since by an 
annual appropriation from the City Council. Allen May donated two lots to the 
Society, and they bought another afterwards. An asylum was built in 1855, at a 
cost of 53,000. Though starting with such small means and so little promise of 
good that few had any confidence that it would outlive the year, it has grown by 
the persistent efforts of the managers, and the evidences of its services, to a mag- 
nitude which would make it quite as difficult to dispense with it as it would be with 
one of the State Asylums. 

The year 1850 was distinguished by a perceptible but not a dangerous earth- 
quake on the morning of the 4th of April, and by the visit of Gov. Crittenden of 
Kentucky, with an extensive suite, on the 28th of May. This, the first official 
visit of one State Executive to another, was brought about by an invitation of Gov. 
Wright, who was desirous of drawing closer the bonds that connected the two 
States, and did his part in the work shortly after by marrying a Kentucky lady. — 
The death of President Taylor evoked a union funeral celebration in Wesley 
Chapel, and an eulogy by Rev. E. E. Ames —The cholera was brought here by 
some German emigrants, but there vfas no epidemic or panic. — The Christian 
Church, under the influence of many of its members who lived north of Washing- 
ton street, having resolved to abandon the old frame edifice on Kentucky avenue^ 
which was built in 1836, or thereabouts, began their present chapel on the south- 
west corner of Delaware and Ohio streets. It has since been repaired and hand- 
somely decorated.— E. W. H. Ellis and John S. Spann started the Indiana Statesman 
September 4th, but sold it out in 1852 to the Sentinel. — During the summer the 
Indiana Female College was organized, and the school opened in the building oa 


the corner of Meridian and Ohio streets, now known as the Pyle House, by Eev. 
Thomas A. Lynch. It was suspended in 1859, but resumed in 1865 in the building 
of the McLean Seminary, and again suspended in 1868, when the premises were 
purchased for the new Wesley Chapel. It was successively conducted by Rev. 
Charles Adams, G. W. Hoss, B. H. Hoyt, 0. M. Spencer and W. H. Demotte —City 
receipts, ending April, 1850, were $9,327; expenses, $7,554. The total of taxable 
property was assessed at $2,326,185 ; polls, 1,243; population, by the census, 8,097 — 
an increase of 1,500 in a year, and of $300,000 in value of property. There were 
25 doctors, 30 lawyers and 120 industrial establishments. 

B h n pi B V ^ 


tN February, 1851, the Legislature chartered, for thirty years, with a capital ot 
$20,000, a company .originated by Mr. John J. Lockwood, called the '-Indian- 
apolis Gas Light and Coke Company." It was organized on the 26th of March, 
with David V. Culley as President, Willis W. Wright as Secretary, and H. Y. Bar- 
ringer as Superintendent. An ordinance of the City Council of March 3d gave the 
company a monopoly of the lighting of the streets and houses for fifteen years, 
authorized the laying of pipes upon certain conditions, and required that the price 
of gas should not exceed that paid at that time in Cincinnati. Not much confidence 
was felt by the public in the success of the company at first, and not much was 
done to deserve it. The works were defective, the officers inexperienced, and the 
city by a popular vote refused to light the streets. The present location of the 
works, on Pennsylvania street, on the south side of the creek, was that first selected, 
and during the fall the necessary buildings and apparatus to make a beginning 
were erected, and got ready for use in December. Mains were laid on Pennsylva- 
nia and Washington streets, and on the 10th of January gas was turned on for the 
first time, except that Masonic Hall had previously had a private gas apparatus. 
By the following April about a mile and a half of pipe had been laid, and 116 con- 
sumers with 675 burners had been oMained as This was not a flattering 
commencement, and the lack of city patronage for street lights, which is always a 
large source of the profit, made it worse. It was not till the fall of 1853 that street 
lamps were erected on Washington street between Meridian and Pennsylvania, and 
even then they were supported at the expense of the property owners. In the early 
part of 1854 several squares of Washington street, and portions of adjacent streets, 
were first lighted by contract with the Council, made in the preceding December, 
Gradual additions were made to the number of street lights, but not enough to em- 
brace more than the most central and busiest portions of the city, and, therefore, 
those least likely to need their protection, till 1858-9. Then the policy of spread- 
ing the lights as widely and rapidly as practicable was adopted, and in 1860 eight 
and a half miles were lighted. At this time there can not be much less than forty 
miles of lamps. The posts were at first disposed with little regularity, but in 1859 
it was ordered that there should be four to each square, one on each opposite corner, 
the others placed at equal distances between them. Since the addition of street 
lights to the patronage of the Gas Company it has prospered greatly. It began 
with f'20,000 capital, erected its first buildings at a cost of $27,000, and finding 
them defective, rebuilt them in 1856 at a further cost of §30,000. In 1860, when 
the street-lighting policy began to show its effects fully, the new works were found 
inadequate and were rebuilt arid enlarged to meet the demand. It began with one 


gas reservoir of 20,(500 feet capacity. It added a second of 75,000 in 1860, and 
there not being enough in 1863 one of 300,000 and costing $126,000 was built on 
Delaware street. In 1868 a handsome three-story brick was built for the oiEce of 
the Company on the south corner of the old Branch Bank lot on Maryland and 
Pennsylvania streets, and during the past summer another large addition was made 
to the works. Its capital has grown from $20,000 to $500,000, but it has expended 
its dividends mainly on its works. It consumes 800 bushels of coal per day, and 
produces about 200,000 feet of gas. Its Presidents have been David V. Culley, 
David S. Beatty, Edwin J. Peck, and Stoughton A. Fletcher. Its Superintend- 
ents, H. V. Barringer, C. Brown, E. Bailey, and H. E. Stacey. 

The expiration in 1866 of the fifteen years' charter given by the city in 1851, 
opened the way for a controversy between the Council and the Gas Company which 
was not finally settled till 1868. As both sides had active and earnest partisans, 
and it is not the purpose of this sketch to take sides with either, it will be sufficient 
to state the steps in its rise and settlement briefly. On the expiration of the charter 
the Council gave notice that bids would be received for lighting the city for the en- 
suing twenty years. The Gas Company proposed to supply both city and citizens 
for $3 48 per thousand feet, and clean the street lamps for $5 48 each per year. (It 
had previously charged $4 50 per thousand feet, and $20 per year for each lamp, and 
$8 44 for lighting and cleaning.) It also claimed the monopoly of supplying 
private consumers under the Legislative charter for five years longer. This was 
the only bid received, and the Council rejected it, and disallowed the claim to mo- 
nopolize the gas supply, but made a counter proposition that the Company should 
supply private consumers at $3 per thousand feet, and the street lamps at $28 80 
each, the city to do the lighting and cleaning. Nothing came of this, and it was 
then proposed to capitalize the Company's property at $350,000, the city to have 
half the profits above 15 percent., and continue the arrangement twenty years. 
The Company rejected this, but proposed to furnish gas to the city or citizens at 
$3 75 per thousand feet. This was not accepted, and in the spring of 1867 a rival 
company, called the "Citizens' Gas Light and Coke Company," formed by K. B. 
Catherwood & Co., of street railroad celebrity, made a proposal to take the charter 
for thirty years, and furnish gas at $3 per thousand feet, the city to contest the mo- 
nopoly claim of the other Company. An ordinance embodying and modifying these 
terms, and holding the works subject to purchase by the city after ten years, was 
proposed on the 12th of March, 1867, and brought from the old Company a propo- 
sition to furnish gas for twenty years at $3 per thousand feet, with a number of 
minor provisions, and this was accepted, and the old Company re-chartered for 
twenty years from the 4th of March, 1867. But the controversy was not ended. 
It was soon found, or alleged, that the city was paying for fifteen or twenty street 
lamps more than existed, and paying for them whether lighted cr not, and that the 
Gas Company was making the expense at $3 per thousand feet heavier than it was 
before. This produced a renewal of the difiBculty, which was ended, finally, in the 
spring of 1868, by the election of a Gas Inspector, George H. Fleming, whose duty 
it is to see to the supply and quality of gas, and the interests of the city generally 
in regard to its gas. The cost of the city supply has been greatly reduced, and the 
lighting generally well attended to. 

The organization and chartering of the State Board of Agriculture, mainly 
under the inspiration of Gov. Wright, on the I4th of February, 1851, though prop- 
erlv an affair of State rather than city interest, is yet too nearly identified with the 
development of the city to be overlooked. It has done something to encourage 


manufacturing by displaying our manufactures advantageously ; has done quite as 
much, probably, by exhibiting the condition and improvements of the city to the 
tens of thousands of visitors annually attracted by its fairs ; and has done more 
still by swelling our trade, as well as advertising it. Gov. Wright wag the first 
President, and has been suceeded by General Joseph Orr, A. C. Stevenson, Geo. D, 
Wagner, David P. Holloway, J. D. Williams, Stearns Fisher and A. D. Hamrick. 
The Secretaries have been John B. Dillon, W. T. Dennis, Ignatius Brown, W. H. 
Loomis, A. J. Holmes and Fielding Beeler. The Fairs, which have formed pretty 
much all the business of the Board, have been generally held here, with enough 
diversion to other points to demonstrate the advantages of our central location and 
railroad connections. Here, they were held on the Military Ground, which had 
been prepared by a high fence, and suitable "halls" or sheds, stalls, and other 
appliances, till 18 60, when a large and beautiful grove north of the city, and clear 
beyond its limits at that time, was bought and fitted up, not handsomely, but so 
expensively, that what with the cost, the falling off in the interest in fairs during 
the war, the occupancy of the new grounds by the Government as a volunteer and 
prison camp, and the necessity of removing to the old ground, the Board was left 
with a debt on its hands which embarrassed it for several years. Since the close of 
the war, these [the Camp Morton] grounds have been reopened and refitted in excel- 
lent style, and during the fall of the present year [1870], the fairs both of the Indi- 
anapolis Association and the State Board, have been successfully held there. Its 
occupation as a prison camp during the war injured it greatly by causing the 
destruction of nearly all its superb trees. The General Government has, how- 
ever, made some, if not full, compensation for these injuries. Fairs held at other 
points have either occupied the grounds of County Associations or been provided 
for by the citizens in consideration of the supposed benefit of having their town 
overrun by crowds for four or five days. The first was held for six days, in October 
19 — 25, 1852, on the Military ground, and was very successful, the entries amount- 
ing to 1,365. The fair of 1853 was held at Lafayette, and as an additional attrac- 
tion, Horace Greeley was obtained to deliver an address. Still it was not so 
successful as to warrant any strong hopes from the policy of making the fairs 
peripatetic. But the larger towns were indisposed to concede any advantages to 
the Capital, which they considered their rival, and demanded, as a right, that the 
"show" should come round to all of them in turn. The State Board decided to 
hold it here one year out of every three, as a compromise between the blind impor- 
tunacy of other towns and its own interests, and it accordingly went to Madison in 
October, 1854. There its failure was so conspicuous and dismal that the Board 
brought it back, not only in accordance with their rule, but with the determination 
to keep it here. In 1855, 1856, 1857 and 1853 it was held here with decided sue 
cess, especially in 1856 and 1857, when the receipts rose to $13,000 and ^14,600 
respectively. In 1859 the Board was forced into traveling again, and took the 
fair to New Albany. The receipts fell oflT to $8,000. It was decided to stop the 
traveling business and locate the fair permanently here, and here it remained through 
1860— the war prevented it in 1861—1862, 1863, 1864. In 1865 it was taken to 
Fort Wayne, where it was quite successful— came back in 1866, and went to Terre 
Haute in 1867. Thefair of 1869, here, was marked by a horrible catastrophe. Two saw 
mills were running a race on Friday, the first day of October, taking their power 
from the boiler in "Power Hall," and, through the culpable negligence or interest 
of the engineer, it was allowed to become red hot, and exploded, killing and wound- 
ing nearly one hundred people. The disaster would have been far more terrible if 


the great bulk of tie crowd had not been drawn, at the time, to the "horse 
ring," to witness the trials of speed. As it was, it spread a gloom over the city 
exceeding any ever known in its history, and incited to the most earnest effort 
to provide for those who were dependent on the dead or helpless, or were too poor 
to secure proper assistance for themselves. A large amount of money was sub- 
scribed, and a committee of prominent citizens appointed to distribute it. A great 
deal of good was done by this movement, and it is but fair to state that the firm by 
which the ruinous boiler was made contributed with marked and prompt liberal- 

At the election, in April, 1851, H. 0. Newcomb was re-elected Mayor, but re- 
signed in November, and the Council placed Caleb Scudder in the vacancy. — A spe- 
cial tax of five cents on the hundred dollars was, at the same election, ordered for 
the Fire Department. — Another election was held in September to decide the ques- 
tion of lighting Washington street with gas, and procuring a town clock. The first was 
lost, the other carried, and a clock was made by John Moffatt, for $1200, in 1853, 
which was placed in the steeple of Eoberts' Chapel in 1854, where it remained, 
sometimes serviceable, and sometimes not, till 1868, when it was removed, and since 
then the city has had no public timepiece. — John B. Gough lectured in Masonic 
Hall, in May, on Temperance, the only topic he ever handled with marked ability 
or effect. The Hall was crowded constantly, and his last lecture, on a Sunday 
night, filled the street about the Hall for a considerable time before sunset. — A 
hurricane caused a good deal of destruction on the 16th of May, and was followed, 
on the 22d, by a devastating hail storm. — Gov. Wood, of Ohio, paid Gov. Wright 
an official visit on the 28th. — The Adams Express Company opened the first express 
oflBce here in September of this year, with Messrs. Blythe & Holland as the first 
agents, succeeded soon by Charles Woodward, and he by John H. Ohr. — A Com- 
mercial College was commenced this year, in the building on the alley south side 
of Washington street, between Illinois and Meridian, by W. McK. Scott. An 
abortiveEeading Room was attempted by the same man. — The County Agricultural 
Society was organized in August, and held a fair in October. — A secession of 
twenty-two members of the First Presbyterian church, on the 23d of September, 
led to the organization of the Third Presbyterian Church, with Eev. David Ste- 
phenson as pastor. A building was begun in 1852, on the northeast corner of 
Illinois and Ohio streets, and finished by slow degrees, so far as to allow the occu- 
pancy of the basement in 1859. The congregation in the meanwhile used College 
and Temperance Halls. Rev's. George E. Heckman and Robert Sloss have since 
been pastors. — The Church of the United Brethren, corner of New Jersey and 
Ohio streets, was begun this year and completed in 1852. — Madame Bishop, and 
Bochsa the celebrated harpist and pianist, gave the first first-class concert we had 
ever had, in Masonic Hall, on the 24th of May, to a delighted but not altogether 
appreciative audience. We did not know much of operatic beauties in those days. — 
An attempt was made to hold noon instead of morning markets, but it failed. — 
The city was making progress during this year. Charles Mayer built his iron- 
fi'ont house, the first in the city. We had two foundries, three machine shops and 
a boiler shop at work, fifty steam engines had been built, and Hasselman & Vin- 
ton had commenced making thrashing machines at their establishment. City 
receipts were $10,515, debt $5,407, school fund $6,199, expenses $5,935. 

The most marked feature of the year 1852 was the increasing activity of rail- 
road business, and the rapid growth of enduring improvements induced by it. So 
closely were these already identified that it required little sagacity to see that what- 


eTer might be the prospects of a new railroad to terminate here, it would never be 
unwise for the citizens to encourage it. The Madison road was in the full tide of 
prosperity. The Bellefontaine road was opened to the State line in November and 
had already sent its share of activity ahead of it in the shops and depot erected in 
the northeast corner of the city. The Cincinnati road was approaching comple- 
tion. The Jeffersonville road had been built to Edinburg, within railroad reach of 
us. The Terre Haute road was completed in May. The Peru road had been com- 
pleted, with a flat rail, to Noblesville. The Lafayette road was completed in 
December. The Central had commenced laying track. The Union Track, connect- 
ing all these, had been completed, and the Union Depot built. We were beginnino- 
to feel our importance as a Kailroad center, and exhibited our conceit in such sen- 
sible forms as new hotels, manufactures and business houses. The Bates House the 
largest— subsequently greatly enlarged— hotel in the city, was built ; also the Mor- 
ris, now Sherman, House, opposite the Union Depot — enlarged to three times its 
original size a few years ago. The Washington Foundry was enlarged, and Osgood 
& Smith's Peg and Last Factory, Geisendorff's woolen mill, Drew's carriage estab- 
lishment, Shellenbarger's planing mill, Macy's pork house, Blake's block, Black- 
ford's first building on Meridian street, McLean's Female Seminary, school houses 
and Eailroad shops, with many other buildings, were added to our improvements. 
It was a busy, bustling year, and saw the beginning of more than one establish- 
ment which has since made the fortunes of its founders. 

But the very beginning of it also saw the most disastrous fire which, up to that 
time, had afflicted the city. East of the Capital House— since known as the Senti- 
nel building— was a block of old buildings, by no means valuable, but filled with 
valuable business— extending to the alley, and on the night of the 10th of January 
it was burned to the ground. Among other items of destruction were the city 
records, in the City Treasurer's office. There were suspicions of incendiarism enter- 
tained at the time, and the insurance of one of the sufferers was contested by the 
Company on the ground that the fire was his own work, but the jury thought other- 
wise. A number of lawyers and doctors, who had their offices in the second story 
were emptied into the street by this catastrophe. ' 

On the invitation of the Legislature, particularly urged by Gov. Wright, Kos- 
suth, the Hungarian hero and orator, visited the city on the 27th of February. A 
committee of fifty citizens had been appointed at a public meeting, a few weeks 
before, to receive him, and they went to Cincinnati on the 26th for that purpose. 
They accompanied him up, coming by way of Madison, and were received at the 
Madison depot by an immense crowd, who were at first full of adoration, but find- 
ing that the Hungarian troubled himself very little about them, and one of hia 
suite kicking a little boy out of his way rather roughly, they changed their note 
and were not indisposed to think him a humbug. Ex-Mayor Newcomb made a 
speech to him in behalf of the city, and he was then escorted by a large proces- 
sion to the State House Square, where Gov. Wright made another speech in behalf 
of the State. He replied in one of those wonderful efforts which commanded the 
admiration of all intelligent men, and was then escorted to the Capital House, 
where he and his suite were quartered at the expense of the city. He had a 
"levee" at the Governor's at night, and was introduced to the Legislature, next 
day. On Sunday he visited Roberts' Chapel and several Sunday schools, and on 
Monday night delivered an address or lecture at Masonic Hall, before an associa- 
tion of Hungarian sympathizers. His principal object was to collect money to 
recover Hungary, a wild scheme which met little encouragement, though his talents 


and misfortunes commanded a wide and generous sympathy. He took away about 
$1,000, chiefly paid for his "Hungarian notes," as keepsakes. Kossuth medals were 
sold in all the stores, and worn by everybody, but the Irish. Kossuth hats became 
the "rage," and for once the fashion was sensible. But this popularity was clouded 
by two circumstances: The Kossuth suite at the Capital House behaved with very 
considerable insolence, and ran up an enormous liquor bill; and the Irish cordially 
hated him, so cordially, indeed, that the Democratic convention following this 
event came near quarrelling seriously about him. He left on Tuesday, after a visit 
of four days. 

During the summer the McLean Female Seminary was built by Dr. 0. G. 
McLean, corner of Meridian and New York streets — a large and handsome three- 
story brick — and opened for pupils in September. It had one hundred and fifty 
the first year. When Dr. McLean died, in 1860, it passed into the hands of Prof. 
C. N. Todd, who maintained its high reputation and success till 1865, when it was 
discontinued and the property sold, as before noticed, to the Indiana Female Col- 
lege, which, after three years, sold it to the Wesley Chapel congregation, who have 
erected a magnificent church edifice upon the ground. 

A balloon ascension was made on the 29th of July — the first ever witnessed 
here — by Mr. William Paullin. He was brought here by the enterprise of Mr. J^ 
H. McKernan, but proved a bad speculation, though his ascension was fine, because 
the crowd could see all they cared to outside the enclosure erected round the State 
House Square—where he " went up " — and wouldn't pay. There was a display of 
fire-works at night. Several ascensions have since been made. 

The Northwestern Christian University, the first and only successful attempt 
at the establishment of a regular collegiate institution in the city, was chartered 
by the Legislature in February, 1852. Stock taken on the "scholarship " plan by 
solicitors during the preceding year, to the amount of $75,000, was reported on the 
22d of June, and on the 14th of July a Directory of twenty-one members was 
appointed, with Ovid Butler, the founder, manager and constant benefactor of the 
institution, as President. A beautiful grove adjacent to Mr. Butler's residence, in 
the extreme northeastern part of the city, was donated by him as a site, and a plan of 
building, devised by Mr. Tinsley, was adopted. This plan allowed the construction 
of the edifice in sections, each complete in itself, but capable of being united with 
the others when necessary. The style is Gothic, though not pure Gothic, but it 
makes a very handsome structure, which instantly commands the attention of the 
visitor in that quarter of the city. The west wing was built in 1854-5, at a cost of 
$27,000. No addition has yet been made, though the growth of the institution 
will soon make it necessary. It was dedicated on the 1st of November, 1855, by suita- 
ble ceremonies and an address by Horace Mann. Its first " Faculty " was composed 
of Hon. John Young, Kev. Allen R. Benton and Mr. James E. Challen. Its Presi- 
dents have been Hon. John Young, Samuel K. Hoshour, Allen R. Benton, O. A 
Burgess, and recently Prof. Benton again. Its peculiarity is that it admits female 
pupils upon the same terms to the same classes as the males, and its remarkable 
success is a vindication of the wisdom of the plan. In 1869 Miss Kate Merrill, a 
lady of distinguished ability as a teacher, was elected to a regular chair, and the 
novel step has proved all that its advocates could wish. Within a year past Mr, 
Butler, to whom the University is indebted for its conception and existence, as well 
as its best support, has donated $10,000 more, to establish the "Demia Butler" 
Chair. During the present year there are about 300 students in attendance. 

The beginning of the year 1853 is memorable, or should be, among a large 



class of our citizens, as the time which witnessed the permanent establishment of 
theatrical amusements here. Since then we have never been without a theatre 
"during the season." F. W. Eobinson, better known as "Yankee" Robinson 
whose skill as an advertiser and showman far exceeded his skill as an actor, after 
"operating" as a "side-show" to the first State Fair, in the fashion of English" 
"strolling theatres," came back during the winter with his company, and opened 
in Washington Hall, on the 21st of January. He had a fair company, and did so 
good a business that the next winter he fitted up the third story of Elliott's new 
building on the corner of Maryland and Meridian streets as a theatre, called it the 
" Atheneum," and renewed his performances on a larger scale. A detailed notice 
of the theatres of the city will be made in another place. 

Following the example of the Free Masons, the Odd Fellows, this year, took 
steps to provide themselves with a Grand Lodge Hall. They procured Lodge and 
individual subscriptions to the amount of $45,000, bought the northeast corner of 
"Washington and Meridian streets for $17,000, and erected, during the two follow- 
ing years, at a cost of $30,000, a building planned by Francis Costigan, and fin- 
ished with a dome by D. A. Bohlen, which Mr. Brown caustically says " is proba- 
bly unlike any other on earth." Its style is certainly nondescript, a sort of cross 
between a Gothic chapel and the Taj Mehal, but it is the most attractive building on 
Washington street for all that. The ground floor rents for a handsome interest on 
the cost, in a bank and other business houses, and the second story is rented for 
offices; only the third is used for Lodge purposes. It was dedicated on the 2Tst of 
May, 1856. A notice of the city Lodges, both of the Odd Fellows and Free Masons 
is appended to the general sketch of the history of the city. 

In March the City Council substituted the general charter act for our special' 
charter of 1847, which limited taxes for city purposes to fifteen cents on the hun- 
dred dollars. The revenue yielded by so slender a source was inadequate to the 
rapidly growing needs of a rapidly developing city, and the change was necessary. 
It was retained till 1857. It made elections annual, and fixed them in May, and 
allowed more liberty of taxation. The first election under the new law was held 
on the 3d of May, when 1,450 votes were cast. Caleb Scudder was elected Mayor, 
Daniel B. Culley, Clerk ; A, F. Shortridge, Treasurer; M. Little, Assessor; Benja- 
min Pilbean, Marshal; N. B. Taylor, Attorney; Wm. Hughey, Street Commis- 
sioner; James Wood, Engineer. On the 6th of May, at their first meeting, the 
new Council created the office of Fire Engineer, for the purpose of bringing all the 
engine companies under such government as would enable them to work together 
and to advantage. Joseph Little was appointed Engineer. The receipts for the 
year were $10,905"; expenses, $7,030. The fire tax -Gmounted to $2,093, the expen- 
ses to $1,018; clock tax to $105; schools, $6,745; expenses for houses, $6,458 
Five fire cisterns had been built, five were in progress, and six had been located. 
The Council Chamber was removed from Hubbard's block to the opposite building, 
■where it remained till it was removed to Odd Fellows' Hall, then newly finished, 
in 1855. The city assessment showed $5,131,682 of taxables, of which $1,239,507 
were personal, and $3,891,875 real property. Of "heavy'' tax payers we had 35 
fwho paid upon more than $20,000, and 59 upon $10,000 to $20,000. The assess- 
ment of 1850 was $2,326,185. That of 1853 shows that the value of city property 
had doubled, and a little more, in three years, though the polls had increased only 
from 1,248 to 1,462. Property was "going up," not because there was twice as 
much of it, but because what there was was held at higher figures. Besides making 
a Fire Engineer, the Council created a Deputy for the Marshal, and fixed the sala-*- 


ries of the officers as follows: Mayor, $600; Clerk, |600; Marshal $500; Engi- 
neer, $800; Street Commissioner, $400; Clerk of Markets, $350; Sexton, $80 ^ 
Deputy Marshal, $400; Councilmen, $2 for each meeting. 

The "Old Settlers" held a meeting in the State House on the 31st of January, 
to recall "old times," and meetings were held annually thereafter, sometimes at 
Calvin Fletcher's and sometimes at James Blake's, till 1860. That of 1855, held at 
Mr. Fletcher's, was reported at great length in the Journal of the next day, and 
imade these assemblages much better known generally than they had been before. 
They were discontinued when the war broke out, and remained so till this past sum- 
!mer [1870], when a meeting was held on the 7th of June to commemorate the 
fiftieth anniversary of the selection of the site of the Capital. — The Fourth Pres- 
byterian church, corner of Delaware and Market streets, a colony of the Second 
[Beecher's] church, was commenced this year, and completed in 1854 so far as to 
allow of its occupancy. 

The arrest, May 21st, of John Freeman, a colored man, a whitewasher by trade, 
-who had been a resident of the city for a number of years, and was known as an 
unusually quiet and deserving man, as a slave ixnder the Fugitive Slave Act, crea- 
ted the most intense excitement that had ever been witnessed in the city. He was 

• claimed by a Georgia planter named Pleasant Ellington, and as oath was made to 
his identity. Justice Sullivan, acting as United States Commissioner, had really 

no alternative but to surrender him. The alleged slave was permitted to prove his 
freedom, if he could, only after he was taken back to the State whence he was said 
to have escaped. His claimants insisted on taking him. They were armed, and 

iready for resistance. But his attorneys claimed that they could prove that he was 
^a free man, really, and demanded time to produce witnesses. The streets were 
cthronged with a fierce and resolute crowd while this controversy was going on. All 
ithe enginery of the law was set in motion to gain time, backed by a singular una- 
mimity of public feeling. If an attempt had been made to take him, as the United 
-States Marshal wanted to do, without giving him a chance to prove the falsity of 
ithe claim against him, there would have been an ugly fight, and a rescue. The 
case was postponed, however, and Freeman, after lying three months in jail, while 
'General Coburn, one of his counsel, went South for proof, had the tardy justice 
done him of being released on the 27th of August. Several planters, who knew 
him well, came up from Georgia and swore to his having been a free man, and the 

• case was ended, and he was forgiven by the Fugitive SlaVe Act for Mr. Ellington's 
perjury. The presence of the planters, and the public interest in the case, caused 

:a meeting of congratulation to be called at Masonic Hall, where some very savage 
speeches, of an "abolition" tendency, were made. Ellington was indicted for per- 
jury, and sued for damages, but nothing ever came of it. 

The excitement in this case was never equalled, except, possibly, in another 
.negro affair of a different character, about the year 1838, and that was among a 
■ different class of people. A young lady organist for the Episcopal church— the 
:first, probably, who held that position— overcome by the fascinations of a hand- 
some mulatto, married him. The news got abroad among the rowdies, and a 
crowd of them attacked the house where she and her husband were lodged, drag- 
ged them out, tarred and feathered him, rode him on a rail and ducked him in the 
river, and abused her, though not so severely. Both were driven out of the town. 
This created an intense excitement for a few days. Some of the ringleaders became 
frightened at what they had done, and left for parts unknown, whence they have 
Miever, openly at least, emerged. 


Appropos of excitements it 'may be noticed here that a strong temperance 
excitement was aroused in the summer of this year, and more general feeling 
enlisted than, probably, at any former time. Street speeches were frequent and 
fervent, and the fronts of saloons were often chosen for them. In September a 
committee waited on the saloon keepers, and found that a large majority of the 
forty-four then in the business had expressed a willingness to quit it. But they 
did not, till the Maine law, in 1855, forced them to do it, and that did not stop them 
long. — Two conventions of brass bands from different parts of the State were held 
during the year, one the 22d of February, under the lead of G. B. Downie, the 
other November 29th, under C. W. Cottom. — An attempt to establish an omnibus 
line from the Union Depot and on Washington street, was made this summer by 
Charles Garner and George Plant, but failed. — A large fire destroyed all the stables 
on Maryland street in the rear of the Wright House on the 10th of August. — The 
Indianapolis Coal Company, formed in the spring, brought the first coal to the city 
from the Clay county mines in the fall. John Caven, Mayor of the city from 1863 
to 1867, in partnership with Kobert Griffith, opened a mine near Brazil as early as 
did the Coal Company, and sent a few loads for use by his partner in his law office, 
but lack of capital prevented him from prosecuting the enterprise. — Another Ger- 
man paper, the Freie Presse, of Republican tendencies, was established in September, 
and the first number appeared on the 2d of that month. — Wm. T. Wiley attempted 
to establish a stock auction room and exchange, but there was not enough business 
to keep it going. — Gavazzi, the assailant of the Inquisition and the Catholic 
church, which he had abandoned, lectured in Masonic Hall in October, followed by 
Lucy Stone in four lectures. Ole Bull gave his first concert, vith Strakosch and 
Adalina Patti, on the 6th of December. — It was estimated that the value of build- 
ings erected this year was $500,000. 

The annual city election of 1854 resulted in the choice of James McCready 
for Mayor. The vote was 2,012. The Council this year determined to provide a 
regular police force, and in September appointed two officers to each ward — four- 
teen — with Jefferson Springsteen as Captain. During the summer of 1855, while 
attempting to enforce the Maine law against a German beer seller in the eastern 
part of the city, they were resisted by a large body of Germans, and the result was 
a terrible riot, in which several of the Germans were wounded. The police were 
sustained by a public meeting and by the Council, but the feeling against the law, 
and the expense of the force, finally induced the Council, on the I7th of December, 

1855, to discontinue it and the Deputy Marshal too. But the town was riotous and 
unsafe, and a second force, of ten. men, was created a month after, January 21st, 

1856, with Jesse Van Blaricum as Captain. This was dismissed the next spring 
by the new Council, and the Marshal, Jeff. Springsteen, authorized to appoint one 
officer for each ward, with C. G. Warner as Captain. The year following this was 
undone, and one policeman for each ward was selected by the Council, with A. D. 
Kose as Captain. Two were added the next year, 1858, and Samuel Lefever made 
Captain. Eose was replaced in 1859. In 1861 two men were appointed for each 
ward, and Rose was retained. He was succeeded upon his entering the army, by 
Thomas A. Ramsay. John R, Cotton became Captain in 1862, two day patrolmen 
were added, and the force uniformed at the expense of the city. In May, 1863, the 
force was increased to seven day and eighteen night patrolmen, with a Lieutenant, 
and Thomas D. Amos as Captain. David M. Powell succeeded Amos within a 
week. The collection of thieves and rowdies, camp-followers and other nuisances 
attending the troops rendezvousing here, made it necessary to add a military guard 


to the police force, and the authorities did it, maintaining a strong guard at police 
headquarters till the close of the war. Detectives were added in December. In 
Miy, 1864, the police districts were fixed, and Samuel A. Cramer made Uaptain. 
In December, 1864, the force being deemed insufficient, sixteen men were added, to 
be retained till the following May. The Captain's salary was raised to $1,500, and 
the men's to $2.50 and 53.00 per day. Jesse Van Blaricum was made Captain again 
in the spring of 1865, with two Lieutenants, nine day and eighteen night patrolmen, 
two detectives, and sixteen special officers. He was succeeded in April, 1866, by 
Thomas S. Wilson, who resigned in 1869, and was succeeded by Lieut. Paul, who 
is the Chief now. The force now consists of 33 men, exclusive of the Captain and 
Lieatenant, and costs about ^33,000 per year. 

In September, 1866, a Merchants' Police Force was organized by Mr. A. Co- 
quillard, which, as its name indicates, was designed merely for the protection of 
property. It consists of twelve men, and patrols some half dozen of the central 
blocks on and adjoining Washington street. It is paid by the property owners in 
the protected section, but is given police powers by the Council. There are also 
some four or five ofiicers in the Union Depot, selected and paid by the Company, 
who are authorized policemen. 

On the 21st of March, 1854, the Young Men's Christian Association was 
organized, and from the first has grown steadily in strength, influence and useful- 
nesss, till it is now inferior to no society in the State. It has maintained courses 
of lectures, not always profitably, has 'relieved the distressed systematically and 
constantly, and has extended its services into scores of hitherto unsuspected and 
untried channels of usefulness. To instance but one: It leaves stamps with the 
Postmaster to pay all letters carelessly or ignorantly deposited without, asking 
only that those who are able shall repay them. This saves probably a dozen let- 
ters every day from loss or delay. Its means grow steadily larger, and its circle 
of usefulness widens with them. Ilecently the question of erecting a building of 
their own has been discussed, and if it be not done now, it will be done before 
long. The International Convention of Y. M. C. Associations, which was held in 
this city this past summer, was a most impressive exhibition of the extent and 
power of those affiliated organizations. Delegates were in attendance from all parts 
of the country and from the British Provinces, and the welcome given them by the 
Association, as well as by the citizens, will hardly diminish their zeal much. 

"Yankee" Robinson, as elsewhere noticed, opened the '-Atheneum" in the 
fall of 1855, with a fair companj'-, and Mrs. Sue Denin, Maggie Mitchell and J. P. 
Adams as stars. — The Tenth Regiment of Regulars, Col. Alexander, on their way 
to Utah, passed through the city in the fall, and attracted a great deal of attention, 
as the fii'st body of soldiers as large as a regiment, and real soldiers too, that had 
ever been seen here. Capt. Bee, afterwards a Rebel General killed at Bull Run, 
was with this reginient when here. 

Bhtxpiet ^t 

free bank panic — city hospital prohibitory liquor law — overthrow of 

the city schools — increase op property — fire difficulties— prof. 
Mitchell's lectures — city assessment — gymnaseum — theatre — Presby- 
ICAL excitement — miscellaneous. 

^m!([HE year 1855, though it found the city prosperous, and progressing steadily 
^K in business and population, spreading rapidly in all directions over the " dona- 
* tion" — some sixty or eighty "additions" having been made to it by diifer- 
ent holders of real estate since 1836, and Blake's, Drake's, Fletcher's, Drake and 
Mayhew's, Blackford's, and others coming in during the present year or the year 
before — found it also struggling with the first severe obstruction it had encountered^ 
The Free Banks, founded on State stocks, and safe enough if prudently managed, 
had been allowed to multiply inordinately, and to work upon inadequate securities 
in some cases, and suspicion of their soundness was made certainty by a "feeler " 
of Gov. Wright's, who sent Mr. John S. Tarkington to a bank in the Wabash 
region, to "try its bottom." He found none. The bank couldn't redeem, and 
straightway began a movement against all the banks. It became almost a panic. 
Tlie banks stopped payment; and as they furnished a large propoi'tion of our cur- 
rency the effect was disastrous. Business was checked at once. Buildings stopped 
half finished. New enterprises were smothered, old ones crippled or paralyzed. 
Everybody had money which nobody wanted to take. There was hardly any debtor 
so poor that he wasn't considered better than the bills in his pocket book. Nobodj- 
wanted to be paid, except at such a discount as nobody wanted to pay. To remedy 
this evil a convention of Free Bankers was held here on the 7th of January, 1855, 
to ascertain the condition and classify the notes of the different banks, that credit 
might be given to those that were sound, and the necessities of the public relieved 
as far as their circulation could do it. Up to that time the word of our city bank- 
ers was law. A man with a roll of bills took them to a banker to pass upon, and 
as he decided this one "good,'' and that one "worth eighty or ninety," and the 
other he "couldn't say," the roll was divided and preserved or got rid of accord- 
ingly. This was bad enough, but it became worse when these judgments varied 
every day or two; the good one day went to "ninety" the next, and the "uncer- 
tain" of one week came up to "fifty" the next. The convention of Bankers aimed 
to effect such a distinction as would relieve this embarrassment. They did what 
they could, and that wasn't much. Some dozen or more banks which were known 
all along to be safe, were classed or "gilt-edged; " a dozen or two more were put in 
a second class, and as many in a third, but as the data were uncertain, the classifi- 
cation was uncertain, and beyond the "gilt-edged," the money holder had to take 
the opinion of a broker or banker for what he was worth, just as before. The 


Journal made a list of the different grades of banks, and clianged them from day 
to day as the city bankers directed, and this publication did some service, and was 
consulted as constantly as the Union Depot time-table is by travelers. But entire 
relief only came with the cleaning out of the bad banks during the year 1855. 

A second visit of the small pox in January of this year, continued into Feb- 
ruary, created a second panic and project to build a city hospital. On the 10th of 
March the Council took a decisive stand for it, and lots were purchased and plans 
made for U building in the extreme northwestern corner of the city, near the point 
whei-e the Crawfordsville road crosses Fall Creek. There was then a vast, open, 
empty common between this location and the city, now almost entirely built up. 
The hospital was begun, but with the subsidence of the alarm came indifference 
about any provision for a future visitation, and the work lagged through four 
years, and was only finished in 1859. It cost about $30,000. During the greater 
part of the timg from its erection till April, 1861, when the necessities of the troops 
compelled its restoration to its proper uses, it had been occupied by prostitutes and 
thieves. Several eflForts were made to appropriate it to some useful purpose, but 
without effect. Some wanted to rent it, some to make it a prison for prostitutes. 
The Sisters of Charity proposed to take it, but the Council finally decided to make 
it a Home for Friendless "Women. It was never used for this purpose, however, 
and was merely occupied by the person who took care of it. In May, 1861, it was 
given up to the use of the Government as a hospital, and retained till July, 1865, 
and then till the following November as a Soldiers' Home, when it was returned to 
the city, greatly enlarged and improved. Two large three-story ells had been 
added, besides outbuildings, and the grounds had been put in good condition. They 
were given for the rent of the hospital. A few weeks after the soldiers were 
removed to the Home at KnightstowL, Rev. Aug. Bessonies, of St. John's Church 
(Catholic), asked that the Hospital be given to the Sisters of the Good Shepherd 
for a city prison for women, and the house of refuge (unfinished) should be con- 
veyed to them on condition of its completion and use as a reformatory school for 
prostitutes. This was a rather "strong pull" in the opinion of the citizens, and 
they subscribed $6,000 to complete the House of Refuge and defeat the project of 
Mr. Bessonies. In the spring of 1866 suitable furniture and hospital supplies were 
obtained at the sales of the Government property at JefTersonville, and a regular 
hospital was established in accordance with the original purpose. Directors and 
consulting physicians were selected, Dr. G. V. Woollen made Superintendent, and 
the hospital opened for patients on the 1st of July, 1866. It has been efficiently 
maintained since, at an annual cost of about $7,000. 

The third prominent event of this year (1855) was the attempt to enforce the 
liquor law enacted during the preceding winter by the Legislature. The temper- 
ance movement assumed such formidable proportions during the years 1853 and 
1854, that it could with propriety demand recognition of the political parties, and 
as the Democratic party repelled it unequivocally, it allied itself with the combi- 
nation then forming from the ruins of the Whig party, destroyed in 1852. This 
combination was so heterogeneous, that a temperance mixture could, as easily as not, 
be stirred into it. The attempt to repeal the Missouri Compromise by the Douglas 
Kansas-Nebraska bill, brought the Free Soilers to the help of such Whigs as still 
retained a hope for their party, and both were reinforced, and largely absorbed, by 
the Know Nothing organization. The singular political episode presented by this 
association originated in a natural and proper desire to restrain the inordinate 
fluence of the foreign element in our country. The Democratic party had gained 


and retained this power by concessions that made it mischievous, the Know Noth- 
ings alleged, and it was necessary to the safety of our institutions that the predomi- 
nance of the native element in our citizenship should be asserted. To this end a 
secret society was organized with the express object of repressing foreign influence. 
As the members made it a point to answer " I don't know," to every question 
regarding their association or its action, it obtained the name of " Know Nothing.' 
However just may have been the object for which it was formed, it soon degenera- 
ted into an unqualified and indiscriminate hostility to foreigners of all classes. It 
started the wrong way to work, for a secret political society is inimical to the 
spirit of our institutions and government, and starting wrong, it went further and 
further wrong the longer it lived, and at last fell by its own weakness. But at the 
outset it spread rapidly, and, working secretly, the results it produced at elections 
startled and confounded its opponents^ They were prostrated in city after city 
and state after state, without being able to see where the blow came from. Its 
career was an unbroken victory till Gov. Wise of Virginia checked it in the contest 
in that State in 1855, In this State, it carried the elections by sweeping majori- 
ties, and many ludicrous incidents were produced by the efforts of the Democrats 
to discover who their enemy was. A couple of well known citizens attempted to 
look into th6 rear windows of Masonic Hall while a State Know Nothing Conven- 
tion was in session in 1855, and were discovered perched on the top of the water- 
closet building of the Hall, one peeping in and reporting to the other, who was 
taking notes, and a rough caricature of the scene, published in a little paper called 
the Railroad City, produced what Homer calls " inextinguishable laughter." The 
secrets of the society were, however, divulged shortly after, and published in the 
Sentinel of this city, and it soon went to pieces. 

The combination of Know N'othings, Whigs, Free Soilers and Temperance men 
enacted a stringent prohibitory liquor law, after the Maine pattern, allowing no 
liquor to be sold except by authorized agents. It went into operation on the 12th 
of June, and Mr. Espy was appointed Agent for this township. It was enforced 
as far as it could be — and that wasn't far, for it was continually evaded and secretly 
violated — for about two months. On the 2d of July Koderick Beebee purposely 
violated it to test its validity. He was arrested, fined and imprisoned, and the case 
taken at once to the Supreme Court. The opinion being very generally enter- 
tained that the Court would decide against the law, it was soon entirely disre- 
garded, but not until, as noticed in the last chapter, it had caused a bloody collis- 
ion between the police and the Germans in the eastern part of the city. The 
Court, as was anticipated, decided it unconstitutional, and liquor was left without 
any restriction at all. 

A convention of the Mayors of the cities of the State was held on the 22d of 
January, for nothing, so far as any result ever showed. — The first City Directory 
was issued this year by Grooms & Smith. — Twenty-one hundred Sunday-school 
children, with the Fire Companies, reinforced by the Hope Company of Louisville, 
celebrated the Fourth of July. — A building and Loan Fund Association was formed 
in the fall, and lived for some years, unprofitably, and was wound up. — A Fuel 
Association, formed the last of October, did better, for it furnished wood and coal 
to its members at fair rates. — A Women's Eights convention was held in Masonic 
Hall, October 22d and 23d, with Mrs. Kebecca Swank as President, and Mrs. Lucre- 
tia Mott, Ernestine L. Eose, Frances D. Gage, Adaline Swift, Harriet Cutler and 
Joseph Barker as leading participants.— The Black Swan sang at Masonic Hall ; 
Powers' Greek Slave was exhibited at Masonic Hall ;— Parodi sang at Masonic 


Hall; — James E Murdocli attempted to play the only engagement he ever made 
here, at the Atheneum, under the management of Brown & Commons, but his sup- 
port was so execrable that he left after the second performance to a house consist- 
ing of just fifteen auditors. — The houses were first numbered on Washington street 
this fall, but it was badly done, as was the attempt in 1858, which was superceded 
in 1864 by the system which allowed fifty numbers to the square. — Park Benjamin, 
David Paul Brown, Edwin P. Whipple, Henry B. Stanton, Bishop Simpson and 
others lectured during the winter, before the Y. M. 0. Association. 

The year 1856 was ushered in by the coldest weather ever known in the city 
or the Northwest. On the morning of the 9th of January the thermometer fell to 
25°, some marked 28°, below zero. It has never been so cold since. — In May the 
city schools had a pic-nic in the State Fair Grounds, marching out under the lead 
of their teachers, in a procession that extended almost the entire length of the 
town. The occasion was fearfully marred by the drowning of one of the pupils in 
the basin at the west end of the grounds. 

The first prominent event of the year was the meeting of the General Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Church, on the 1st of May, in the Representative's Hall of 
the State House. All the Bishops were present, and some of the prominent pi-each- 
ers of the denomination from England were also in attendance. The sessions 
were daily attended by crowds of interested spectators, who never before, or since, 
saw in that Hall discussions so ably and courteously conducted. The delegates 
filled pretty much all the pulpits in the city, by invitation, during their stay. 
This was the first national gathering that ever met here. 

On the 6th of May the Democrats carried the city election for the last time. 
The total vote was 2,776. The total taxables was $7,146,670, of which $1,892,152 
was personal property. The receipts were $27,889, the expenses $46,105. The 
city debt was growing fast. In 1854 it was $567 ; in 1855, $11,000 ; in 1856, $15,- 
295. To fund the debt a loan of $30,000 was proposed to be negotiated in New 
York, and Jeremiah D. Skeen was appointed the agent to negotiate it upon city 
bonds. He "pawned" the whole amount to Winslow, Lanier & Co., for $5,000, 
his political enemies — he was a Democrat — said, to get money to bet on the State 
elections in the fall; but whatever his purpose, he kept the money, and his fraud 
was not discovered till Winslow, Lanier & Co. notified the city of their possession 
of the bonds and demanded payment. The city paid the New York bankers, and 
twelve years aftewards, in 1868, obtained judgment against Skeeu's sureties for the 
whole amount with interest. 

As the political contest of this year involved evei'y office in the State or nation 
of any consequence, and, besides, inaugurated the first general and organized effort 
to resist the exorbitant power of the slavery party, and was doubly embittered by 
the outrages of the Border Ruffians in Kansas in the effort to make the Territory a 
Slave State in spite of the people, it was by all odds the most exciting conflict ever 
known in the country. It was hardly equalled in intensity of feeling by that of 
1860, though in extent and profusion of demonstration it was surpassed. The 
Republicans on the 15th of July held a mass convention here, which, up to that time, 
had never been equalled in numbers or enthusiam, and the feeling was maintained 
through the day not only by speeches, but by a singular display which " hit the sense " 
of the crowd and the spirit of the occasion " point blank." This was a procession of 
young men dressed to represent the Kansas "Border Ruffians" and "Buford's 
Thieves," who exhibited a number of " tableaux " illustrating the cruelties and 
crimes of those infamous villains. It was hailed with a continuous roar of laughter 


and cheers as it passed down "Washington street to the State House Square. A 
torch-light procession, with several thousands of torch-bearers, closed the perform- 
ances at night. On the 17th the Democrats held a similar conveution, little if at 
all inferior in numbers to the other, and closed with a torch-light procession equally 
magnificent. The Democrats carried the elections, if they did not the honors of 
lamp-wick and grotesque dresses, but so far as the city was concerned their success 
was short-lived. Henry F. West, the Mayor, elected in May, died on the 8th of 
November, and an election for his successor was held on the 22d to fill the vacancy, 
and that of City Clerk, created by the death of Alfred Stevens on the 26th of 
October. The Republicans carried it by a decided majority, and rejoiced over it 
with a degree of enthusiasm rather difiBcult to understand in view of the fact that 
the Mayor's power did not amount to much, and the Democrats had ten Council- 
men out of fourteen. W. J. Wallace was elected Mayor, and Frederick Stein 

During the preceding winter the firm of Dunlevy, Haire & Co., established 
themselves here in the interest of Cincinnati bankers and brokers, who bought our 
bank bills ata big discount and "run" them back for the gold, to the serious injury 
of the business of the State and the city, both. Remonstrances, by both press and 
tongue, were loud and earnest, but had no effect on the Cincinnati blood-suckersj 
who would hBve "run" a depreciated bill back upon a blind beggar, if they knew 
he would starve if he redeemed it. The effect was that a convention of business 
men was held here in April to take steps to divert our Cincinnati trade to other 
points, where more liberality was promised, and, doubtless, would have been prac- 
ticed, as Cincinnati was, beyond all question, the meanest city on the face of the 
earth. D. K. Cartter, of Cleveland, and a number of the leading men of that 
city, Toledo, Louisville and St. Louis attended, and exhibited the advantages of 
their several cities in speeches that gave us a great deal of valuable information, 
and lost Cincinnati a great deal of business. 

An Art Association, of the fashion of the old Art Union, was formed, and 
continued for some years, to distribute pictures, contributed by Jacob Cox, Peter 
Fishe Reed, James F. Gookins and othar artists, to the subscribers. The pictures 
were purchased at a fair price by the Asfociation, with the money paid for chances 
by the members. — The Y. M. C. Association had George Sumner (brother of Charles), 
Elihu Burritt, the learned blacksmith, S. S. Cox and others to lecture during the 
winter. — Ole Bull played at the Atheneum, and Paul Julien, Parodi, Tiberini and 
others gave concerts, aad Geo. F. Root had a musical convention. 

The year 1857, though a year of great and increasing prosperity, was singu- 
larly uneventful. Everthing moved on in that steady, undisturbed pace which beto- 
kens the best possible condition, but gives the records little to fill up with. The 
United States building, corner of Pennsylvania and Market streets, was in prog- 
ress, but encountering unexpected difficulties in the character of the soil. There 
had once been a swamp there, and though the surface was " healed over," the 
original disease remained below, causing a vast deal of pumping and "filling in" 
with broken stone and cement, before it could be trusted with the foundation of the 
massive stone structure intended for the Post office and the Federal Courts. The 
Episcopal church, the first Gothic edifice in the city, and the first church of stone; 
the Third and Fourth Presbyterian churches, the Metropolitan Theatre, and the 
large block of handsome buildings opposite the Court house, on the site of Gov. 
Ray's old tavern, where he intended to have the central depot of all the rail- 
roads of the United States, were in progress, with a number of less pretentious 


business structures and residences in all parts of the city. The increase of popula- 
tion and business had become so decided that calculating men began to see the 
way clear to make the city the centre of supply and purchase for a great part of 
the State, instead of allowing Cincinnati to occupy that position, A meeting was 
held in July to consult upon this subject, and determine upon the practicability of 
establishing wholesale houses, A committee appointed by this meeting reported 
that we had seventy-five houses and thirty-two manufactories which carried on 
wholesaling to some extent, in connection with what might be called their regular 
business, but had no exclusively wholesale establishment. Blake, Wright & Co. 
opened a wholesale dry goods house, to test the soundness of the theories of the 
"progressives," and found that they we a little too early. They soon closed it up. 
The schools were improving with the general advancement of the city. There 
were nine houses — two rented — and the old Seminary used as the High School, 
which would properly accommodate but 1,200 pupils, about two-thirds of the num- 
ber actually crowded into them. From that day to this, except during the time 
the schools were suspended under the operation of a decision of the Supreme Court 
against local school taxes, the accommodations, doubly and trebly enlarged, have 
remained still about as far behind the demand for them. Twenty-five teachers are 
employed, and 2,730 children, less than half the number in the city, were enrolled, 
of whom about three-fourths attended regularly. The houses in the 1st, 2d and 5th 
Wards had been raised to two stories. The house in the 8th Ward was built this 
year. The trustees were D. V. Culley, John Love and Napoleon B. Taylor. The 
fund in the past year had reached $27,050, the expenses $19,428. The Germans, 
by a petition to the Council in 1855, had urged that the school fund be divided 
proportionally, that they might support separate German schools. The Trustees, to 
whom the matter was referred by the Council, reported against it, early in 1857, on 
the ground that there was not enough money or school room for the scholars as it 
was, and to divide both would ruin the regular schools without benefiting the Gei- 

The general charter law adopted in 1853, was amended by the Legislature in 
1857, so as to make the terms of the city offices two years instead of one, and the 
amended act was accepted by the Council on the 16th of March of this year (1857). 
The first election was held in May, with a total poll of 3,300 votes, each party elect- 
ing a portion of its ticket. Andrew Wallace was made Chief Fire Engineer. The 
salaries of officers were fixed as follows : Mayor, $800 ; Clerk, $600 ; Marshal, 
$500; Deputy, $400; Attorney, $400; Street Commissioner, $450; Engineer, $600; 
Clerk of Markets, $300; Sexton, $80; Fire Engineer, $175; Treasurer, 4 per cent, 
of current, and 6 per cent, of delinquent, taxes ; Councilmen, $2 for each meeting. 
The city assessment was $9,874,700. 

On the 22d of May the Turnverein had a festival, in which they turned out 
in procession with banners, music and other customary decorative effects, aided by 
some of their brethren from Cincinnati and other cities. Addresses were made, 
gymnastic exercises practiced, and target shooting rather ineffectually attempted) 
upon the Fair Ground. Among those present was the editor of the Turners' paper 
in Cincinnati, who gave at night, in Washington Hall, some astonishing exhibi- 
tions of his power of memory. — Heavy rains and a freshet in the river on the 10th, 
12th and 16th of June. — The Fourth of July was celebrated by the union of Sun- 
day-schools for the last time this year. — Firemen's riots in July, "cleaning out ' 
brothels on East Washington street, near the creek, and on West street. This sort 
of missionary work was attempted by the firemen several times, more to indulge a 


spirit of deviltry than to remove the nuisance of this class of houses. — The County 
Fair was a failure— the State Fair an astonishing success. The entries, as before 
noted, exceeded 3,000, and the receipts were $14,600. — A fugitive slave was arrested 
in December, made his escape by the help of the crowd, and was recaptured after a 
hot chase, and carried back to Kentucky. — Dodworth's band, with ninety instru- 
ments, gave a concert in the Fair Ground the last day of J une, but it was a failure. — 
Edward Everett delivered his Washington lecture, for the benefit of the Mount Ver- 
non Association, on the 4th of May, in Masonic Hall. — Thalberg, Parodi and Mol- 
lenhauer gave a concert on the 7th of May. Greeley, Dudley Tyng, Gov. Bout- 
well and others lectured to the Y. M. C. Association. — German theatrical perform- 
ances were given at the " Apollo Garden," corner of Tennessee street and Kentucky 
avenue, by Mr. Kunz and his daughters. — The Atheneum was re-opened by Stetson 
& Wood. — Cameron and McNeeley started the DailT/ Citizen, at No. 10 Pearl street, 
and continued it for a little more than a year. — The Bidwell Brothers, Andrew and 
Solomon, started the Western Presage, as a literary and political weekly, on the 3d 
of January, and abandoned it in April. 

The year 1858 opened with a disastrous blow at the city school system. It 
was firmly established, provided with good houses and adequate means, and prom- 
ised to realize the expectations of the most sanguine. The citizens taxed them- 
selves readily and heavily to support it, and took a just pride in its excellence and 
its benefits. But during the preceding year a case came up to the Supreme Court 
fVom Lafayette, where a system of local taxation in aid of the State Fund existed, 
involving the question of the constitutionality of local taxes. The constitution 
required that the school tax should be " uniform," and the point was made that if 
cities or townships were permitted, even by a general law, to add a tax to the fixed 
state tax, which other cities and townships did not choose to assume, there was no 
" uniformity," and therefore no conformity to the constitutional requirement. The 
Supreme Court sustained the opinion in a decision made in January, 1858, and 
killed our admirable schools as dead as last year's flowers. An attempt was made 
by the citizens, at the request of the Council, to supply the deficiency created by 
the abrogation of the city school tax, by individual subscriptions, but it failed of 
any but a temporary efi'ect. Some $3,000 were subscribed to complete the current 
quarter, but the dependence was found to be greatly inadequate as well as uncer- 
tain, and at the end of the quarter the schools were closed, the teachers sought 
other places where " uniformity " of taxation would be construed liberally when 
it could be done as justly as otherwise, the houses were abandoned, and our bene- 
ficent system was a ruin. For a few weeks in each year the feeble "uniform' 
. supply from the State fund permitted the schools to be re-opened free, but this was 
little better than nothing. Private schools were kept by some of the old teachers 
in the houses, but they made a lamentable contrast in attendance and efficiency 
with the system they followed. It was a disastrous blow at the future lives and 
culture of thousands of children, for the years lost under the operation of that decis- 
ion could not come back to be filled with the instruction and improvement of 
the era of revived free schools and universal education. The State fund has, since 
the overthrow of our first system, increased so greatly as to permit its renewal and 
extension with the rapid growth of the city, and now there are no better schools in 
the United States than ours. 

The increase of buildings in 1858 was estimated at $600,000. The total of tax- 
ables was $10,475,000. The total poll at the May election, 3,343. The Eepublicans 
improved the victory of November, 1856, by electing a majority of the Council 


They have held the control of the city government ever since. The election of a 
Chief Fire Engineer impelled the first steps towards abolishing the volunteer Fire 
Department, and substituting one of paid workmen, with steam engines. Joseph 
W. Davis, the new Engineer, was excessively unpopular with the majority of the 
companies, and both he and they were constantly "in hot water" about some dif- 
ference or other. The Department became greatly "demoralized," and did little 
except carry on its own contentions. It thus happily prepared the way for an early 
substitution of steam, a measure which Mr. Davis urged with great persistency and 

Heavy rains during the spring and early summer of this year made damaging 
freshets in the river and Pogue's creek. The latter flooded the lower part of the 
city on the 12th of April, washed off" several bridges, injured the Central Railroad 
bridge so that a locomotiYC broke through it, and washed out the culvert under the 
canal, besides doing a good deal of mischief to the houses in its vicinity. The 
former, on the 14th of June, covered the bottoms and damaged the adjacent farms 
greatly. — A class for the investigation of the Bible was formed during the summer, 
and held at the Court house, on Sundays, interesting meetings, participated in by 
men of all creeds, and none, and lived for a year two. — The Church of the Hebrews 
was organized in August, and met in an upper room of Judah's block, opposite the 
Court house, till 1866, when the Synagogue, on Market street, east of New Jersey, 
which was commenced in 1865, was occupied. It was dedicated in 1857. It cost 
about $25,000. — The laying of the Atlantic cable, in August of this year, was cele- 
brated by an impromptu glorification, followed by a more elraborate one on the 
17th, at which Gov. Wallace made the last public address of his life. The decisive 
part he had taken in giving Congressional aid to the telegraph in 1841, and the 
penalty of defeat which he paid for it, made his selection appropriate and just, and 
the Governor's own admirable oratory made it pleasing to the vast crowd that gath- 
ered in the Circle to hear him. — An Academy of Sciences was formed during the 
summer, and held meetings for hearing essays and discussions, in Judah's block, 
and made quite a collection of minerals and other objects of scientific value, but 
the interest in it was too limited to allow it to live long, and it died in 1860. — In 
the way of lecturing the astronomical lectures of Prof. O. M. Mitchell, of the Cin- 
cinnati Observatory, (afterwards distinguished as a Union General in the Ptebel- 
lion), to the Library Association, were the feature of the year. He delivered some 
ten or twelve, which,ln spite of their purely scientific character, were made so inter- 
esting that Masonic Hall was crowded every night to hear them, and the Journal 
reported them regularly every day at considerable length. Thomas F. Meagher 
and Prof. E. L. Youmans, the celebrated chemist, Bayard Taylor, Dr. John G. 
Holland (Timothy Titcomb), were also among the distinguished lecturers of the 
season, A. J. Davis, the prophdt of a new sect of fools, gave some of his spiritual 
inculcations, beginning December 10th. — The Metropolitan Theatre was completed, 
and opened under the management of E. T. Sherlock, with indifferent success. It 
was our first theatre. The corner stone was laid in August of the year before. The 
first performance was a series of remarkably fine tableaux, September 27th, 1858. 
The theatrical portion of our history will be found in another place. 

The year 1859 was another year of unbroken progress, but of meagre interest 
in its history. All that can be told of it may be condensed into a dozen words. 
Buildings going up, the city spreading in every direction, business increasing. The 
City Council, on the 1st of March, again changed the charter by adopting the 
amendment of the current session of the Legislature, which made the terms of the 


city offices two years and of the Councilmen four. A proposition to divide the 1st and 
7th Wards, forming the 8th and 9th, was voted down at the election May 3d. It was 
carried in 1861, however, and councilmen elected, but owing to some informality 
or defect in the election, the "elect" were not admitted to the Council. The total 
taxables was $7,146,677, more than $3,000,000 less than the year before. As the 
city had been steadily growing, it is not easy to understand this sudden collapse of 
one-third of its wealth. The receipts were $71,211, all spent, and a debt of $9,- 
317 added; this is the City Clerk's statement. The Treasurer reported the receipts 
at $59,168; expenses at $56,442. This discrepancy is as inexplicable as the other. 
The Fire Department cost $10,232; gas, $4,771; police, $4,882. Washington street 
was bouldered — the first work of the kind — between Illinois and Meridian in May. 
The tax was made 60 cents on the $100. There was some talk of building a City 
Hall adjoining the former Journal building, corner of Meridian and Circle streets, 
but it came to nothing. The city offices remained in Odd Fellows' Hall till 1862, 
when tte completion of Glenn's block from the old Washington Hall and Wright 
House afforded an opportunity to obtain more convenient quarters, and a lease of 
the two upper stories was made for ten years. This year (1870), the lease was for- 
feited, the unexpired portion compounded for, and the offices moved to Cottrell & 
Knight's new building. A station house, just completed, at a cost of about $10,000, 
on Alabama street, south of Washington, gives the city its own prison for the first 
time. The use of the county jail for city offenders was enormously expensive, and 
crowded that "institution" unhealthily, and the station house is a most necessary 
and valuable addition to fhe city's police provision. 

An attempt was made in January to organise a University and obtain the Uni- 
versity Square from the Legislature, but it failed, partly because there was not force 
enough behind it, and partly because the Legislature, not feeling sure that Univer- 
sity Square did not belong to the city, refused to make any grant in connection 
with it. The city has it now, and has made a handsome park of it, as noticed 
heretofore. — A Gymnastic Association was formed this year, and the Atheneum 
obtained for its apparatus and exercises, Simon Yandes being Resident, and Thos. 
H. Bowles, Secretary. Some $1200 were expended in fitting up bowling alleys, 
swings, ladders, bars, and other appliances, and public exhibitions occasionally 
given, but it died out in a couple of years. An effort had been made in 1854 to 
maintain such an association, and a room was rented for it in Blake's block, but it 
died out in three or four months. — Some miles of streets were lighted with gas 
for the first time, this year, the Council having adopted a general and uniform 
plan for placing and providing lights. — The " old Underbill property," corner of 
Pennsylvania and Michigan streets, was bought in April by Kev. Gibbon Wil- 
liams, a Baptist clergyman, and the building, subsequently enlarged and improved 
into one of the handsomest edifices in the city, converted into the Indianapolis 
Female Institute. It is one of the best schools in the West. It can accommodate 
200 boarders and 300 day pupils. After Mr. Williams left, in 1863, it passed into 
the hands of Mr. C. W. Hewes.— The General Assembly of the Old School Pres- 
byterian church met on May ISth, in the Fourth Prebjterian church, and sat till 
June 2d. Dr. Thornwell, of South Carolina, Dr. Palmer, of New Orleans, Dr. N. 
L. Kice of St. Louis, Dr. Alexander, of Princeton College, Dr. McMasters, of this 
State formerly, and a number of other distinguished men of the denomination were 
in attendance. — The City Council apprepriated $500 this year, to help celebrate the 
Fourth of July. A procession two miles long, composed of artillery, cavalry and 
infantry companies, the Turners, Butchers, Fenians, Firemen, some Catholic asso- 


«iations aad Firemen from Madison, with three brass bands, was the feature of the 
day. Caleb B. Smith, afterwards Secretary of the Interior under President Lin- 
coln, delivered the address on the Fair Ground. There were fire-works and a 
masquerad« procession at night, and at midnight a march of the mysterious " Sons 
of Malta." This last was patiently waited for by an immense throng that lined 
both sides of Washington street far along above and below Military Hall, where 
the society met. Its demonstration was a success, so far as the shouts and enjoy- 
ment of the spectators could make it so. — Adam Dietz, drank a keg of lager beer 
(eight gallons), on a wager, inside of twelve hours, on the 23d of August. — The 
Daily Atlas was started by Jon D. Defrees. The Brookville American removed to 
this city by Mr. T. A. Goodwin, its proprietor, and subeequently converted into the 
Daily Evieni-ng Gazette. — George D. Prentice lectured in Masonic Hall, on the 6th 
of February, and H. S. Foote, formerly Governor of Mississippi,, lectured in Rob- 
bert's Chapel. Mr. Lincoln spoke in Masonic^Hall on the 19th of September, and 
Gov. Tom. Corwin, of Ohio, spoke at the American House on the 6th of July — all 
in preparation for the decisive and final battle with slavery of the next year. — 
Richard Cobden, the great English Free Trader and Statesman, passed through 
the city on the 5th of May. 

An election was held in February, 1860, to decide whether the Council should 
appropriate $5,000 to assist the State Board of Agriculture in purchasing new Fair 
■Grounds, the old having been found too small. As the Board proposed to locate 
the State Fair here permanently, it was thought a judicious operation to give them 
the necessary ground, and an attempt was made to form an association forjthat pur 
pose, but the association came to nothing, and though the people authorized the 
$5,000 subsidy to the Board, it was deemed of doubtful legality, and never given. 
Subsequently the Railroads joined with the Board and bought the grove north of 
the city, where the State Fairs are now held. During the last fall (1870), there 
was some talk of obtaining still other grounds, west of the city, and removing the 
Fair to them, but, unless the destruction of the trees on the present ground be the 
objectionable feature, no reason for a change is very clearly visible. 

A plan to supply the city with water was proposed by a Mr. Bell of Rochester, 
in the spring of 1860, but it was discussed without result. The company owning 
the Central Canal renewed the proposal in 1864, but with no better success. In. 
the fall of 1865 the subject was revived by a recommendation of Mayor Caven, 
which suggested Crown Hill as a suitable elevation for a reservoir. The City 
Council resolved that the city wanted water-works, but should not build them. 
No company came forward to undertake the work, and it fell out of sight till the 
spring of 1866. The Mayor again brought it up, with illustrations derived from 
an examination of Mr. J. B. Cunningham, a civil engineer, but nothing practical 
was elicited tiil November, when R. B. Catherwood & Co., afterwards prominent in 
competing for the city gas contract, and in the street railway project, were granted 
a charter for a water supply company, which required the water to be taken from 
the river several miles above the city; that a certain sum be expended in a certain 
time ; fire-plugs to be located where ordered at a certain price ; and that the city 
should have the privilege of purchasing the works after twenty-five years. The 
Company was organized with R. B. Catherwood as President, and John S. Tark- 
ington as Secretary, the charter accepted, a few feet of pipe laid on North street, 
and the thing died out. In the winter of 1868-9 some effort was made by the 
Central Canal Company to induce the Council to adopt the Holly system of water 
supply and fire protection, which dispenses with a reservoir, and?o ces the water 


by machine pressure instead of gravity. They wanted to make a joint stock com- 
pany, into which they would put the canal at a fair valuation, and take both the 
water supplj', and the power to distribute it, from that unfortunate bit of State enter- 
prise. But the Council would not listen to the scheme. A year after, in the fall of 
1869, Mr. Woodruff of Rochester, organized a company to supply the city with 
water upon the Holly plan, as in Auburn, N. T., Peoria, 111., Dayton, 0, and 
a number of other cities. He was given a charter, after a good deal of contention, 
and under pretty rigid limitations, and the works are now well on the way to com- 
pletion. The building, near the foot of Washington street, is up and enclosed, sev- 
eral miles of pipe are down, a flume to operate the water machinery by a supply. 
from the canal — the charter allowing water power, but requiring steam, too — has 
been laid, and an artesian well sunk seventy or eighty feet to a reservoir of pure 
soft water, which will be made available as soon as possible. The water works will 
be noticed more fully hereafter. — Street Railroads were projected in November of 
1860, but nothing was done till 1863. 

The political excitement of this year was so absorbing that there is little else 
to tell, and of that there is nothing but speeches, processions, monster demonstra- 
tions, and miles of torch lights. Each party seemed to feel that its success in the 
election depended mainly upon impressing people with the idea that it was strong- 
est in lamps and banners, and long trails of dusty footmen and wagons full of women 
and walnut limbs. The feeling was not more intense than in 1856, for by both sides 
the success of Mr. Lincoln, in view of the division between Douglas and Brecken- 
ridge, was deemed pretty much a foregone conclusion, and this probability allayed 
excitement to a considerable extent, but it seemed more nearly universal. The 
Democrats, whatever they thought of their chances, were in no degree surpassed 
by their more hopeful opponents in the glory of torches and crowds and speeches. 
The demonstration on the day that Mr. Douglas spoke in the old Fair Ground, 
September 28th, was quite equal to that of the Republicans on the 29th of August. 
A month after the election political issues began passing from the stage of dis- 
cussion to that of battle, and opened a new era in the history of our city. 

A destructive storm, accompanied by a phenomenon somewhat resembling the 
cloud end of a water spout, occuri-ed on the 29th of May, a little while before sun- 
down. It passed along the south end of the city, sweeping a little north east at 
the end of Virginia avenue, tearing out a path through roads, fences, hous s and 
whatever interposed. It twisted the residence of Gardner Goldsmith, a horticul- 
turist on Virginia avenue, half way round on its foundations, and tore one end of 
it entirely away, breaking Mr. G.'s leg in the ruins. Trees two or three feet through 
were uprooted, broken short off,.or twisted round as if the water spout had wrung 
them like a wet rag. It was the most fearful tornado experienced here for many 
years. The spout was described at the time as a long narrow bag, or tongue, hang- 
ing down from a small cloud that passed swiftly below the other clouds, swaying 
about and thrashing up and down violently, and tearing up everything which it 

A fine display was made on the Fourth of July by the firemen and military, 
trade societies and citizens, and a superb display of fire-works given in the col- 
iseum, which was merely a high fence round the southeastern portion of Univer- 
sity Square, with a shed roof and roughly seated. — Bayard Taylor, Henry J. Ray- 
mond, Lola Montez, Prof Toumans, John B. Gough, Dr. R. J. Breckenridge, 
George W. Winship, lectured during the year, and a fool walked a rope stretched, 
from Blackford's block to Tohn's. 


^ h a p t 6 r Mitt. 

SUS OF 1870. 

fTHE Fourth Period in the history of our city, embraced in the decade from 
January, ]861, to January, 1871, is the most important, not only as regards 
events affecting the whole country, in which it bore a conspicuous part, but in 
those affecting its immediate develop ment and prosperity. It saw us rise from a 
mere flourishing inland town and prominent railway station to the condition of a 
manufacturing and commercial centre, increasing our population 130 per cent.; 
spreading far around beyond the lines of the "donation;" reaching out to every 
quarter of the State for business; displacing whole blocks of handsome residences 
for huge ware houses; tearing away the inadequate buildings of earlier years for 
palatial stores and banks; paving and lighting scores of miles of streets every 
year; supplying water, and providing sewerage; bearing heavy taxes for war pur- 
poses, and paying large debts wiihout serious oppression, under the impulse of 
rapidly accumulating wealth. It saw Indianapolis a town, with a prospect of 
steady but not unusual development, and it sees a city with commanding power and 
position, with prosperity established, and the future bey(md the reach of accident. 
Up to this time, though slowly "forging" ahead of its former rivals, Madison, New 
Albany, Evansville, Lafayette and Fort Wayne, and recognized as the largest and 
wealthiest town in the State, its position was not so fully assured but that the 
advantages exposed in the coal fields and other sources of industry, might equal 
the start it had, and ultimately leave it behind. But the close of the decade sees 
it hopelessly ahead of all rivalry, the metropolis of the State, the seat of the most 
numerous, varied and productive manufactories, and the distributing centre of a 
trade probably unequaled by any city in the Union of the same population 
Instead of being endangered by the development of the coal and iron interests, its 
position has been made certain by ihem. It has four, and will soon have five, rail- 
roads penetrating the coal fields in as many directions, and bringing to us, at the 
centre, from which they all radiate, our choice of coal for all uses. The conse- 
quence is a growth [of the iron interest that surprises the most sagacious and 


sanguine of our business prophets. And with long, if not equal, steps, cotton and 
woolen mills, grain and saw mills, pork houses, breweries, lumber yards, stave 
factories, furniture works, wholesale grocery, dry goods, drug, book, shoe, hat and 
other houses, have kept close by its side, or close behind. The enormous influx of 
troops during the war, not only from our own State in preparation for the field, but 
from other States in passing back and forth as the exigercies of the time required, 
and the flood of trivial and temporary trade that always follows a crowd, gave an 
impulse to solid business and permanent development less in degree, but like in 
kind, to that experienced by San Francisco twenty years ago. Everybody was in a 
fever of enterprise, and nobody seemed to think that anything was impossible. 
Illinois street, which had previously known little business except whit a saloon or 
two and a few millinery establishments at one end, and a hotel at the other, could 
do, became crowded with clothing stores, restaurants, cheap jewelry stands, saloons 
grocery stores, boarding houses, gambling hells, and all that kind of traffic, decent 
and indecent, honest and rascally, that pursues an army as albicores do a flock of 
flying fish. Wholesale houses began pushing up from the Union Depot and down 
from Washington street, along Meridian. Pennsylvaoia thickened with machine 
shops in the creek bottom, and heavj' houses sprang up on Delaware. Busi- 
ness which had previously been confined to Washington street, except as scattered 
butcher shops and family groceries had dribbled it about on other streets, now began 
to "swell beyond the measure of its chains," and locations on cross streets were 
deemed quite equal to the best on Washington, and on Meridian street better. The 
city was actually burthened with papulation and trade. It was like a man breath- 
ing oxygen, living too much to last. The close of the war and the disbanding of 
the army, though it dropped us back to a heal by condition, in which there wei-e ele- 
ments of safe calculation, and left us a little exhausted by o^er exertion was nev- 
ertheless so gradual a depletion that the change was effected without a violent or 
dangerous shock. And our temporary advantages had been so promptly and judi- 
ciously improved that much upon which we had laid our hands was held fast. We 
had made a great and irreversible step forward. The impulse of the war wa 
weakened but not lost, and there was never any fear that we should have to 
begin as 1861 found us,and build over again, in better fashion, what the "flush 
time" had built for itself. The drift, like the sediment left by the Nile flood, fer- 
tilized enterprise for new crops of achievements. With this glance at the changes 
produced by the war, and the influences set in operation by it, the connection of 
the city with military affairs may bo introduced. 

The split in the Democratic convention at Baltimore in 1860 gave plain warn- 
ing that the Slave States would abide by no action or election that they did not con- 
trol. It therefore caused no surprise when South Carolina passed an ordinance of 
secession and was speedily joined by other States. The subject had been fully dis- 
cussed here on the stump and by the press, and public opinion had reached, as usual, 
two conflicting, but very well defined, conclusions. On the one side it was held 
that the Union should be preserved at all hazards, and the recusant States forced, 
by invasion and power of arms, to obey the will of the majority. On the other, it 
was contended that if the Government began a war of coercion, struck the first 
blow, shed the first blood, and stood before the world the military aggressor, while 
the South confined its action to ordinances and paper demonstrations, the effect 
would be an union of all the Slave States, border and sea board, the enlistment of 
the sympathies and aid, if not actual alliance, of our European rivals, and a serious 
danger of losing our own Government as well as the States that had abandoned 


it. For this reason it was suggested that a National convention, elected directly 
by the people, should be called to consider the difficulty, and if no adjustment 
could be made, it would be better to let the South try a separate government, allied 
by interest and kindred to ours, than to risk the chances of an aggressive war with 
R people better fitted by tastes and modes of life for military service than we then 
were. If the proposition should be rejected, the South would be placed so clearly 
in the wrong that a resort to coercion would be less likely to repel the border States 
or European sympathy. Governor Morton, then recently elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, set forth the grounds of the first of these opinions fully and efl'ectively in a 
speech at the Court house a short time after the Presidential election. The other 
was advocated by the Journal, conducted by B. E. Sulgrove. The debate, though 
earnest, as beseemed so vital a question, was never angry or discourteous. It was 
protracted till the first gun was fired at Fort Sumter. That shot scattered all 
causes of difference between the coercionists and the conventionists. The South 
had begun the war, and the conventionists were relieved of all fears as to the effect 
of aggression by the Government. It was no longer a question of taking the offen- 
sive and making invasions, but a question of seif-defense and preservation of the 
Government. If the South had remained quiet, and left it with the North to decide 
whether there should be war or not, and to begin the war, it is not clear, even now, 
what the issue might have been. The factious spirit at home was dangerously 
strong, even against a defensive war. Strengthened by the effect of an offensive 
war, and the union of all the Slave States, with European help more openly and 
unrestrictedlj^ given, and it might have defeated, as it did seriously cripple, the Gov- 
ernment from 1862 to the summer of 1864. The great majority of the people, both 
of the city and the State, followed the lead of Governor Morton, and gave their 
"voice for war'' as heartily as "Sempronius." Feoling being thus pretty well 
prepared for hostilities, and the mad fury of the South removing all grounds of dif- 
ference in the North, it would have caused no astonishment to a reflecting man to 
see a strong outburst of resentment at the attack on Fort Sumter. But the univer- 
sal uproar of rage and uprising of armies passed all the conclusions of logic and 
all the anticipations of patriotism. It was a phenomenon. The State was a chaos 
of military spirit and patriotic zeal, out of which it was nearly as hard to bring 
order and organization as it was for Frankenstein to make a man of a confusion of 
leather, beef bones and sheep's entrails. But, if we may believe Mrs. Shelley, 
Frankenstein did make a man of his material, and Gov. Morton made an army of 

The Union of the coercionists and their opponents, produced by the attack on 
Fort Sumter, was facilitated by two occurrences that foreshadowed war. The Star 
of the West, while trying to carry provisions to Fort Sumter, was fired upon by 
the rebel batteries near Charleston and driven off; and Mr. Lincoln, in passing 
through this city on the 12th of February, 1861, on his way to Washington to 
a.ssume the Government, made a little speech of five minutes, indicating his line of 
action, which had a very decided effect. Every word of it was carefully weighed, 
and it was evident that what he said would be done. Suggestively, rather than 
positively, he stated that it was his duty to protect and preserve the property of 
the nation, and he must do it. It was the first authoritative intimation of the 
policy of the new administration and the new order of things. Differences began 
to fade away on the side of the Union men after this. The line of support or hos- 
tility to the Government began to show through party organizations. A violent 
upheaval was breaking through old party crusts. It was completed the day the 


news came of the attack on Fort Sumter. The excitement ia the city was intense. 
The streets were thronged and the corners blockaded by eager crowds, waiting for 
fresh news, discussing consequences, and magnifying every chance of resistance 
by Myor Anderson. At night a meeting was held at the Metrop litan Theatre, 
surpassing in numbers and interest any in the history of the city, at which old 
party lines were utterly obliterated. Democrats and Eepublicans were equally 
officers, speakers, committees, and authors of resolutions. About half past nine 
o'clock the news came to the meeting that Major Anderson had surrendered, and 
then it would not have been safe for any man to have avowed sympathy with the 
South. ''War," was everybody's cry, except a few who said nothing. For once 
all the inveteracy of political feeling, and all the natural hesitation to fight of a 
people to whom war and all that belongs to it are unknown, were broken down. All 
seemed to feel the greatness of the crisis, and though there was indescribable excite- 
ment there was not much boisterousness. Hundreds remained out of bed all night 
waiting about the telegraph or newspaper offices, or collected in knots in saloons 
or on the corners. The next day several of our military companies began recruit- 
ing. The next, though Sunday, was given more to battles than the God of battles. 
On Monday morning the proclamation of the Presidejit calling for 75,000 volunteers, 
and the order of the War office assigning six regiments as the quota of our State, 
appeared, and the excitement was given a practical direction. For a j-ear the una- 
nimity and enthusiasm of the first meeting at the Theatre were a type of every 
demonstration in ladiana and the Northwest. The conquest of Western Virginia, 
largely effected by Indiana soldiers and generals — for McClellan got the credit of 
what Gen. Thomas A. Morris planned and executed — encouraged effort, and the 
defeat at Bull Eun stimulated it. There was no lack' of volunteei-s. Governors ) 
were annoyed by requests to get regiments accepted, and when done, it was 
accorded by the War office, and received by the applicants, as a favor. The saga- 
cious and impeccable Cameron could not see any use in other troops than infantry, 
or other arms than the old smooth-bore musket. So he refused cavalry and artil- 
lery, and was seriously troubled with too much infantry. He did not know the 
value of taking the tide at the fl>jod. His successor learned it by finding the tide 
at dead low water. During this flush time of war feeling volunteers were at a dis- 
count. Not less than 30,000 men were tendered Governor Morton for the 6,000 
demanded. Six regiments of three-months men were organized in a week, and 
rendezvoused at the old Fair Ground, where the city companies, the Grays, the 
Guards, the Zouave Guards, and the Independent Zouaves, had taken up their 
quarters the day the Governor's proclamation was issued in execution of that of the 
President. They were visited there and addressed by Stephen A. Dougias about a 
week after. Every day, and almost every hour of the day, for two weeks, compa- 
nies could be seen marching up from the Union Depot, with the fife and drum that 
had not seen service since the old militia musters or the campaign of the Bloody 
Three Hundred. Eecruiting flags were thick along the streets, and the rattle of 
drums incessant and deafeaing. Crowds of boys, sometimes swelled by admiring 
country girls, followed the recruiting squads in their progress, and people flacked 
from their houses to witness for the first time the "pomp and circumstance'' of 
war, such as it was. Seven companies were organizad here, most of which were 
incorpoi-ated in the Eleventh (or Zouave) Begiment, Col. Lewis Wallace. The six 
regiments were numbered, from the concluding number of the five regiments raised 
during the Mexican War, the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh. 
The last, being, as already remarked, mainly composed of our city companies, was 


presented a flag by the ladies of the city, in the State House Square, on which occa- 
sion the gallant Colonel practised a coup de theatre which was about as impres- 
sive as " Puff s " unanimous prayer in the " Critic." He took the flag, and, raising it 
above his head, called on his mea to kneel and "swear to remember Buena Vista.'' 
But he made one of the best disciplined and most efficient regiments in the service 
out of them. They were sent to Evansville, May 8th, to protect the border, butsub- 
squently removed to Maryland, where, while stationed at Cumberland, a squad of 
their scouts had a skirmish with a band of rebel cavalry, and fought pluckily. As 
it was the first real fighting in which Hoosiers were concerned, it gave the^Eleventh 
regiment a prominence in the State which it never lost, and its gallant conduct 
entitled it retain. The other five regiments were the first in Western Virginia. 
They drove the rebels from all their advanced posts, protected the railroads, fought 
at Kich Mountain, and defeated and killed General Garnett at Carrick's Ford. 
The volunteers beyond the six regiments of our quota, were formed into six regi- 
ments of one year State troops, under an act of the Legislature at the extra session 
then in progress, but subsequently all except one enlisted for three years, and were 
transferred to the United States service. The places of the men who did not like 
to engage for the long term were rapidly filled. They were reviewed by General 
McClellan on what was then a large common, north of the Fair Ground, on the 
24ih of May. It can serve no purpose to introduce here the history of the troops 
of the State or city. That belongs to a work of wider scope than this. It will be 
enough to sketch the city's connection with the war, through its camps, prisons, 
Soldiers' Home, and provision for bounties and soldiers families. 

The first camp, afterwards called Camp Sullivan, as already noted, was on the 
old Fair Ground. The new Fair Ground was rapidly converted to the same uses 
and called Camp Morton, and it was the complaints of the men there that induced 
the Legislature to censure the first State Commissary, Isaiah Mansur. They had 
been accustomed to good food and plenty of it, at home, and they made an unrea- 
sonable fuss about their rations in camp. Mr. Mansur took the office without pay, 
furnished all the meat in his own packing house — the best in the market — supplied 
fresh bakers bread, butter and sugar, advanced his own money, and did better 
than any one who blamed him could have done, and he was paid for it by as 
unjust a censure as was ever ir.flicted. Public opinion, in which the Journal led 
the way by defending him with irrefutable proofs and arguments, reversed the 
hasty judgment of the Legislature. Ill feeling and violent demonstrations are fre- 
quent incidents oc the transition from the freedom of home-life to the discipline of 
eflicient soldiers. Camp Morton was the scene of many such, in which sutlers 
were generally the sufferers. Camp Burnside, south of Camp Morton, on Tinker 
street, was made a very neat and attractive little town for many months, first by 
ths volunteers under Col. Biddle, and next by the "Invalids" or " Veteran Reserve 
Corps." Camp Carrington, subsequently, was made the largest and best arranged 
camp in the State. It lay beyond the extreme northwestern corner of the city. Tlie 
artillery camp, called Camp Noble, was fitted up by Col. Fryberger, and occupied 
by the Twenty-Third Battery for a time. The Eleventh regiment had a camp, while 
re-organizing for the three years' service, on the west bank of White River, near 
Cold Spring. The catnp of the Second Cavalry, Col. John A. Bridgeland, was near 
Fall Creek, four miles north of the city. The colored regiment, Cul. Charles Kus- 
sell, was collected at Camp Fremont, in the woods at the southeast extremity of the 
city, to the left of Virginia avenue. The practice ground of the artillery was 
about three miles south of the city, near Mr. Paddock's residence, west of th'" 


Bluff road. The Nineteenth Eegulars, Lieut. Col. King, were stationed here for 
several months, in 186i-2. Camp Morton was used exclusively as a prison camp 
after the organization of the first regiments. The prisoners brought from Fort 
Donelson, early in the spring of 1862, were placed there, and guarded first by dif- 
ferent volunteer regiments, but finally by the Veteran Reserves. The exposure to 
which these prisoners had been subjected created an epidemic, and the citizens 
opened hospitals for the sick in the old Atheneum room and iu Blackford's old 
building on Meridian street. The ladies did the nursing, and did it as tenderly 
and perseveringly as if the patients had been their own relatives. But the mortal- 
iiy was very severe, and the little grave yard, now emptied, along the Terre Haute 
Railroad track near the river, made a promise of growth which was happily not 

But the institutions of most consequence in the connection of the city with the 
war, were the Arsenal and the Soldiers' Home. The first was the result' of Gov. 
Morton's determination to see that the Indiana troops were supplied with good 
anamunition. The General Government could furnish but little, and that not always 
good. The materials were supplied by the Quartermaster, the workmen by a detail 
of the nth regiment, and on the 27th of April, 1861, the Arsenal was inaugurated by 
moulding bullets in hand-moulds in a blacksmith's furnace, and packing the cart- 
ridges in the next room. Subsequently it was enlarged till it employed several hun- 
dreds of hands, and supplied a large portion of the ammunition of the troops west of 
the mountains. In October, 1861, the Secretary of War, Mr. Cameron, and the Ad- 
jutant General, L. Thomas, visited the Arsenal, approved it, paid for its work, and 
recommended it highly. Herman Sturm was its Superintendent. For a time it 
occupied Ott's building south of the State House; then the buildings north of the 
State House Square, and was afterwards removed to vacant ground east of the 
city. It was discontinued on the 18th of April, 1864, after three years' service. 
Its entire business in three years amounted to $788,833.45, upon which the State 
made a profit of $77,457.32, or nearly 10 per cent. The Arsenal has since been 
succeeded by regular a Government establishment, in the northeastern suburbs, 
where ample and admirable buildings have been erected, and the grounds hand- 
somely laid out and ornamented. 

The Soldiers' Home, like the Arsenal, was the result of obvious necessity, which 
the Governor had the decision to provide for. The city was not only the great 
State rendezvous, but it was the halting and recruiting post of most of the troops 
passing east or west to the "front." They came always hungry, dirty and tired» 
and very often sick. A night's rest, or a wash, or good meal, might often be worth 
a man's life. So the Soldiers' Home was started. The Sanitary Commission had 
agents at the Union depot to provide meals for the men, and help for ihe sick, at 
the hotels, but this was expensive and unsatisfactory, and a camp was established, 
with hospital tents, on the vacant ground south of the Union Depot. But in 1862, 
the Governor, seeing the increasing tide of troops, and the inadequacy of the pro- 
vision made for them, resolved to establish a permanent Home. This was done by 
Qartermaster Stone, in July, 1862, who erected buildings in the grove on West 
street, just north of the Terre Haute Railroad. These buildings were afterwards 
added to and enlarged, till it could lodge 1,800 men and feed 8,000 every day. 
From August, 1862, to June, 1865, it furnished 3,777,791 meals. During 1864 it 
furnished an average of 4,498 meals per day. The bread was supplied by a bakery 
under the charge of the Quartermaster, so well conducted that all the soldiers needed, 
and thousands of loaves for the poor, were provided out of the rations of flour the 



men were entitled to. The savings in the rations of other articles amounted to 
$71,130.24. The savings of flour, a sutler's tax, and the aale of offal, paid $19,- 
642.19. So that this beneficent institution was sustained almost entirely by the 
rations of the troops sheltered by it. The ladies of the city, on all holidays, or 
noted occasions, provided excellent dinners for all at the Home, cooked them, waited 
at the table, and did all the service themselves. A Ladies' Home for the benefit of 
soldiers' wives and children, was opened in a building near the depot in December, 
1863. An average of 100 a day was taken care of till its close. 

After the departure of the three years' troops, there came, for a time, a calm, 
upon the domestic aspect of the war, broken only by the clamor of the newsboys 
^^ Journal Extra!" "'nother battle! " and the Morgan raid, till the return of the 
re-enlisted veterans. As each old regiment re-enlisted at the end of its term for 
three years more, it was allowed a furlough to come home, and thirty days to remain 
in the State. It was received with salutes of guns, processions of all the troops 
in the city, addresses by the Governor and its own oflaeers, and given a good din- 
ner at the Home. 

The Morgan raid, eai'ly in July, 1863, produced a good deal of excitement, but 
it ended in nothing worse than calling the citizens to University Square to drill for 
a few days, and the sending away of the specie reserves of some ot the banks. The 
day the news of the fight near Corydon reached here, a Michigan battery which 
had been stationed here for some time, was ordered to take the Jeffersonville cars 
to meet the adventurous rebel. As it passed down Tennessee street, at the crossing 
of Indiana avenue, a caisson exploded, blowing two men over the tops of the adja- 
cent shade trees, horribly mutilating them and killing them instantly, and mor- 
tally wounding a man and boy who happened to be passing near at the time. 

The gathering and organizing of troops during the continuance of the war 
formed the most conspicuous feature of the city's history, but there were many 
incidents growing out of the war, more political than military, which demand some 
notice. During the first ebullition of patriotic feeling which followed the attack on 
Fort Sumter, there was hardly a sound of dissent heard, no appearance of slack 
loyalty was tolerated. The Sentinel, proprietors failed for some reason to hoist a 
national flag on their building, and the mob of uncomprooaising patriots threatened 
violence if they did not. They and the editor, with several other citizens, who were, 
or were believed to be, sympathizers with the South, were made to take an oath of 
fidelity to the Government. They were for a while in serious danger of personal vio- 
lence. Subsequently, as the war lagged and prospects grew dark, opposition became 
more open and decided. It assumed a party shape, and added to the usual hostility 
of parties all the rancor of civil war. The minority were treated as enemies of 
their country, and repaid what the}'' thought oppression with resentment that did 
not always discriminate between the justice of the war and the justice of the action 
by which they suffered. At a county convention held in the Court house square 
on the 2d of September, 1862, some of their speakers, notably among them Mr. 
Kobert L. Walpole, spoke bitterly of the Government and the" soldiers, and justi- 
fied or palliated the rebellion. Many soldiers in the crowd were exasperated, and 
retorted angrily. A row resulted which came near ending fatally. The obnox- 
ious speakers were driven off, and had but a narrow chance for their lives. If 
caught, some of them would most probably have been killed. At the following 
election the suspected opponents of the war were often excluded from the polls, and 
not a few were beaten away from the ground and otherwise maltreated. " Traitor " 
was the mildest epithet given to the rebel sympathizer or the less obnoxious Demo- 


crat who censured the war policy of the Government. At one time, while a vet- 
eran regiment was encamped here, some alliisioa to the participation of a portion 
of its members in a political procession of the day before, made by the Sentinel, 
brought down an angry crowd who attempted to "clean out" the office. But for 
the resolute and prompt action of Gov. Baker, then Provost Marshal of the State, 
it would have been done. In some other towns of the State it was done. In the 
fall of 1863 a State Convention of the same class of men was held in the State 
House yard, and arms were so generally exhibited or detected that no little alarm 
was excited, and preparations made by the military to either meet an attack or 
suppress a riot. Several were arrested and fined for carrying concealed weapons. 
As the trains left the depot in the evening, returning, the crowds upon them began 
firing their revolvers in a sort of defiance or triumph, and scattered shots recklessly 
in all directions. A child was said at the time to have been killed, and two or three 
persons wounded, but it was not true. The eastern trains were speedily stopped, and 
every man compelled to give up his arms. Some hundreds were captured, and many 
more thrown away, and found by the boys next day. This senseless act gave 
a color to the damaging assertions of the " loyalists " as to the dangerous character 
of the p'irty, and provoked harsher feelings and more intolerant action. Probably 
it is not a matter of astonishment that thus " overcrowed " and put under, the oppo- 
nents of the war should fesort to secret and oath-bound associations as a means of 
protection or vengeance. At all events they did it, and during the winter of 
1862-3, when the session of the Legislature was approaching, the air was full of 
rumors of organized bodies of " Knights of the Golden Circle," and what not, com- 
bining here to support the anti-war majority in that body in an effort to overthrow 
the S ate Government, and take the State out of the war and out of the Union. 
A secret society was formed to resist it, and here were the first movements of the 
Union League on one side and what became the Sons of Liberty on the other. 
With the conflicting assertions of each as to its own and its enemy's purposes this 
sketch has nothing to do. It deals merely with the facts developed by their efi'orts. 
Among these are, 1st. The presentment by the Grand Jury of the United States 
Court, in May, published in August, 1862, in which the existence of secret treason- 
able associations is declared to have been abundantly proved by the confessions of 
members. 2d. The developments made by detectives of the ceremonies, oaths and 
purposes of the Sons of Liberty, which was published in 1864. This disclosure 
pretty nearly ruined the Order for a party machine, and it was utterly ruined 
shortly after by the next and most important political event of the war in which 
the city was concerned. 3d. The " Treason Trials." A conspiracy to combine 
large rebel forces from Missouri and Kentucky, aided by rebel sympathizers at 
home, and by the rebel prisoners in the Northwest who were to be provided with 
arms by the plunder of the Government arsenals, to overrun this and adjoining 
States and fatally embarrass the Government, was, through the efforts of leading 
Democrats of this city, frustrated, but not so far deprived of dangerous vitality but 
that secret efforts to form anew and reknit the broken links of the scheme were 
made, mainly through H. H. Dodd, the most active of the leaders of the S. O. L, 
On the 20th of August, 1864, Gov. Morton received a letter from New York, dated 
the 18th, notifying him of the shipment of a large number of revolvers and cart- 
ridges to this city to Mr. Dodd, the boxes marked as "Stationery," or "Sunday- 
School Books." Mr. Dodd's office was searched, and the weapons found exactly as 
described. He made his escape for a time, but, returning, was arrested on the last 
day of August. Subsequently L. P. Milligan, William A. Bowles, Stephen Horsey 


Andrew Humphreys, Horace Heffren and some others were arrested for participa- 
tion in this and other treasonable efforts. Dodd was tried, convicted and condemned 
to death by a military commission, but escaped from the Government building — 
over the Post office— by the help of friends, on the night of the 6th of October. 
Milligan, Bowles and Horsey were subsequently tried in the same way and received 
the same sentence, commuted to imprisonment in the Ohio Penitentiary. Hum- 
phreys's sentence was commuted by the General of the District, A. P. Hovey, to con- 
finement within a specified region of the country. All were released under a 
decision of the United States Supreme Court. 

The military zeal which, at the outbreak of the war, made recruiting not only 
easy but ti"oublesomely abundant, slackened as the progress of the war developed 
clearly what military service meant. Volunteers had to be bought, at last, at pri" 
ees corresponding to the sacrifices required. Patriotism dropped out of the calcu- 
lation, and entering the army became a business affair, in which wages and boun- 
ties were set against the cost of maintaining families, the loss of time, and the 
possibilities of battle. But other influences combiaed with this natural tendency 
of a protracted war, to make military service a business divested of sentimental 
attributes. First among these was political opposition. When the first fury of 
indignation at the aggression of the rebels had expended itself in war and words, 
this opposition began to show itself, cautiously at first, but boldly a little later. 
The national tax was denounced, and organizatioas formed to resist it and any 
attempt at conscription. McClellan's failure before Richmond, brightening the 
prospects of the rebellion, strengthened it. The war was legislated against by every 
possible means during the winter of 1862-3. Natural.^y accompanying or follow- 
ing this political effort, were movements to discourage enlistments, to encourage 
desertion, and organizations to protect deserters and resist their arrest. So effect- 
ual were these that during the single month of December, 1862, no less than two 
thousand three hundred Indiana deserters w~ere lured home, to their own disgrace 
and the infinite injury of the service. Letters from relatives politically adverse 
to the war, urging desertion and promising protection, were one of the most power- 
ful of these disloyal appliances. The papers of that time published hundreds of 
them, revealed by the soldiers themselves. An inadequate conception of the obli- 
gation they had incurred facilitated these treasonable efforts. To them an engage- 
ment to serve in the army was like a bargain to do any other job. If they didn't 
like it they could leave it by merely forfeiting unpaid wages. Deserters, of course, 
brought home terrible stories of 'destitution and suffering, and hostile newspapers 
made the most and worst of every reverse and every discouraging circumstance. 
Thus recruiting was diminishing while desertion was increasing. The withdrawal 
of tens of thousands of the most industrious and productive of our population from 
their various industries created a great demand for labor. Wages rose, and, with 
the depreciation of currency, everything else rose, too. The recruit, with the cer- 
tainty of employment and good wages at home, was not to be obtained for the mea- 
gre pay of a soldier. If he had a family, it had to be provided for, and if he 
hadn't, no discrimination could be made against him, and he was paid as if he had. 
Thus came bounties and heavy burthens, far beyond the expenses which appeared 
in the settlements of the national treasury, or the aggregate of the national debt. 
As the war made heavier draughts upon labor, wages advanced further, and with 
them bounties advanced, till, with national, county and city bounties, and advance 
pay, the recruits under the last call of 300,000 men, December 24th, 1864, were paid 
nearly $1,000 each, before they had gone into camp. 


The first appropriation by the city for war purposes was one of $10,000, made 
on the 20th of April, for the support of our three-months volunteers. Others were 
frequently made for the purchase of wood, provisions, and other necessaries of des- 
titute families. In August, 1804, a purchase of two hundred cords of wood was 
made, and in the winter $3,500 was appropriated. Contributions of fuel and food 
were occasionally made all over the State by the famers, who appointed a day to 
move in procession through streets of the chief towns, with wagons loaded with 
wood, flour, potatoes, meats, vegetables and fruits, to some point of deposit. Tens 
of thousands of dollars worth were thus collected and distributed by duly appointed 
agents. Very many farmers vied with each other who should give most, and make 
the most striking display, and wagons carrying five and even ten cords of wood, 
and others with mountains of food, were no unfrequent sights. Several of these 
were witnessed in Indianapolis. Large sums both for soldiers and their families 
were raised by fail's, and by private contributions. Those for the former were 
managed by the State Sanitary Commission, directed by \Vm. Hannaman and 
Alfred Harrison. The others were distributed as the occasion prompted. A State 
Sanitary Fair was held in the old Fair Ground, at the time of the State Agricul- 
tural Fair of 1864, at which $40,000 were raised. During the continuance of the 
Sanitary Commission there were raised and distributed $606,570.78. Besides the sum 
of $16,049.50 contribted to the United States Sanitary Commission from Indiana, 
$4,566,898.06 was paid by counties, townships and towns for like purposes, making 
the total of contributions of this character, in this State, about $5,200,000. 

Expenses incurred for the support of soldiers' families, though in the aggregate 
of private and public contributions larger than the expenses for recruiting volun- 
teers, yet form but a small part of the accounts of the cif.y treasurer. The heaviest 
items there were made by bounties. Until the political opposition to the war began 
to make itself formiiable, and desertion had diffused discouraging feelings, and the 
largedivers'on of labor to the army had raised wages, nobody thought of bounties 
Families were left to the care of neighbors and the irregular assistance of the paymas- 
ter. But wfr was found to be a very serious business, and began to be viewed with 
a business eye. The soldier had to be assured of something safer than a neighbor's 
care of his family. He looked out for it himself, and the bounty was the provision 
for it which he exacted. At first it was light. In the fall of 1862 the city appro- 
priated $5,000 for bounties, which lasted till Ma}', 1863. Considerable expense 
was incurred for the city regiment during the alarm created by Morgan's raid. 
On the 14th of December, 1863, an appropriation of $25,000 was made for bounties, 
and additional sums were raised by committees in the different wards. A draft 
was avoided by thus filling our quota with volunteers. During the summer of 1864 
the old regiments which had re-enlisted for three years more, as nearly all from 
this State did, were allowed to return home on a furlough, and their receptions) 
sometimes of daily occurrence, were one of the most interesting features of the war 
as it could be seen in this latitude. The Seventeenth Regiment, one of these, upon 
re-enlisting, credited itself to this city, that is, enlisted as coming from the city, 
and, to the number composing it, made a set off against any subsequent draft. No 
bounty was asked at the time. But subsequently, as some of the men complained, 
naturally enough, that they got nothing, when others, raw recruits, got hundreds 
of dollars, the Council gave them $5,355. On the suggestion of Gov. Morton, the 
Governors of Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa met in this city April 24, 1864, 
and urged the President to accept the services of a large body of men, 85,000, from 
these States, for one hundred days, to guard General Sherman's communications 
during his " march to the sea." The President consented, and the city's quota of the 


7,415 assigned to this State, was raised at once. The) Council appropriated $5,000 
for the support of their families. Our regiment, uader CoL Sam. C. Vance, Lieut. 
Col. Cramer and Major Hervey Bates, Jr., did good service. Under the call for 
300,000 men, of October 17, 1863, increased on the Ist of Februiry, 1864, to 500,000 
and, on the 14th of March, to 700,000, no draft was The State's volunteers 
filled her quota, with 2,493 men to spare. On the 18th of July, 1864, a call for 
500,000 more men was made, and the city's quota was fixed at 1,258. For the first 
time our citizens had to bestir themselves to avoid a draft. Meetings were held 
during the summer to raise subscriptions for bounties, and to procure volunteers, 
with considerable but not sufficient success. Some $40,000 was subscribed, and 
about 800 men enlisted, but the draft on the 28. h of September found us 450 men 
short. The drafted men raised a considerable sum to procure substitutes, but, the 
prospect looking dark, the City Council made two appropriations, one September 
28th for $92,000, and one October 3d, for $40,000, to assist them, and during Octo- 
ber and November the quota was filled, at an expense of $180,000. On December 
20th, 1864, another, and the last call, for troops was made. The whole number 
demanded was 300,000, and the State's quota was 22,582, of which 2,493 had been 
■paid by o»er-enlistment on the preceding call. The Mayor, Mr Caven, made 
repeated recommendations of appropriations for bounties, to fill the city's quota, 
and the Council responded by giving, first, the unexpended balance of a preceding 
appropriation, $2,500, and next $20,000. This didn't amount to much, and in Jan- 
uary, 1865, the Mayor urged further appropriations and drafting by wards. The 
Council ordered $125,000 to be pkid in $150 bounties, with $10 premium for recruits. 
Three days after they raised the bounty to $200, and sent an agent to Washington 
to obtain an order for drafting by wards. This order was made, and in February 
the Council appropriated $400 to every man who should be drafted, if he had pur_ 
chased a $50 city order. Petitions were presented, February 22d, 1864, from 4,400 
citizens a.=king' that $400,000 be raised by city bonds, to pay bounties and fill the- 
quota. An ordinance to this effect was passed, and the bonds prepared and sent to 
New York, but none were sold. On the 6th of March $100,000 w »s borrowed of 
five banks, in $20,000 divisions, on our bonds, at 12 per cent., and this was appropriated 
in $4,00 bounties. The quota was at last nearly filled, when it was ascertained that 
a blundering blockhead of the War Department had made a big mistake in assigning 
the city's credits for volunteers, and that the quota was full, with hundreds to spare. 
Over a fourth of the loan was thus saved. The war expenses from May, 1864, to 
May, 1865, which included the bulk of bounty appropriations, amounted to 
$718,179. The entire war expenditure was about $1,000,000. 

These heavy appropriations necessarily left heavy debts. But, as the city was 
flourishing with amazing vigor, heavy taxes were impose!, usually running from 
$1.50 to $1.75 on the $100, and paid, and at the close of the war the debt was 
$368,000. This has since been paid off, but a new one has recently been contracted 
for the construction of sewerage and other expenses, the amount of which is 
about $400,000. Our debt in 1849 was $6,000. It was nearly paid by a special tax 
in 1850, but in 1851 it was $5,400, all paid but $557 in 1854. In 1855 it was 
$10,000, and in 1856 $15,300. A loan was ordered to be made in New York to pay 
it, and Jerry Skeen appointed agent to negotiate it. An account of his defalcation 
has been giv^. The effect of it was that the city debt rose to $23,740 in 1857. In 
1859 it was reduced to $9,300, raised to $11,500 in 1860, and to $46,000 in 1861- 
In 1862 it was reduced to $16,500. In 1863 it was reduced to $11,250, and subse- 
quently paid off. The city was virtually out of debt that year. The war and the 


p 6$ 



^. . 


increased expenses created by higher wages, salaries and prices made the debt, as 
before stated, §368, 000 in 1868. 

The improTemeut of the city may be judged from the reports of building per- 
mits and street work. In 1865 — the first full statement under the ordinance of 
1864 — there were issued permits, in the city and its additions, for 1,621 buildings, 
costing f 2,060, 000; 9 miles of streets and 18 miles of sidewalks were graded and 
and graveled, 1 mile of streets bouldered, 4 miles of sidewalk paved, and 3 
miles of streets lighted. In 1366 there were erected 1,112 houses, at a cost of 
$1,065,000; 8^ miles of streets and 16 of sidewalks were graded and graveled, the 
third of a mile bouldered, 2 miles of sidewalk pived, and 3 miles lighted. In'1867 
the houses built and repaired were 747, costing $902,520; of streets 4| miles and 
of sidewalks 9 miles were graded and graveled, less than half a mile bouldered, 2-J 
miles of sidewalk paved, and 4j miles of streets lighted. Since 1867 improvements 
have increased in number and value largely, as will be seen by the table appended 
to this chapter. 

Besides these indispensable improvements others have been made of the char- 
acter which add either to the beauty or convenience of the city, and the possession 
of which is usually considered the test of public spirit and geninue city develop, 
ment. First among these is Crown Hill Cemetery. After the old cemetery had 
been extended to the river on the west, and the Terre Haute Railroad on the nonh, 
it was found that before many years the space would be insufficient, and the pres- 
sure of business would probably displace the dead and cover their graves with 
shops, factories and mills. To provide against this certain though remote difliculty 
an association was formed on the 25th of September, 1863, with James M. Ray as 
President, Theodore P. Haughey as Secretary, and Stoughton A. Fletcher, Jr., Treas'r, 
with seven directors. S. A. Fletcher, Sr., proposed to advance the money necessary 
to purchase a site, and a committee selected the nursery farm of Martin Williams 
abaut three miles northwest of the city on the Michigan road. At one end of it 
rises a very steep hill, the highest anywhere near the city, at the foot of which, at that 
time, lay a wide stretch of cleared land bordei-ed by a heavy forest. Two hundredi 
and fifty acres, embracing this hill, and several adjacent tracts, were bought for 
$51,500. Mr. F. W. Chislett was made Superintendent, and early in 1864 he began 
laying out the grounds. In 1864 the cemetery was dedicated, Hon. Albert S. White, 
formerly United States Senator, deliverin the orationg. Lots were rapidly bought 
by leading citizens, and beautiful and costly monuments, some of marble, some of 
Aberdeen granite, others of ordinary stone, have been erected. It is now a beauti- 
ful place, and a constant resort on fine days. The cemetery pays no dividends ; 
every lot owner is a stockholder. The profits on lots sold are expended in beautify, 
ing the grounds. 

The war brought its evils, and not a few of them, along with its benefits. Among 
these the worst was the inundation of prostitutes. They flaunted their gay shame 
in every public place. They crowded decency, in its own defense, out of sight. 
Their bagnios polluted every street. The military camps were not always, with all 
the vigilance of sentries and rigidity of discipliae, safe from their noisome intru- 
sion. The jail was nightly filled with them and their drunken victims. And the 
remuneration of their vice was so ample and constant that a fine was a trifle. Even 
of it could not be paid, the alternative of a few days' confinement only restored 
them in better health, with stronger allurements and appetites, to their occupation- 
To secure some alleviation of this evil, and some chance of making punishment 
effectual towards reform, the Mayor, in May, 1862, recommended a house of refugei 


where abandoned women could be confined alone, and subjected to a discipliag 
impossible in a common jail. Nothing was done, however, till the summer of 1863. 
On the 27th of July Stoughton A. Fletcher, Sr., proposed to give the city a lot of 
seven acres of ground, just beyond the southern suburbs, on the " Bluff road," if 
suitable buildings for a House of Refuge were put upon it. Plans and estimates 
were made by Mr. D. A. Bohlen, architect, and an effort made to entrust the estab- 
lishment to the " Sisters of the Good Shepherd" The donation was accepted on 
the 10th of August, and $5,000 appropriated to the building, which was to be used 
both as a refuge and reformatory school, and as a city prison for women. A com- 
mittee was put in charge of the enterprise, and contracts made in the fall. Within 
a year the basement, solidly and handsomely built of stone, at a cost of about 
$8,000, was completed, but there the work stopped. I'he contractor broke down 
under the great advance in the cost of labor and materials, and abandoned it. The 
start was excellent, the location is admirable, the work done worthy of any struc- 
ture that can be put upon it, the institution needed, the coniition of the donation 
binding, and the city ought to fulfill its bargain and complete the house. One part 
of the object with which it was undertaken, it is true, has been assumed by another 
institution, the Home for Friendless Women, but there is enough for it to do yet to 
make it well worth completion. The Home, just mentioned, was the work of an 
association formed in 1866, for the reformation and care of prostitutes. Experience 
had proved, by repeated successes in other cities, that there were many of this for- 
lorn class who honestly desire to lead a better life, but, repelled by society at every 
approach, they were compelled to continue in shame to avoid starvation. To pro- 
vide for these both a home and a school, an advance into purity and a means of 
access to pure society, as well as to furnish temporary protection to meritorious but 
necessitous women, the association established their Home. They at first rented a 
building in the Second Ward, but subsequently, by means of donations, and appro- 
priations from the Council, erected a capacious and handsome building on North 
Tennessee street, at the verge of the city. This was placed in charge of Mrs. Sarah 
Smith, a Quaker lady, who had long been active, both with tongue and pen, in every 
benevolent work, and was admirably adapted by superior intellect and firmness of 
character to the duties imposed upon her. In her hands the Home was successful 
beyond expectation. But on the 22d day of September, 1870, the building was 
almost destroyed by fire, and a serious check given to its operations. But the press 
urged immediate effort by the citizens and Council to rebuild it, and examination 
showing that much of the standing walls could be safely used, an adequate appro" 
priation was made by the Council and a considerable sum procured by donation, 
and the Home will soon be as beneficently at work as before 

The undoubted convenience, and almost uniform success, of Street Railways 
had caused the suggestion of a system of them here, as early as November, 1860 
but nothing was done till June 5th, 1863, when a company, the "Indianapolis,'' 
was organized under the State law, with General Thomas A Morris as President, 
Wm Y. Wiley, Secretary, and Wm. 0. Rockwood, Treasurer, for the purpose of 
constructing one. They applied to the Council for a charter on the 24t.h of 
August, and while their proposition was under discussion, another company, the 
"Citizens'," organized by R. B. Catherwood of New York, with John A. Bridge- 
land as President, and a number of our capitalists as stockholders, made another 
proposition, embracing more immediate operations and a greater length of servicea- 
ble track within a given time. The contest was hard, and not free from hard 
words and injurious insinuations. Among these was the charge that the latter 



company had not the means to perform its contract. The managei-s put down 
$30,000 in cash, and offered a bind of $200,000, as security. But the Council gave 
the charter to the "Indianapolis" Company December 11th. It was declined on the 
28th. Mr. Oatherwood of the Citizens' Company was notified, and he agreed to 
take the charter and reorganize his company. On the 18th of January the Citi- 
zens' Street Uailway Company was given a perpetual charter, with an exclusive 
right to the streets Brid alleys, for thirty years, with K. B. Catherwood as 
President, E. C. Catherwood as Secretary, and H.H. Catherwood as Superintend- 
ent. The Companywere permitted to lay a double or single track in, or on each 
side of, the centre of any street or alley of the city or its subsequent additions 
were to use horse cars only; to put the tracks on the level of the street grades ; to 
boulder between them and two feet on each side; to change tracks if street grades 
were changed; to charge five cents only on any route; to complete and equip 
three miles by October 1, 1864, two miles more in a year more, and two miles addi- 
tional by Christmas, 1866. After the completion of these seven miles the Council 
retained the right to order further extensions, the Company forfeiting any route it 
failed to build on such an order ; and the right to take the tracks at an appraisement, 
or give them to another company, if ten miles wore not completed within ten years. 
The Company began work at once, but the Government's occupancy of the Rail- 
roads delayed the arrival of the rails, and, on their request, the Council extended 
for sixty days the time for the completion of the first section of the system. The 
first track was laid on Illinois street, from the Union Depot, and this was opened 
in June, 1864, by the Mayor driving a car on it, with the Common Council and city 
oflScers as freight. A double track was laid on Washington street from Pennsylva- 
nia to Illinois, and a single track to West street, running north on the latter to the 
Fair Ground, and was largely used during the Fair. A track was laid on Virginia 
avenue in the fall; another run up Massachusetts avenue in the spring of 1865, and 
that on Washington street continued to the river. In 1866 the latter was carried 
eastward to Pogue's creek, and the Illinois street track extended to Tinker street, 
and to Crown Hill Cemetery. In 1868 a line was run down Kentucky avenue and 
Tennessee street, by which all the northern lines, the Washington street lines, and 
those entering either, connect, through a track on Louisiana street, with the Illinois 
street line, thus enabling passengers to run round the whole circuit of the railway 
system without shifting cars. Thirty-two cars, mostly for two horses, long, capa- 
cious and superb, were first put upon the tracks, and kept till 1868. But two horses, 
with the double expense of conductor and driver for each car, was too much, and 
single horse cars were substituted April 3d, 1868, with only a driver and a box for 
fares Simultaneously with, or shortly after, the commencement of the tracks, 
the Company began erecting stables, car houses and shoeing shops on the north- 
east corner of Tennessee and Louisiana streets, and the establishment now covers a 
half square in length, and a hundred feet or more in breadth, with handsome and 
durable brick buildi-ngs, 

As above remarked, this Company encountered serious obstacles in the begin- 
ning of their enterprise, in the cost of iron, in the difficulty of getting it here at any 
price with the Government occupancy of the railroads, and in the high price of 
labor They further increased their expense, disproportionately to all prospect of 
speedy remuneration, by extending their lines to thinly populated portions of the 
city. The convenience of access to remote sections, thus afforded, has added greatly 
to their value, but not much to the revenues of the Company. Undoubtedly a profit 


will come from the outlay as the city grows, but for the present they have benefited 
the city far more than themselves The estimate that they have added to the value 
of real estate in these quarters more than the amount of their capital stock (a half 
million of dollars), is moderate. The embarrassments resulting from this policy 
have compelled an application to the Council, once or twice, for relief from taxes 
and the charges of street improvements, and the Council have, fairly enough, granted 
some advantigeous exemptions, until the increase of population shall supply remu- 
nerative patronage. It is believed that the extension of one of the present lines, 
and the construction of one other short line, will afford ample street railway facili- 
ties for a population of one hundred thousand, the mark set by many for the census 
of the city in 1880. Then the enterprise will be an unequalled investment. Few 
cities present so many advantages for a system of street railways at once efficient 
and cheaply maintained, as Indianapolis. Its streets are so level that one horse or 
mule can du the work of two where ttie grades are heavier. Besides, the teams 
are changed four times a day, so that no animal is overtaxed, unless, as will some- 
times happen in spite of the vigilance of men and officers, a careless or brutal dri- 
ver does it by reckless driving, and the losses from abuse or exhaustion are propor- 
tionably light. There are now seven lines in operation, with an aggregate of fif- 
teen miles of track, fifty oars, one hundred and fifty horses and mules, and from 
fifty to seventy-five drivers and other employes. They make an average of one 
thousand trips per day, at a cost of $60,000 to $75,000 per year. The principal 
stockholders are William H. English and E. S. Alvord of this city, and Winslow, 
Lanier & Co. and J. B. Slawson of New York. 

On the igth of April, 1864, the Council created a Board of Public Improve- 
ments, consisting of three members, with the City Clerk as Secretary. They take 
charge of all public works of whatever kind, and permits are obtained of them to 
erect private buildings. This allows the compilation of building statistics, previ- 
ously impossible. — In 1865 city aid was voted, upon petition of many citizens, to 
the amount of about $200,000 to four lines of railroad, the Vincennes, $60,000; 
Indiana and Illinois Central, ,$45,000; Indianapolis, Bloomington and Western, 
$45,000; Indianapolis and Cincinnati Junction $45,000 These roads have all been 
completed and are in full operation, except the I. and I. Central. The Cincinnati 
Junction road received its appropriation upon the express condition that it should 
place its machine shops in this city. The condition has been utterly disregarded. 
What can be done about it is not clear, as the road has the money, but there cer- 
tainly ought to be some remedy for such dishonesty as this. — The project of 
building a station house was urged in 1866, but came to nothing. It has since 
been built on Alabama street, as noticed in the last chapter. — In 1867 the cor- 
ner stone of the Catholic Cathedral, South Tennessee street, near Georgia, the 
largest sacred edifice in the Slate, and the costliest, was laid with imposing ceremo- 
nies in the presence of a vast multitude on the 20th of July. The Cathedral is of 
Gothic architecture, two hundred and three feet long, and seventy-five feet wide, in 
the form of a Latin cross, with vaulted ceiling sixty feet high, a row of chapels on 
each side of the nave, a rose window eighteen feet in diameter over the main door 
and a tower at each corner of the front one hundred feet high. These are to be sur- 
mounted by spires adding another hundred feet, but it is doubtful if the building 
will look the better for the addition. The southwest quarter of that square, with 
half the southeast quarter, is covered with buildings devoted to the uses of the 
Catholics, including a splendid school house, St. John's church, Bishop's residence, 
the female school of the Sisters of Providence, and the Cathedral. St. John's 


Infirmary, on Maryland street, in the foi-mer residence of James Sulgrove, belongs 
to the same collection, as does the adjoining lot on the east. With the corner lot 
on Tennessee and Maryland streets, the church would have the entire west half of 
that square, with a portion of the other half. It is Catholic headquarters in Indi- 

In 1864 the Kingan Brothers, who were largely engaged in packing and ship- 
ping meats, not only in this country, but in Belfast, Ireland, Liverpool, England^ 
and Melbourne, Australia, desiring a Western slaughtering and packing establish- 
ment, determined to locate it here, on the river, at the foot of Maryland street, 
instead of in Cincinnati. They built what was then, and probably is yet, the large&t 
single building devoted to that business in the United States; They opened it with 
a very successful season in the winter of 1864-65, but in the spring it caught fire 
and was almost entirely destroyed, with an immense amount of lard, bulk meat 
and hams in it. The loss was about $240,000, the heaviest ever incurred in our 
city. The structure was immediately rebuilt, on the uninjured portions of the 
walls, of the same dimensions as before, except that it v/as left a story or two lower. 
It has since been in constant use, summer as well as winter, in slaughtering and 
packing cattle, bogs and sheep. — In 1868 Mr. J. C. Ferguson, one of the oldest of 
the city packers, built a house but little less than that of the Kingans, just* south 
of it, and has done, probably, more pork packing than any other establishment. 
These, and all the pork houses of the city will be noticed more fully in the chapter 
assigned to that subject. — In 1868 Mr. Valentine Butsch and Mr. Dickson bought 
Miller's half finished block on Illinois and Ohio streets, and changed it into a large, 
commodious and beautiful theatre, inferior to few in the largest cities, and called 
it the Academy of Music. It was opened in the winter of 1868-69. It will be 
noticed more fully in the chapter upon "Amusements." — In 1868, 1869 and 1870, 
the ceremony, first instituted by the women of the South, of decorating the graves 
of soldiers with flowers on the 30th of May, was observed here, in 1869, especially, 
with a degree of unanimity never witnessed since the end of the Fourth of Jnly 
celebrations. It was conducted by the ladies, under the suggestion of the Society 
of the Grand Army of the Eepublic, and was made a holiday by the entire com- 

In the spring of 1868 the heirs of Calvin Fletcher, Sr., who died in 1866,. 
proposed to donate to the city thirty acres of land, at its northeastern corner, 
for a park, upon condition that it should be forever kept as a park, that $30,000 
should be expended upon it within a given time, and the heirs be allowed to 
designate one of the commissioners to improve it. For no better reason than a 
belief that the donation was prompted by a desire to draw fashionable residences in. 
that direction, and thus enhance the value of the vast tract of Fletcher property 
in the vicinity, the proposal was declined. Parks have been made in the old Fair 
Ground and University Square, however, and though far too inadequate, they will 
be a great relief to the monotony of walls and pavements. The Military Park, as ■ 
it is called, is finely laid out with walks and drives, entirely covered with luxuriant 
grass, studded with some fine old trees, and recently set with plenty of young ones, 
and has a large basin in the centre, with a fountain spouting from, and tumbling its 
waters down upon, an imitation of a natural rocky summit, which rises out of the 
little lake. George Merritt, the Commissioner, has the merit of the laying out of 
this park. Last summer a band of music performed there on Thursday evenings 
and were paid by subscriptions obtained mainly by the efforts of Mr. Henry E. . 


Church, who had the concerts in his charge. It is a place of constant resort, and 
will become more a necessity as the city grows. 

la 1867 a new rolling mill company was formed, and a mill built as soon as 
practicable afterwards, to roll bar, rod and ordinary merchantable iron. It was 
controlled by Dr. Winslow S. Pierce and Jas. H. McKernan. It did well for a 
time, but failed in a year or less, and was bought by Messrs. Butsch and Dickson, 
who, after running it successfully for a few months, sold it to a company mainly 
composed of German citizens. Steel rails and bars have been made in it of excel- 
lent quality. — In 1869 a company of six German residents was formed to make 
glassware here. In the fall and winter their building was erected and furnace pre- 
pared, and they began blowing bottles, vials and fruit jars, with such entire success 
that they soon got an order from Philadelphia for $40,000 worth of fruit jars. The 
sand was brought at first from the Fall Creek bluffs, near Pendleton, and was a 
friable sand-stone needing to be "stamped" to be used, but latterly river sand has 
been successfally used, and is cheaper. During the past summer they have erected 
another blowing house, and have just put up an extensive warehouse for the' stor- 
age of their geods. The works cover nearly a half square on Kentucky avenue 
aud Merrill street. — During the spring and summer of 1870 the County Board, with 
the assistance of a considerable sum subscribed by the citizens interested, erected 
a handsome iron bridge over the river, at the foot of the extension of Merrill street, 
near the old cemetery. Each span will bear without risk seventy-five tons, or a 
great deal more than will ever be piled upon it. — During the past year Mercer, 
Nash & Co. have erected buildings and begun operations in making car wheels on 
Merrill street, north of the new rolling mill. They began with ten wheels a day, but 
are now making eighteen. They have more demands than they can fill. 

The two chief improvements of the city, since the introduction of gas and 
street railways — water supply and sewerage — are now in progress, and belong to 
the year 1870. The first, as already noticed, was a project of several years standing. 
It became a reality during the winter of 1869. The sketch of the struggle through 
which it passed need not be repeated here. It is enough to say that it was strenu- 
ously, and not altogether disinterestedly, resisted, mainly on the ground that it was 
merely a "fetch'' to enable the owners of the canal to force its sale upon the city 
at their own price. It was to supply the water for distribution as well as for motive 
power, and with the system once established, it would be indispensable, let its price 
be what it might. The water company met this charge by proposing to take water 
for distribution from wells supplied by percolation from the river, to use the canal 
only for motive power, and even for that only as the lalternative of steam, binding 
themselves to maintain both, and the steam at all events; and, finally, if the city 
wished m time to buy the works, the canal should not be included. These proposi- 
tions demolished all objections and the charter was granted. 

The sewerage system had been suggested scores of times in the, past score of 
years, but in 1865 three engineers, James W. Brown, Frederick Stein and Lazarus 
B. Wilson, were appointed by the Council to devise a general system and make the 
necessary surveys. In 1868 a tax of fifteen cents was levied for sewerage purposes, 
and a small sewer constructed on Ray street, from Delaware street to the creek, into 
which it empties a square east of West street. It cost f 16,500. A year after an at- 
tempt was made to construct a sewer on South street, but the plan of it was objected to, 
injunctions obtained against it, and it was abandoned. During the winter of l8€9-70 
Mr. Moses Lane, an eminent engineer, who has made sewerage a specialty, was invited 
by the Committee on Public Improvements to examine the city with reference to its 


drainage, and after a survey of a few days, he furnished a plan (charging-the trifling 
sum of $1,800 therefor), which was adopted, and contracts let in the summer for a 
trunk sewer from "Washington street to the river on Kentucky avenue, on South 
street from Kentucky avenue to Noble street, down Noble to Fletcher avenue, at the 
city boundary, and on Illinois street from Washington to South. The sewer on Illi- 
nois street is in progress, and is laid of heavy drain pipe. The trunk sewer is eight 
feet in diameter, faced at the river with dressed stone, provided with " man holes " 
for each square, and " catch basins '' at all street crossings to collect the gutter water 
and clean it of sediment before allowing it to enter the sewer. It is made of brick, 
three widths of a brick (a foot) thick, laid in hydraulic cement, and plastered 
heavily with cement on the outside as it is finished. The work, so far, has been 
admirably done. The contractors are Wirth & Co., of Cincinnati. It was pub- 
licly charged, while the contracts were pending under a motion to reconsider the 
letting, that corruption had been used to obtain support, and overcome the difi"er- 
ence in favor of the bids of Symonds, Hylaod & Co., of this city, but as the con- 
tract was confirmed, and the work energetically begun and thoroughly well done, 
the affair was dropped and nothing came of it but a good deal of newspaper objur- 
gation. The contracts now unfinished amount to about $180,000. 

In the winter of 1870 large "additions " of some of the best built pai'ts of the 
city were made by the Council, against the strong protests of the residents, who 
wanted to enjoy city advantages without paying city taxes. Something like two 
thousand inhabitants were added by this accession. It embraced a large section of 
suburban villas on the north, south, west and east. An attempt to do this in 1865 
was defeated. 

In 1870 preparations were made for the erection of the new Court House. 
Many objections were made to the plan (shown in the illustration), as too costly ; 
many complaints were made of the attempt of the Commissioners to secure a heavy 
loan to build it; an injunction was obtained prohibiting them from issuing the bonds 
as they proposed; and many wanted the south half of the Square sold (for it would 
have brought an immense sum), and the proceeds applied to the erection of a house 
on the north half. Nobody seemed entirely satisfied, but so many were dissatisfied 
with different features that no opposition could be made effective, and the work was 
<' placed on the stocks" about as the County Board designed it.' The old house, 
associated with the history of the State from 1825 to 1835, and with that of the city 
during nearly its whole career, was torn down, and the excavation of the cellar 
begun. A description is unnecessary, as the admirable engraving will give a bet- 
ter idea of the completed structure than any description could do. — The Reforma- 
tory School for Females, authorized by the Legislature in 1869, has been com- 
menced just beyond the eastern boundary of the city, near the National road, and 
will soon be one of the most attractive edifices we have. It is intended to be for 
girls what the House of Refuge is for boys. The latter, authorized by the act of 
1865, is now in full operation at Plainfield, fifteen miles west of the Capital. It . 
has over 200 inmates, managed upon the "Family system," and is successful beyond 
all anticipation. It is under the experienced superintendence of Mr. Frank B. 

^hapt^r If* 


^Itj^HE history of the Government of Indianapolis, like the general history, may be 
S divided into four periods. 1st. The period from the first settlement to 1832. 
^ This, to make a pardonable '-bull," was the period of "No Municipal Govern- 
ment," the general laws of the State, and the officers created by them, sufficing for 
the limited necessities of the village. 2d. The period of "Trustee Government," 
from 1832 to 1838, when the town was managed by five Trustees. 3d. The 
period of " Town Government," by the Council alone, from 1838 to 1847. 4th. The 
period of "City Government," with a Mayor and Council, from 1347 to this time. 
Several minor changes in each of these periods will be briefly noticed. Of the first 
period nothing need be said. 

Second. The first incorporation was resolved upon by a meeting of citizens held 
at the Court House on the 3d of September, 1832, and the day for an election fixed- 
It was faade under the general law, not by a special act. Five Trustees were elected 
by a general vote, and the town divided into five wards, all contained within the 
original plat. The 1st Ward embraced all east of Alabama street; 2d, from 
Alabama to Pennsylvania; 3d, from Pennsylvania to Meridian — this single tract of 
a square in width shows where the densest portion of the town lay; 4th. from 
Meridian to Tennessee ; 5th, from Tennessee westward. Samuel Henderson, whose 
death in California was recently announced, was elected by the Board of Trustees 
as their first President. A genera! ordinance of portentous length (thirty-seven 
sections) for the magnitude of the town, was published on the 1st of December, 
Offenders were prosecuted by the Board, in its own name, before Justices of the 
Peace, and proceedings were required to be commenced within twenty days. 
Licenses were required for shows and liquor shops, and the usual prohibitions were 
made of dangerous or disturbing acts, either of omission or commission, such as 
firing guns, flying kites, — this latter little regarded and never enforced — racing 
horses, driving over walks, — there were none in those days that could be injured 
much — leaving cellar doors open, teams unhitched, hogs at large, wood piles on 
"Washington street over twelve hours, or shavings anywhere over two days; keeping 
stallions on Washington street, and the like. Markets were held on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays, for two hours after daylight, regulated by a special ordinance 
enforced by a Market Master. Hucksters were prohibited. Elections were held in 
September. The officers were President, Clerk, Treasurer, Assessor, Marshal and 
Market Master. On the 5th of February, 1836, the Legislature, by special act, 
incorporated the town and legalized the work of the Trustees. Taxes were limited 
to fifty cents on the hundred dollars of real estate, and their collection to the origi- 
nal town plat, though the whole donation was under the jurisdiction of the Trustees" 
No other change of any consequence was made. In the settlement of the old and 
the new Board, April 1st, 1836, the receipts for the year preceding were shown to 


be $1,610, and the expenses $1,486, of which $1,150 was paid on the first fire engine, 
the Marion. The balance, $124 was passed to the new administration. 

Third. On the 16th of February, 1838, a new act of incorporation was passed 
by the Legislature, making no change in the power of taxation, or its limit of appli- 
cation, but authorizing sales of property for delinquent taxes, and increasing the 
wards to six. The first three were left unchanged, with Alabama, Pennsylvania 
and Meridian streets as boundaries, but the 4th was cut olf at Illinois street, making 
it, like the third, a single block in width, across the plat ; the 5th was limited to 
Mississippi street, and the 6th extended from Mississippi westward. The principal 
change was in the election and power of the President, and the constitution of the 
Council. The former was chosen by a popular vote, the members of the latter by 
the votes of their respective wards, and both for a year. The President had a 
Justice's jurisdiction, and the Marshal a Constable's. The Council was empowered 
to borrow money, levy taxes, (up to a half per cent, on realty), establish licenses 
&c., and the members were paid $12 per ytar. The other town officers were elected' 
as before, by the Council. The new Government diff'ered, essentially, but little 
from the present City Government. It opened the four streets bounding the origi- 
nal plat, elected officers, and arranged the fire department, licenses, &c. 

Fourth. On the 13th of February, 1847, a city charter was granted by the Legis- 
lature, and adopted by a vote of 449 to 19, on the 27th day of March. A free 
school tax was authorized by about the same vote at the same time. This charter 
created seven wards, which remained unchanged till the addition of the 8th- and 9th 
in 1861. The new arrangement divided the town, including the whole donation east 
of the river, by Washington street. The section north of the line was divided into 
four wards by Alabama, Meridian and Mississippi streets, the numbers running from 
east to west; the section south was divided into three wards by Illinois and Dela- 
ware streets, the numbers running from west to east. Elections were held in April, 
The Mayor was elected by popular vote every two years, and one Councilman from 
each ward every year. The former had the jurisdiction of a Justice as before, with 
a veto upon the acts of the Council. The latter elected their own President and all 
other officers, and were paid $24 per year. They could not levy a tax exceeding 
fifteen cents on the hundred dollars, except by authority from the people, given 
in a special election. Samuel Henderson, the first .^President of the Town 
Board of Trustees, was elected the first Mayor. This charter remained essen- 
tially unchanged till 1853. The limit to the power of taxation was found to be mis- 
chievous, and a proposition was made to remove it, but without efi'ect, in 1852. In 
March, 1853, the general charter law was adopted by the city. This changed elec- 
tions to May, where they have since remained, made the terms of all offices a single 
year, gave two Couucilmen to each wai'd, and all elections to the people, and made 
the Mayor the President of the Council, as he has since continued to be. In 1857. 
March 16th, the amended general charter, passed by the Legislature, was adopted, 
This made the terms of all oflScers two years, one half the Council going out every 
year. In 1859 the general charter was again amended so as to make the terms of 
Councilmen four instead of two years. In 1861, the 1st Ward was divided, and the 
9th made of the eastern half, and the 7th divided, the 8th being formed of the east- 
ern section. The Councilmen were elected from the new wards, but political influ. 
ences, supported by alleged defects in the election, kept them excluded for sev- 
eral months. On the 20th of December, 1865, this charter gave place to another, 
which made all terms of office two years, allowed the office of Auditor, and gave the 
election of Auditor, Assessor, Attorney and Engineer to the Council. On the 14th 



of March, 1867, this was again changed so as to make a City Judge, and give the 
election of Mayor, Clerk, Marshal, Treasurer, Assessor, and Judge to the people. 
John N". Scott was elected City Judge, in May, 1867, and served two years. Johji 
G. Waters was elected City Auditor, at the creation- of the office, and served four 
years. Both offices were abolished in 1869, the duties of Judge being transferred 
to the Mayor, and those of Auditor to the Clerk. The minor ofBces, as Sexton, 
Printer, Clerk of Markets, Wood Measurer, and the like, are filled by the Council. 
The following tables of officers under the various forms of municipal govern" 
ment, are taken from Mr. Brown's work. They are incomplete simply because the 
city records were all burned up in 1851, and have been but indifferently kept the 
greater part of the time since. A good deal of inquiry and investigation have elic- 
ited nothing more than he has collected: 

TKUSTEES FROM 1832 TO 1838. 


l8t Ward. 

• 2(1 Ward. 

3d Ward. 

4th Ward. 

5th Ward. 


John Wnkins 

Alex F. Morrison 
Jas. M. Smitli 

Henry P. Coburn 

L. Dunlap 
Jos. Lefevre 
John Foster 
Joshua Soule 

John G. Brown 
Sam'l Henderson 
Joseph Lefevre 
Chas. Campbell 
Sam'l Merrill 

Sam'l Henderson 
John Cain 
J. VanBlaricum 
H. GrifBth 


Sam'l Merrill 

N. B. Palmer 
John L.Toung 


The town authorities, during this period, had little to do, and could have done 
but little if they had been charged with more. The streets were lumpy with 
stumps. Trees were still standing full sized in many of them a little way from 
Washington street. Mud-holes, circumvented by roundabout tracks close to the 
fences, and by foot-passengers by climbing along fences past the deepest places* 
■were common. The remains of more than one or a dozen of these may still be 
detected by a heavy rain. The "ravines" tore through the town in two fierce tor- 
rents in wet seasons, fiooding houses and lots from New Jersey street to the river. 
The southern one, of which some marks may still be seen east of Alabama street, 
near the present City Hall, and near the river at Kingan's pork house, was the 
largest; but the northern one, which left marks from east of Mr. Hervey Bates' 
residence along down to the "West Market, did more mischief, as it ran through a 
more densely populated section. The valley of Pogue's Creek was a swamp and 
thicket, and all south of it was " country." Much north of it, to Maryland street, was 
made up of corn fields and cow pastures. There were no sidewalks and no improve- 
ments that amounted to anything. 





Nathaniel Cox 
S. S. Rooker 
A. A. Louden 
C. H. Boatright 
A. A. Louden 
S. S. Booker 

fWm. C. Van- 
t Blaricum 











W. Ballanger 
Thos. Lupton 

f James Van- 
\ Blaricum 
B. C. Allison 

1 u 




Wm. Sullivan 

Luke Munsell 
B._ B. Haiina 

James Wood 

Luke Munsell 
James Wood 


Caleb Scudder 
Geo. Norwood 

T. Rickards 
H. Griffith 
C. W. Cady 


Glidden True 

John Elder 


A. G. Willard 

Henry Bradley 
T. Donnelan 

J. H. Kennedy 
Thos. Donnelan 

John Coen 




P. W. Seibert 

A. A. Louden 
P. W. Seibert 
A. A. Louden 



T. H. Sharpe 

Chas. B. Davis 
H. Griffith 
Chas. B. Davis 

J. L. Welshans 
Geo. Norwood 



J.B. McClure 

Jacob Cox 

J. B Nowland 
A. W. Harrison 


Sam'l Jenison 

John C. Busic 
R. D. Mattingly 
Wm. Campbell 

J. Van Blaricum 

R. C. Allison 
Benj. Beam 
J. Van Blaricum 
N. N. Norwood 
Jacob B. Filler 



W. Sullivan 

S. Goldsberry 


J. P. Griffith 

Jas. Morrison 
Joshua Soule 

Hugh O'Neal 
Joshua Soulo 
Hervey Brown 

W. L.Wingate 
Jas. G. Jordan 



M. Little 

Joshua Black 

W. Montague 


S. Henderson 

A. F. Morrison 
N. B. Palmer 
G. M. Lockerbie 
Joshua Soule 
Jas. Morrison 
N B. Palmer 
H. P. Coburn 
Wm. Sullivan ) 

D. V Culley j 

Laz. B. Wilson 
Jos. A. Levy 




: Hill 



Besides these more important offices, there were several others, either filled 
many years by the same men or only temporarily filled, which can be presented in 
this note. The office of Market Master or Clerk was fillei for the first five years, 
till 1837, by Fleming T. Luse, a cabinet maker, whose shop formerly stood where 
the Branch of the State Bank Building is. It was subsequently held for nine years, 
from 1837 to 1845, by J. Wormagen. During 1845 it was held by J. Wormaeen 
for the East and Jacob Miller for the West Market, and in 1846 by Miller for the 
West, and J. B. Fitler for the East. The office of " Collector " was held by the 
Marshal till 1844, with the exception of the year 1837, when it was held by Wm. 
Smith. From 1844, to the change in the charter, it was held by Henry D. Ohr. 
During two jears, 1834 and 1837, James Morrison was City Attorney. In 1838 the 
office was held by Hugh O'Neal, and in 1846 by John L. Ketcham. It was not so 
much an office as an occasional appointment. The office of Weighmaster was 
held by John F. Ramsey in 1836, and by Adam Haugh from 1840 till the change 
of the charter. There was no Sexton till 1843. John Musgrove was the first, suc- 
ceeded in 1844 by John O'Connor, and he again by Musgrove in the two following 
years, till the City Government came in. Thv^mas M. Smith was made Fire Engi- 
neer in 1846, but the office expired with the charter, and was not renewed till 1853. 
The "Messengers" of the Fire Companies were officers selected to take charge of 
the apparatus, and were, for the Marion, David Uox, from 1843 to 1846, and for the 
Good Intent, Jacob B. Fitler, for 1845 and 1846. 


The office of President of the Council is omitted from this list, because it was 
little more than nominal, and was abolished by the Amended Charter of 1852. It 
was held successively by Samuel S. Rooker, C. W. Cady, (both in 1847,) Geo. A. 
Chapman, Wm. Eckert, A. A. Louden and D. V. Culley, (both in 1850,) and by 
D. V. Culley till abolished. 








Sam'l Henderson 

James G. Jordan 

/ Nathan Lister 
\ Henry Ohr 

Wm. Campbell 

James Wood Sr. 


" " 

<i t< 

James Greer 

John Bishop 

11 n 


H. C. Newcomb 

{j.T. Roberts 

J. H. Kennedy 

Sims A. Colley 

11 11 


John S. Spann 

Benj. Pilbean 

11 11 


Caleb Scudder 

D. B. Culley 

A. F. Shortridge 

Sims A. Colley 

11 11 


" " 

" " 

" " 

Elisha McNeely 

11 11 


" " 

IC 11 

" " 

Benj. Pilbean 

It 11 


James McCready 

Jas. N. Sweetser 

" " 

" " 

11 <t 


" " 

Alfred Stevens 

H. Vandegrift 

Geo. W. Pitts 

Amzi B. Condit 


f H. F. West 
\ W._J. Wallace 

{ Fred. Stein 

Francis King 

Jeff. Springsteen 

D. B. Hosbrook 


Geo. H. West 


<( <i 

11 11 


S. D. Maxwell 

John G. Waters 

J. M. Jameson 

Aug. D. Rose 

James Wood 


U 11 

(( >t 

Jeft. Springsteen 

" " 


IC 11 

i< (( 

J. K. English 

/ D. W. Loucks 
(.Jno. Unversaw 

(James Wood Jr. 


John Caven 

C. S. Butterfield 

" " 

" " 

11 11 


" " 

W. H. Craft 

11 K 

(Joshua Staples 


Daniel McCauley 

D. M. Ransdell 

Eobert S. Foster 

11 11 

K. M. Patterson 


" " 

" " 

George Tatte 

11 11 






Street Comm'r. 

Market Master. 



t N. B. Taylor 

Joshua Black 

Jacob B. Fitler 

fS. Barbee 
1 Jacob Miller 

Benj. F. Lobaugh 


Will. B. Greer 

Charles I. Hand 

John Bishop 

Jos. I. Stretcher 


Edwin Coburn 

Henry Ohr 

George W. Pitts 

i< (I 


Wm. Wallace 

Samuel P. Daniels 

G. Toungerman 

" " 



Albert G. Porter 


Joseph Butsch 


Phillip Socks 


" " 

Jacob S. Allen 

Hugh Slaveu 

II << 

" " 


N. B. Taylor 

Mat. Little 

Wm. Hughey 

Henry Ohr 



" " 

John G. Waters 

41 11 

Jacob Miller 

Georse Bisbing 


II a 

Jas. H. Kennedy 

Jacob B. Fitler 

Richard Weeks 

John Moffitt 


John T. Morrison 

John B. Stumph 

" " 

G€o. W. Harlan 

A. Lingerii'elter 


Benj. Harrison 

11 <i 

Henry Colestock 

Richard Weeks 

John Moffitt 


Samuel V. Morris 

D. L. Merriman 

" " 

Charles John 

>i II 


Byron K. Elliott 

R. W. Robinson 

" II. 

.1 II 



Jas. N. Sweetser 

John B. Stumph 

John A. Colestock 

Thomas J. Foos 


Richard J . Byan 

{ Wm. Hadley 

John M. Kemper 

J. J. Wenner 

II 11 


Byron K. Elliott 

August Richter 

Charles John 

i< II 


" " 

" " 

" " 

Sampson Barbee 

" " 





Elisha Hedges 


Fire Engineer. 



Chief Police. 
































Joseph Little 

Joseph W. Davis 


Jeff. Springsteen 


Jacob B. Fitler 

John T. Williams 

Elder & Harkness 


Chas. W.Purcell 

Charles G. Berry 

11 It 


Samuel Keeley 

H. J. Kelley 

Larrabee & Cottom 

f J.M.VanBIaricum 
tChas. G. Warner 


Andrew Wallace 

J. M. Jameson 

Journal Company 

Augustin D. Rose 


Joseph W. Davis 

J. G. Hanning 

Samuel Liei'evre 


f J. E. Foudray 
t Jos. W. Davis 

0. S. Butterfleld 

ti i( 

Augustin D. Rose 



James Loucks 

" " 

( Thos. A. Ramsey 


Chas. Richmann 


Ellis Barnes 

f Thbmas D. Amos 
\ David Powell 


" " 

(.Joseph Bishop 
Aug. Bruner 

James G. Douglass 

Jesse Vau Blaricum 


f G.W.Buchanan 
l Chas. Richmann 


Thomas S. Wilson 


Sam. B. Morris 

{m.G. Lee 

i Henry Paul 

Daniel Glazier. 

In the list of Printers, Ellis Barnes and James Gr. Douglass are substitutes for 
the Journal proprietors. The office of Weigh Master was created in 1847, and first 
filled by John Fatten. From 1848 it was held by Adam Haugh till 1855. It haa 
not been filled since. • 





























12; 510 




There was paid for jail fees, the city having no prison of its own, in 1863, 
$2,842; 1864, $5,509; 1865, $7,686; 1866, $11,113; 1867, $8,116; 1868, $6,336; 
1869, $2,871; 1870, $4,197. Bounties paid in 1863, $5,010; 1864, $35,155; 1865, 
$718,179; 1866, $151,197; 1867 $70,575. 







Samuel D. Maxwell 


James McCready 






No Opposition 

B. G.Shaw 

John Fishback, (Independent 

'."."!! "2"8"i"8 



Daniel Macauley 

Daniel Macauley 




Previous to 1865 there are no data upon which to base even an estimate of the 
value of the bnildings annually erected in the city. But in 1864 a Board of Public 
Improvements was appointed by the Council, a permit from which was required for 
every building, the estimated cost of which was given. The first report was in 


No. Houses 


Miles Str'ts. 


Miles Sidew'ks. 













7 4-5 









Mayor $3,000 

Clerk 1,800 

Marshal Fees and 600 

Dep'ty Marsh'), Fees and 600 

Treasurer. ..IJx^ per cent, and 5 

per cent, on distraints 

Gas Inspector $800 

Attorney 500 

Street Commissioner... 1,400 

Assessor 2,000 

Engineer 1,800 

Wood Measurer Fees 

Fire Engineer $1,400 00 

Chief of Police 1,400 00 

Lieut. Police. ..per day 3 50 

Market Clerk 000 00 

Sexton Fees and 50 00 

Sealer W'ts & Meas'rs, Fees 


The first organization for protection from fires was made on the 20th of June, 
1826, with John Hawkins as President, and James M. Ray as Secretary. Its 
implements were ladders, axes and buckets, and the church and hotel bells rang the 
alarm. The first regular fire buckets were curiosities. They were made in the 
town, of heavy harness leather, painted green inside, bound with a leather-covered 
rope around the mouth, handled by a leather strap for a bail, and shaped somewhat 
like a lager beer keg, bigger in the middle than anywhere else. They held a half 
bushel or thereabouts. The town ordinance required one or more to be kept in 
every house, and the owner's name to be painted upon them. Their awkward shape 
made them of little value for use directly upon a fire, for with the narrow mouth, 
obstructed by a broad strap, it was impossible to throw more than a third or half 
of the contents out at once, and the eff'ort usually resulted in deluging the enthu- 
siast who made it. But they did well enough to supply engines, by means of lines 
of men who passed them full, from hand to hand, from the nearest pump to the 
engine, while an opposite line passed them back empty, and about all the service 
they ever did was in this way. Resort was occasionally had to this primitive water 
•upply where there was no cistern or accessible well, till three or four years before 
the adoption of steam fire engines in 1860. The best service of bucket lines was 
done at the fire in the Washington Hall, in February, 1843. 

The Legislature, on the 7th of February, 1835, authorized the State Treas- 
urer to procure twenty buckets, for fire purposes, and suitable ladders, and to pay 
half the cost of a fire engine if t.he citizens would pay the other half. The citizens 
on the 12th met and requested the Trustees to subscribe the money, and levy a tax to 
pay it, and the Bucket Company was reorganized as the Marion Fire, Hose and Pro- 
tection Company. The engine, the Marion, was bought in the Summer and brought 
here in September. It was an "end-brake," made by Merrick, of Philadelphia, and 
was never surpassed, or fairly equalled, by any of the costly " machines" afterwards 
purchased. It was permanently housed in 1837, in a two story frame house on the 
north side of the Circle. The Council subsequently sat in the upper room. The house 
was carelessly guarded, and often used by prostitutes, and in 1851, after having been 
on fire once or twice before, it was burned, with the city records in it. The fire 
was attributed to the members of the Company, at the time, and their resentment 
at being required to "put up" with so shabby an aff"air was the supposed motive. 
It is certain that many of them refused to work when ordered by their captain, and 
other companies did what was done, but it may be fairly doubted whether they did 
more than entertain a decided dispositon to see it go. In 1855 a brick house was 
built on the corner of Massachusetts Avenue and New York street, and in July, 1858, 
a splendid new "side-brake" engine was purchased, but never did much service, 
The town of Peru bought it, in April, 1860, for $2,130. The first officers and 
members of the Marion Company were the most prominent and respectable citizens 


of the place. Caleb Scudder was the first Captain. He was succeeded by Jamea 
Blake, John L. Mothershead, and other leading citizens. But in a few years the 
town grew larger, and the members of the Company grew older and more indis- 
posed to run long and work hard, and younger blood took their places. By 184:8. 
they had all become " honoraries," and passed practically from the Company. 
After serving ten years, a member was entitled to claim his "honorary certificate,'' 
which gave him to all the privileges of a fireman, such as exemption from city 
taxes, and from service in the militia and upon juries, without any obligation to pay 
dues or do duties, and in 1845-6 this limited time of the founders of the Company 
expired. A considerable change was then made in its composition. It became less 
respectable, and a good deal more efficient. In 1859 it, like all the other compa" 
nies, became dissatisfied with Chief Engineer Davis, and the Council, strongly 
disposed anyhow to introduce steam apparatus and paid firemen, was not at all 
urgent to have it kept up, and it was disbanded February, 1860, after a life of a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1841, the Marion Company divided, and the seceders took the " Good Intent,'' 
a second-hand engine, of rather uncertain quality, which had, from the Spring of 
1840, been kept and used with the Marion. The new Company, afterwards known 
as the Independent Relief, like the old one, was made up of the best citizens, but 
with a rather larger infusion of " fast " men than the old one. It was changed 
with the same steps as the other. John H. Wright, the first merchant who opened 
a "cash store" here, and the first to begin pork packing systematically, was the 
first Captain. In 1849 the old engine was taken by a new company and replaced 
by a sort of "row-boat" apparatus, then in the flush of its ephemeral glory, and 
the " boys " for a long time made vigorous rivalry with the Marions. But they were 
beaten usually, for their engine "took water " badly, and had nearly always to be 
"primed," a process that lost time and gave their vigorous rivals an advantage 
never thrown away. In August, 1858, they raised some money by subscription to 
buy another engine, and the Council helped them, and this, an end-brake, they used 
till they were disbanded in November, 1859. They had a severe controversy with 
the city about their apparatus, but in February gave up everything except their 
old "row-boat," which they broke up and sold the following Spring. Their house 
was a two story brick on the west side of Meridian street, in Hubbard's block. 
Its upper room was used by the Fire Association, as well as b}^ the Company. 

In November, 1849, the Western Liberties Company was organized, and took 
the old " Good Intent." They kept it in a small frame house, on the poiat between 
the National road and Washington street, and used a big triangle for a bell. In 
1857 the brick building on the south side of Washington street, west of West street, 
was erected for them, and a new engine, the Indiana, given them. The Company 
was disbanded in 1859, and the engine sold. 

The "Invincibles," usually called "Wooden Shoes " by the older companies, 
organized in May, 1852, and obtained a little iron box engine, called the " Victory," 
with which, being light and easily handled, and their numbers strong, they did 
good work, and made good time to fires in all parts of the city. In March, 1857, 
they got a new engine, the Conqueror, and used it till they were disbanded in Au- 
gust, 1859. Their house was on the east side of New Jersey street, a half square 
north of Washington. After the inauguration of the Paid Department, in 1860, the 
Invincibles formed part of it for a few months. They were then finally disbanded, 
and their engine sold to Fort Wayne. 

The Union Company was organized in 1855, and a handsome house built for 


^.hem the year following, oa Sauth street, between Delaware and Alabama. In 
April, 1856, afirstclasa engine, called the "Spirit of 7 and 6," a name the significance 
of which is about as hard to guess as the interpretation of the " arrow-head ■' 
inscriptions of Nineveh, was purchased for them. The Company was disbanded 
in November, 1859. A fruitless effort was made to reorganize it in the Paid Depart, 
ment next year, and the engine was taken at $600 in part pay for the steam engine 
since statione.d in their house. 

A Company called the " Puovers " was organized in the northwestern part of the 
city, in March, 1858, a house and one of the old engines given them, and measures 
taken to procure them a new engine, but before it had reached the stage of efficient 
existence the old volunteer system was tottering, and nothing was done. The 
Company was disbanded in June, 1859, and the house sold the year after. 

The "Hook and Ladder Company" was organized in 1843, and did good service 
till the 14th of November, 1859, when they were disbanded with the other compa- 
nies. A one story brick house was built for them on the west end of the East 
Market space. 

Besides these regular companies, there were two companies of boys, the "OK 
Bucket Company," and the " Young America Hook and Ladder Company." The 
former was organized in December, 1849, and did good service in providing buckets 
for "lines" to supply the engines, and in keeping down or extinguishing fires in 
the start. They used the old buckets for a time, but were soon supplied with a 
neat light wagon and new buckets by the Council. Their house was on the north- 
east corner of Meridian and Maryland streets, where the Opera House was after- 
wards built. They were disbanded in 1854, but reorganized next year for a little 
while, and then, being finally disbanded, changed to a sort of Engine Company, 
and, in 1857, were given the " Victory," the little iron: engine first used by the 
"Invincible" Company. The young "Hook and Ladder" Company got their 
apparatus in June, 1858, but did little, and were disbanded November, 1859. 

There was never any effective separation of Engine and Hose Companies. 
Each engine had its own hose reel, and for a long time the members served indiffer- 
ently with either apparatus. Hose Directors were especially assigned, but they 
were under the command of the Captain cf the Company. In the latter years of 
the system, a separation was partially effected, and members were classed as 
"engine" and "hose" men, but separate organizations, houses and service never 
existed. The officers were, usually, the Captain, Secretary, Treasurer, two Engine 
Directors, two Hose Directors, a Messenger, and a "suction hose" man, the last a 
position rather than an office, assigned to the most experienced member, as much of 
the efficiency of an engine depended on the accuracy and rapidity of the "suction'' 
man's work. The " Messenger " kept the apparatus in order, looked to the repairs 
of hose and the like, and was paid about $50 a year by the Council — the only office 
with a salary. It was usually held by a mechanic acquainted with the construction 
of engines. 

Until about 1852 or 1853, the annual cost of the volunteer system was slight 
and made up of hose repairs, occasional repainting of apparatus, and similar expen- 
ses, but after that time larger demands were made, the independent character of 
the companies was changed, and they became less associations of citizens for a 
special purpose, and more a sort of gratuitous servants of the Council. There was 
no union or co-operation among them, however, and the consequences were some- 
times mischievous. In 1853 it was determined to subject them to a common author- 
ity, and the office of Chief Fire Engineer was created. Joseph Little was first 


appointed to it, with B. R. Siilgrove as First Assistant, and William King as Second 
Assistant. Obedience to these officei'S was the condition of appropriations by the 
Council, and refractory companies were ruled by the fear of being left to bear their 
own expenses. To enable them to exert their power most effectively, and counter- 
check the despotism of thfe purse in the hands of the Council, the Fire Association 
was organized in 1856, with B. R. Sulgrove as the first President. This body was 
composed of delegates from each company, and held its meetings in the hall of the 
Relief Company on Meridian street. Its existence and functions were recognized 
by the Council, and it became the authoritative representative of a very large 
active and politically formidable body of about four hundred voters. No appro- 
priations were made to companies but upon its recommendation, and all company 
action that affected the general interests of the Department was subjected to its 
(supervision. It was, in fact, the Legislature, as the Engineer was the Executive, of 
the Fire Department. For a time its business was well conducted. But its polit- 
ical power was too obvious to allow it to remain free from partisan solicitations, 
and the tenacity with which the firemen stuck to each other made its authority even 
more formidable than it appeared. From the time the companies began to assume 
closer relations with the Council, they began to act together in certain elections 
which they deemed concerned them most directly, and, until the system began to 
fail in 1858, they were virtually conceded the office of city clerk, Daniel B. Cul- 
ley, of the Marion, held the office three successive years, from 1851 to 1853. Jas. 
N. Sweetser, of the Marion, next took it, then Alfred Stevens, of the Relief, for 
two years — dying in the last half of the second year, and succeeded by Fred. Stein, 
and then it was given to Geo. H. West, of the Marion. The Fire Association con- 
centrated and directed this feeling of fraternity, and as its power became more 
apparent, its demands became more exorbitant. The Council felt that it had taken 
an ''Old Man of the Sea" on its back, and the citizens murmured at the unaccus- 
tomed expense. Power and money produced their inevitable effects, and the Asso- 
ciation, in its second year, showed signs of internal discord and unmanageable 
jealousies. The Presidency began to be intrigued for, and measures canvassed out- 
side and "log-rolled" for. with about as little moderation and not much more hon- 
esty than is seen in the Legislature or Congress. More than one violent disruption 
was attempted, and reconciliations were not easily made. At last the crash came 
with the election of Joseph W. Davis, formerly Captain of the " Invincibles," as 
Chief Fire Engineer, in 1858. He had been a prominent, active and peremptory 
member of the Association, with decided opinions, strong prejudices, and no partic- 
ular disposition to conceal either. Of course he was liked heartily by those who 
agreed'with him, and cordially disliked by everybody else, and the latter were by 
far the stronger party. Nothing but the union of the firemen had preserved their 
power so long, for the city was restive under their burthen, and now their union 
was broken. It was evident that the volunteer system was approaching its end. 
An attempt was made the year following, 1859, to restore harmony and eflSciency 
by the election of John E. Foudray, who had never been a fireman, or had not for 
many years been actively connected with any company, and was therefore free from 
the partialities imputed to Mr. Davis; but a few months showed that the disease 
was incurable. The city had grown so large, and steam engines had been made so 
light, that the stage of fitness of one to the other was reached, and in August, 1859, 
the Council declared against the volunteer, and proposed to establish a paid, depart- 
ment, with steam apparatus, which, as Miles Greenwood, First Chief Engineer of 
Cincinnati under the paid system, used to say, possessed the valuable quality of 


"neither drinking whisky nor throwing brick-bats," On the 4th of September the 
Committee on the Pire Department reported in favor of the purchase of a small 
steam engine, and the sale of the "Belief " and " Good Intent." A Latta engine 
was exhibited here in the latter part of September, but it was thought too heavy 
for our unimproved streets, and a Lee & Larned rotary-pump engine, which was 
exhibited October 15th and 22d at the canal, and proved quite equal in the strength. 
of its stream to the heavier Latta, was purchased and received on the 30th of March, 
1860. Its location waa a point of hot dispute in the Council and by the press, but 
it was at last, through the efforts of Mr. G-. W. Geisendorff, Captain of the " West- 
erns," and a member of the Council, placed in the engine house of the " Westerns," 
at the extreme west end of the city, where it still remains. The new paid depart- 
ment was composed of the steam engine, with Frank Glazier as Engineer, two hand 
engines under Charles Richmann and William Sherwood, and a hook and ladder 
company under William W. Darnell. Joseph W. Davis received the reward of his 
efforts for the new arrangement in the position of Chief Engineer with a salary of 
$300. In August, 1860, a third class Latta was bought and placed in the Marion 
house on Massachusetts avenue; Charles Curtiss was appointed Engineer. In 
October a Seneca Falls engine was bought, after a competitive trial, and stationed 
in the Union house on South street, with Daniel Glazier as Engineer. Iq 1867 a 
second Seneca Fall engine was bought and stationed in the western house, with 
G. M. Bishop as Engineer. The other of the same make was sent back for repairs. 
The Latta has also been repaired, and the Lee & Larned. Engines and reels are 
tept constantly ready for service, and are both drawn by horses. The men are paid 
and usually do little else than their fire work. 

In 1863 a central alarm bell was procured and placed in an open frame work 
tower in the rear of Glenn's block. It is rung by means of apparatus from a tower 
on the block, where a watchman is on duty day and night. For five years the 
locality of a fire was vaguely designated by striking the number of the ward; but 
in February, 1868, a telegraph system was adopted and put in operation in April at 
a cost of $6,000, which provides locked boxes, the keys kept at designated places, 
which contain an apparatus that by a simple motion enables anybody to send an 
alarm to the central station. Tne places of these boxes and the signals belonging 
to them, are published. 

The water supply was long uncertain and inadequate. As already stated, it 
was usually furnished by " lines " of spectators, if a well could not be easily reached 
by an engine. The canal and the creek were ample, but fires rarely occurred in 
those sparsely settled sections of the town. Several large wells were dug, one on 
the point between Kentucky avenue and Illinois street, another on Washington at 
the junction of Virginia avenue, and others in other places ; but these were not to be 
depended on, and in I860 two 300-barrel cisterns were made. But they did little 
service, and until 1852 the city was without any regular or reliable water supplv for 
fires. In that year a tax for cisterns was assessed and sixteen constructed in about 
two years. . There are now, scattered about in the most available places, 78 cisterns 
of 300 to* 1,800 barrels capacity The introduction of the Holly system of water 
works, which aims to provide streams for fires by direct pressure from the pump 
through the fire-plug, may affect our fire department ultimately, but it is not thought 
now that it will. Steam engines will hardly be dispensed with, and we must have 
cisterns for them. An attempt was made in 1868 to bore an artesian well, on the 
northwest corner of University Square, to fill the fire cisterns, and a good deal ot 
money spent upon it, but it has been abandoned. A steam pump to fill cisterns was 
.made in 1864 at a cost of $1,000. The hose is all gutta percha. 




The following statement of the present condition of the Fire Department has 
been kindly furniseed by the Chief Fire Engineer, Dan. Glazier: 

No. 1.— C. B. Davis— Cost $4,800— out of service. 

No. 2. — William Henderson — Cost $5,500 — located on corner of Massachusetts 
avenvie and Delaware street. This engine was rebuilt last season at a cost of 
$2,600. Engineer, Cicero Seibert. 

No. 3. — Cost $3,500 — located on South street, between Delaware and Ala- 
bama streets — Engineer,John E. Belles. 

No. 4. — Cost $6,000 — located on Washington street, between West and Cali- 
fornia streets. Engineer, George M. Bishop. Takes place of No. 1 — is run by 
the No. 1 Company. 

No. 5. — John Marsee — Cost $6,000. Not located — new engine in reserve. 

The city has purchased grounds and will build new houses this coming sum- 
mer, consequently the location of some or all the engines will be changed. 

No. of Hose Reels— 5. Totol cost $1,800. 

No. of feet of Hose— 5,000. Cost about $7,000. 

No. of men engaged in Fire Department — 1 Chief Fire Engineer, 3 Engineers, 
1 Superintendent of Telegraph, 2 Watchmen on the Tower, one Hook and Ladder 
man, 3 Firemen, 6 Drivers, and 12 Hosemen. 

Wages of Men. — Chief Fire Engineer, $1,300 per annum; Superintendent of 
Telegraph, $35 per month; Engineers, $90 per month; Firemen, Drivers and 
Watchmen, $2.50 per day; Hosemen, $180 per annum. 

No. of horses — 14. No. of cisterns — 78. 

Total cost of Hose since organization of paid Department — $16,000. 


Engine House, cor. Massachusetts avenue 

and New York street. 
Corner East and New York streets. 
Hook and Ladder Honse, New Jersey, near 

Spiegel, Thorns & Go's Factory, on East. 
Washington and Noble. 
Davidson and New York. 
Noble and Michigan. 
Noble and Massachusetts avenue. 
East and Massachusetts avenue. 
New Jersey and Ft. Wayne avenue. 
Delaware and Ft. Wayne avenue. 
Pennsylvania and Pratt. 
Blind Asylum. 
Tennessee and St. Clair. 
Michigan, between Meridian and lUinois. 
Tennessee, bet. Vermont and Michigan. 
Illinois street and Indiana avenue. 
New York and Canal— Helwig's Mill. 
West street and Indiana avenue. 
Frink & Moore's Novelty 
282 Indiana avenue. 
Blake and Michigan. 
Douglass and New York. 

3-5 Cotton Factory, near river. 

3-6 Geisendorff 's Woolen Factory, near river. 

3-7 No. 1. Engine House, Washington, bet. 

West and California. 

4-1 West street and Kentucky avenue. 

4-2 Georgia and Mississippi, Coburn & Jones 

Lumber Yard. 

4-3 Washington and Tennessee. 

4-5 Illinois and Louisiana, Spencer Honse. 

4-6 Illinois and Garden — Osgood & Smith. 

4-7 Illinois and McCarty. 

5-1 Bluff Road and Ray. 

5-2 Delaware and McCarty. 

5-3 East and Bicking. 

5-4 Virginia avenue and Bradshaw. 

5-6 Virginia avenue and Noble. 

5-7 Georgia and Benton. 

6-1 16 Fletcher avenue — Chief Engineer's res. 

6-2 No. 3 Engine House, South street, between 

Delaware and Alabama. 

6-3 Gas Works. 

6-4 Ponn'a and Georgia — Farley & Sinker. 

6-5 Glenn's block. 

6-7 Delaware and Washington. 

7-1 185 New Jersey street, cor. Virginia ave. 


The Police force was first established in 1854. Its changes and the general 
features of its history are related in chapter Z, and need not be repeated here. 

Bhhpi^t If I 


LTHOUGH Indianapolis holds a high place in the estimation of showmen, 
and is invariably marked for every traveling exhibition, from an operatic star 
to a double-headed baby, a considerable portion of it3 respectable patronage 
has been directed by a peculiarity of taste, compounded partly of Puritan traditions 
and partly of backwoods culture, which, even to this day, makes certain classes of 
entertainments "unclean." Menageries are illustrations of natural history, and 
the schools are dismissed to see them. Circuses are "devil's devices," and church 
members are, or were, "called over the coals" for visiting them. Concerts are 
bearable, and even the opera is not altogether abomiaable, but a theatrical per- 
formance is beyond moral toleration. This feeling used to be much stronger and 
more generally diffused than it is now, when the growth of population and ungodli- 
ness has provided ample patronage for everything, and moral antipathies, finding 
themselves practically powerless, have thinned greatly from inanition, and weak- 
ened from want of exercise. But in their greatest strength they could not subdue 
the open rebellion of many, and the secret disobedience of others, to the purity 
that closed the circus canvass on them, or shut them out of Ollaman's wagon-shop, 
or the old " hay press " foundry. It would be hard to determine whether the reli- 
gious opposition of the "fathers" of the Capital injured the tabooed performances 
more than the additional allurement of doing a forbidden thing benefited them. 
At all events, though deprived of the advantage of the " family attendance " of 
old settlers, circuses, negro minstrels and ballet pieces have been quite as well pat- 
ronized as "animal shows," lectures and concerts. "Shows," the generic Hoosier 
name for all sorts of exhibitions under canvass, may be considered the favorite 
weakness of the Capital. A circus of fair average pretensions will fill its seats in 
spite of weather, mud or money, and a half dozen in close succession will keep 
doing it, as if people went to see how much better or worse one was than another. 
Other exhibitions are little less attractive. Negro minstrels will suck all the pat- 
ronage from an opposition lecture or charity fair. The theatre, alone, of the old- 
time "immoral" class of exhibitions has had a fluctuating patronage and an acci- 
dental prosperity. During the war, and since, under the impulse of some famous 
actor, it has done very well, but averaging all the seasons before 1861, with all 
those since 1865, it will be fo'ind that the profits might be turned in upon the 
National debt without sensibly diminishing the necessity of a tariff. Those familiar 
with the business might explain this exceptional sterility; it is enough for this 
aketch to state the fact. As concerts, lectures and "shows" have no especial con- 
aection with the city or its history, it would be an impertinent enlargement to say 
more of them here. The theater, however, having " a local habitation and a name," 
bringing population here, diffusing its earnings here, and ornamenting our streets 
with imposing edifices, is a part of the city, and cannot be properly omitted. 


As has been stated in the general history of the city, the first theatrical per- 
formance was given here on the night of the last day of the year 1823, in the dining 
room of Major Carter's tavern, opposite the Court house, by a Mr. and Mrs. Smith, 
imposingly announced as " late of the New York theatre." Two pieces were played, 
"The Doctor's Courtship, or the Indulgent Father," and the "Jealous Lovers." 
The price of admission was "three levies" — the popular abbreviation in early 
times of three " elevenpeace," in later years changed, by more frequent intercourse 
with the South, to the Mississippi "patois" of three "bits," — and the orchestra was 
composed of Bill Bagwell and his fiddle. Mr. Carter was largely imbued with the 
prejudices against the stage, to which allusion is made above (and which recently 
sent a dead actor of excellent character "round the corner'' for christian burial, in 
New York), and he objected to the use of so profane an instrument as a fiddle in 
his house, as an auxiliary to a performance which his conscience could illy tolerate 
in its least ofi"eQsive form. He was finally pacified by the assurance that the obnox- 
ious instrument was a " violin," and by the performance thereon of the air of a favor- 
ite hymn. Several exhibitions were given, with sufiicient success to attract the 
adventurous Mr. Smith here again in June, 1824. But he failed then, and ran away 
without paying his bills, a trick that wandering showmen have practised frequently 

The next attempt at theatrical entertainment was of a higher order altogether. 
A full company was engaged and a building fitted up expressly for it. A Mr. 
Lindsay was manager. Mr. OUaman's wagon-shop, on Washington street, oppo- 
site the Court house, was the theatre, and two or three musicians composed an 
attractive orchestra for that day. Among other pieces, Kotzebue's "Stranger" 
was produced several times, and "Pizarro," the "Loan of a Lover," "Swiss Cot- 
tage," and a number of the old dramas and farces which even yet hold possessioB 
of the stage against half naked women and bloody melo-dramas. Songs were given 
in the " wait" between the first and second pieces, and some of them became quite as 
popular as S. C. Foster's plaintive negr-o melodies of a later day. The " Tongo 
Islands," with its interminable and inextricable tangle of gibberish for a chorus, 
" Jinny git your hoe cake done," and some of the songs made famous by Jim Crow 
Eice, may even. yet be recalled by old residents with good musical memories. This 
Tvas about the year 1837 or 1838. 

During the winter of 1840-41 Mr. Lindsay returned with a really superior 
company, and fitted up the one-story brick building, formerly occupied as the oflBce 
of the Indiana Democrat, where Temperance Hall is now. Mrs. Drake, and A. A. 
Adams, whose irregularities had prevented him from getting an Eastern engage- 
ment and forced him here to support himself, were the chief attractions. Neither 
of them ever played better, and the little house, which would not seat more than 
three hundred, was nearly always full. This was Mr. Lindsay's last appearance 

It was here that a ludicrous scene occurred "not set down in the bills." Cap- 
tain George W. Cutter, a leading Whig orator, from Terre Haute, and a poet who 
subsequently attained a national reputation, fell in love with Mrs Drake, who was 
several yeq,rs his senior. She returned his passion with theatrical, if not sincere, 
demonstrations, and the billing and cooing of the oddly mis-mated lovers was the 
standing joke of the city during the session of the Legislature. One night, in 
some performance, Mrs. Drake, who was affectionately watched from the wings by 
ier Wabash adorer, in making a "stage" fall, made a real one, and hurt herself, 
or Cutter thought she did, and he rushed upon the stage, to the horrible disorder of 


the scene, and the infinite fun of the audience, and tenderly lifting up his rather 
ponderous inamorata, audibly condoled with her, and led her off with all the touch- 
ing sweetness of the honey moon. The crowd roared, cheered the gallant Captain 
"to the echo," and made fun of him for the next six weeks. He and Mrs, Drake 
were married that winter at Mr. Browning's hotel. This love passage was the 
" sensation " of that season. 

In 1843 "The New York Company of Comedians" opened a theatre in the 
upper room of Gaston's carriage-shop, where the Bates House now stands, and gave 
series of concerts closing with stage performances, during the better part of the 
f?inter. Mrs. Drake and Mr. A.dams, Mr. Brown's history says, appeared here, 
but the writer has an impression, not definite enough to place against anybody's 
actual recollection, that they played together but one season, and that was during 
Mr. Lindsay's occupation of the Democrat office. 

Another theatrical demonstration was a home-made affair, and by no means 
the worst given us. During the winter of 1839-40 an old foundry building called 
the "hay press," from an "institution" of that kind established in its rear to 
bale hay for transportation to New Orleans in flatboats, was fitted up with a stage 
and scenery, and used by the "Indianapolis Thespian Corps" to present Robert 
Dale Owen's play of " Pocahontas." The leading actors were James G. Jordan, 
as "Captain John Smith;" James McCready, as "Powhattan;" William "Wallace, 
as ''Pocahontas;" John T. Morrison, Davis Miller and James McVey in other 
characters. Though but an indifferent acting piece, and utterly forgotten as any« 
thing else now, its novelty made it entertaining enough to "run" for sometime at 
irregular intervals. Two or three years later the "Corps" was revived, and 
strengthened with the addition of Mr. Edward S. Tyler, and produced several 
standard plays with decided merit and success. The " Theatre " was opened, 
usually, once a week, but sometimes twice, in the summer and fall of that and the 
succeeding year. (It is but just to say that there is a good deal of discrepancy as 
to the dates in the history of the " Corps." The writer has fixed those given by 
the memories of the gentlemen belonging to the Corps, who concur unanimously 
in placing their performances at least as early as 1844, and the first presentation 
of " Pocahontas " is fixed positively, by one of the leading actors, in the winter of 
1839-40.) The best paying performance, and the best dramatically regar(^ed, 
was the "Golden Farmer," with Mr. Jordan as the "Farmer," Mr. Mc- 
Cready as "Old Mob," and Mr. Tyler as "Jimmy Twitcher." The last was 
a "hit." In the first scene, where "Jimmy" overhauls his booty and "takes 
an account of stock," and in that in which he falls off a fence and hangs by 
the seat of his breeches to one of the spikes, the audience never failed to " come 
down" with furious applause. The "Brigands," with Jordan in the song of 
" Love's Ritornella," was also popular. Towards the close of the season of 1842 or 
1843, probably the latter, Mr. Nat. Cook, eldest son of the then State Librarian, 
who had been playing subordinate parts in a Cincinnati theatre, came out here, 
and a big demonstration was made. The town was full of rumors of his talents, 
his wonderful wardrobe, his fame abroad, and of all other inducements to make 
him the "lion" of the theatre-going society — not the highest in the city at that 
time — and to bring a big crowd to hear him. Home's tragedy of "Douglass " was 
announced, with Mr. Cook as "Young Nerval," Mr. Jordan as "Glenalvon," and 
Mr. Davis Miller as "Lady Eandolph," to be followed by the "Two Gregories," 
with Mr. Cook as one of the " Gregories," Mr. Jordan as the Frenchman, and Mr. 
John Cook, Jr., as the sweetheart of " Gregory." There was a full house, and rap- 


turous applause when "Young Norval'" came on for the first time, resplendent in 
scale armor of tin chips, and impressive in all the rant and strut and grunt of 
traditional stage propriety. But he didn't hold up. Mr. Jordan made a decidedly 
better character of the villain. This was the dying blaze of the Thespians. They 
expired in October, after Mr, John T. Morrison, as per programme, attempted 
to declaim Dimond's " Sailor Boy's Dream," and forgot the third stanza and all 
behind it. He could have done admirably if his memory hadn't tricked him, but 
"stage fright" was too much for him, as it has been for many a man who has 
become famous on the stage since. 

(There is a long blank in theatrical history, between the Thespians and the 
next stage exhibition, of too little consequence to deserve notice.) 

Early in 1853, January 21st, Mr. F. W. Eobinaon, calling himself "Yankee 
Eobinson," located in Washington Hall for the winter, with the company he had 
been exhibiting as a "side show" at the State Fair the fall before. To evade the 
license for theatrical performances, he announced concerts by the Alphonso troupe, 
and a vocal annoyance was followed by a very fair play, sometimes two. The lead- 
ing actor was Henry W. Waugh, afterwards clown in Robinson's circus under the 
name of "Dilly Fay," and more widely, as well as more honorably, known as a 
young artist of very great promise. He painted all the scenery, and it was well 
done. During the following year he assisted Mr. Jacob Cox in painting a " Tem- 
perance Panorama" in the Governor's Circle, which, never adequately managed, 
failed as a traveling exhibition, though it did well in the city at Masonic Hall. He 
went to Italy ten or twelve years ago, and died of consumption on his way home, 
in England. Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Wilkins did the "heavy business," and Mr. 
James F. Lytton the Irish characters. He sang well and with good comic effeet, 
and he made Irish songs very popular. "The Low Backed Car," " Billy O'Rourke," 
"The Flaming O'Flannigans," "Finnegan's Wake," and several other songs owe 
their Indianapolis popularity to him. Robinson closed his season the 7th of March. 
Mr. H. W. Brown then took the Hall, and, with Mr. Wilkins and wife, Mrs. 
Mehen, and some others, first produced "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and with success. 
He ran only four weeks, closing July 26th, 1853. Mr. Wilkins then took the 
place and company, and made a brief season of a few weeks. 

During the summer and fall of 1854, Mr. C. A. Elliott, having built and enclosed 
his large liquor house, on the corner of Meridian and Maryland streets, Mr. Robinson 
rented the third story, and had it turned into a moderately capacious and comforj- 
able theatre, still better than Washington Hall, called "The Atheneum." His 
company consisted of R. J. Miller, who, subsequently taking the line of "Yankee" 
characters — the most abominable caricatures that ever disfigured any stage in the 
world, whoever the actor might be — called himself "Yankee Miller," his wife, Mr. 
Bierce, another stage "Yankee" called "Yankee" Bierce, and "Yankee" Robin- 
son himself and his wife, F. A. Tannehill, George McWilliams, his sister, Mary 
McWilliams, J. F. Lytton and H. W. Waugh. This was a profitable enterprise. 
The theatre was always well filled, and the plays given with no inconsiderable 
share of force and scenic effect. It was here that Indianapolis was introduced to 
the first "star" ever seen on White River. Miss Susan Denin, of moderate his- 
trionic talent, very considerable personal beauty, and a reputation that did not 
repel admirers of other attractions than her acting, appeared in " Fazio," and in the 
farce of " Good for Nothing," the latter the better performance of the two, and 
made a sensation which has hardly been equalled in intensity even by Kellogg and 
Nilsson, though it must be admitted that the sensation did not pervade precisely 


the same classes, or run upon the same level of respectability. She appeared in 
the same place in the year following, with her sister Kate, and played " Romeo" to 
Kate's " Juliet." This exhibition in tights was especially attractive to the sappy 
juniors of the masculine persuasion, and though her acting was not improved, her 
success was decided. In the spring of 1855, Maggie Mitchell, who had made her 
first appearance in Chicago but a few days before, appeared here, and gave no very 
striking indications of ability to achieve a marked success. The papers treated her 
kindly, however, and she left with some money and some encoui'agement. J. P. 
Addams also played during this season. 

On the closing of Robinson's season, April 14th, 1855, Austin H. Brown and 
John M. Commons took the Atheneum, and engaged several of the best actors in 
the country. Mr. C. J. Fyffe was manager. The "support' was wretched and 
patronage fell oif, though Harry Chapman and his wife, Mrs. A. Drake — reappear- 
isg for the first time since 1842 — William Powers, a disastrous failure, and James 
E. Murdoch, then confessedly at the head of the profession in the United States in 
genteel comedy, di-ama, and skill as a reader, were among the attractions. Mr. 
Murdoch played to less than twenty persons, the unbearable heat of a close room, 
so near the roof, in midsummer, repelling hundreds who would have gladly 
heard him anywhere where they could sweat without being scalded. He threw up 
his engagement for the benefit of the managers after the second performance, which 
vas the "Stranger," and left in a big disgust, which he has never so far conquered 
as to come back, except to lecture or give a reading. On the 15th of September, 
1855, Mr. Commons reopened the theatre, and ran it till the 8th of December, with 
Miss Eliza Logan, Joseph Proctor and wife, Susan and Kate Denin, Peter and Car- 
oline Richings, and W. J. Florence and wife,. Thomas Duff was stage manager. 
In March, 1856, W. L. Woods opened it again for a month, Mr. W. Davidge, low 
comedian, being the star. Vance and Lytton ran it from May 16th to June 3d, with 
Eliza Logan, Miss Coleman Pope and Miss Riohings as attractions. Maddocks 
and Wilson opened spasmodically during the summer, as a chance crowd made an 
appearance of pay possible. During the State Fair Wilson and Pratt used it, and 
Yankee Bierce and the Maddern sisters, in the early part of December. From the 
16th of December till the 9th of March it was run by J. F. Lytton & Co., with 
Yankee Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Lacey, Taanyhill, Lytton and others as company, 
and Susan Denin, Dora Shaw, John Drew, Charlotte Crampton, Mrs. Drake and 
Miss Duval as stars. In March, 1857, Gal. J. Smith attempted to do something 
with the now dilapidated affair, but he couldn't do much at best, and he did noth- 
ing with this but ruin it outright. It should be stated that Miss Eloise Bridges, 
appeared in the early fall of 1865. In August. 1858, a German company played 
at the Atheneum for a little while, and in January of that year and February of 
1859 the Germans ran two theatres, one at Washington Hall and one at Union 
Hall. Kate Denin and her husband, Sam. Ryan, opened Washington Hall in 
April, 1858 for a few days, to no advantage to anybody; and Harry Chapman, with 
his wife and his wife's mother, Mrs. A. Drake, and the admirable comedian John 
K. Mortimer, opened the Atheneum during the State Fair. This completes the 
sketch of makeshift theatres, halls temporarily fitted up, companies temporarily 
collected, aud of seasons sporadically scattered through the year. From this time 
there is to be noticed only a regular theatre, built on purpose, and worthy of the 
population and prosperity of the city. 

Up to this time the Theatre, though a denizen, was not a citizen, of the Capi- 
tal. It was a tenant, not a proprietor, and moved about with little improvement 


of accommodations. But in 1857 Mr. Valentine Butsch built the Metropolitan 
Theatre, corner of Tennessee and Washington streets, opposite the Masonic Hall, 
expressly for stage performances, and gave this class of amusements permanence 
and character. The corner stone was laid in August, 1857, and in a little more 
than a year the house was finished. It is one of the handsomest in the city, three 
stories high, eighty-two by one hundred and twenty- five feet, stuccoed to resemble 
stone, with niches in the second story front for symbolical statues, and a balcony 
which furnishes a place for the band to play alluring airs, before the rising of the 
curtain. The ground floor is divided into large business rooms, with two stairways 
to the theatre entrance. The auditorium will seat about twelve hundred persons, 
and could seat more if the gallery were not so indifferently arranged that the stage 
is visible only from the lower seats of the centre and from the two ends The dress 
circle under the gallery is separated from the "pit" or parquette by a descent of a 
foot or so, bounded by an iron balustrade, through which there are two openings 
from the dress circle, the only means of entrance. The vaulted ceiling is neatly 
decorated with fresco work. The stage, though not large, is quite adequate to any 
ordinary exhibition. The scenery was painted by S. W. Gulick, who was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas B. Glessing, an artist of marked talent, who has provided both 
the Metropolitan and the Academy with as good scenery as can be found in any 
theatre in the West. It cost, with the lot, about $60,000. 

The Metropolitan was opened under the management of E. T. Sherlock on the 
27th of September, 1858, with an exhibition of the "Tableaux Vivants" of the 
Keller Troupe, if the writer remembers correctly. A number of " stars " of 
greater or less magnitude appeared during the season, which closed on the last day 
of February, 1859. Among them were Sallie St. Clair, the leader of the "naked 
school," in such displays as the "French Spy," Hackett, the great — -^n all senses — 
"Falstaff," the Florences, J. B. Roberts, Mrs. J. W, Wallack, Mrs. Sinclair (For- 
rest), Adah Isaacs Menken, another of the "stripping" class, Eliza Logan, Mr. 
and Mrs. Waller, Matilda Heron, then in the flush of her recently acquired renown 
as the great "realistic" .actress, and the Cooper English Opera Troupe and other 
stars. The season was pecuniarily a failure. Large expenses were incurred without 
the presentation of striking inducements to patronage, except in a few cases, and the 
houses did not "pay." There was, moreover, no little remnant of that antipathy to 
the theatre alluded to in the opening of this chapter, to encounter, and it was the 
more damaging as being directed by the oldest, wealthiest and most respected citizens. 
The manager sought to conciliate it once by oflTering a benefit to the Widows and Or- 
phans' Society, then sadly in need of help, but after much discussion the offer was 
declined under the advice of the leading male directors, and a probable donation of 
five hundred dollars thrown away. The ground of refusal was distinctly stated to 
be the Society's doubt of the moral tendency of stage exhibitions. The city press, 
with scarcely an exception, exposed the insufficiency of the reason, and the impro- 
priety of looking too nearly into the means by which money properly off'ered was 
gained. The same scrutiny might repel donations from speculators in family distress 
and the poverty of the very class for whose relief the Society was organized. A char- 
itable association does all its duty when it honorably obtains means which it benifl- 
cently applies. The discussion was warm for a while, the " moralists," as they 
were called, standing resolutely by their creed that money for pure purposes must 
come from pure sources, though the starvation of the suffering were the conse- 
quence of refusing that of doubtful acquisition. The city has outgrown this opin- 
ion now, if one may judge from the fact that a theatrical exhibition, by amateurs, 


was made on two successive nights in the Opera Hall for the benefit of this same 
Society, and an amateur opera was given in the Academy of Music two or three 
•times for a similar benevolent object. The moral difference between an amateur 
and a professional exhibition is not a wide one, and in these instances the artistic 
difference was not much wider. The performances were quite as good as the aver- 
age of stage exhibitions, and the only feature that the societies seemed to lament 
was that they did not pay better. 

The failure of Mr. Sherlock did not deter Mr. George Wo )d from re-opening 
the theatre in April, 1859, for a few nights, nor John A. EUsler from attempting a 
two months season immediately after. He was the first to produce ballet pieces 
with some approach to the scenic splendor, the tinsel, flowers, naked girls, and gor- 
geous tableaux of Eastern theatres. He opened it again during the fall and winter, 
but with little success. On the 25th of April, 1861, its management was underta- 
ken by Mr. Butsch himself, with Felix A. Vincent as stage manager, and the 
■crowd brought here by. the demands of the war made it pay. From this time to 
the close of the war the Metropolitan was the most profitable investment in the city. 
It was crowded all the time, whatever might be the attraction, though the " stock" 
was nearly always good enough to merit good patronage, including, as it did, Mr. 
Vincent, in some respects one of the best comedians ever seen here; Miss Marion 
McCarthy — who subsequently became insane and died here — a good actress in 
nearly all classes of characters from farce to high tragedy, and a pleasing singer 
as well; Mr. F. G. White, a broad low comedian of unfailing popularity with " the 
boys; " Mr. Ferd. Hight, an excellent "old man " and fair comedian. Miss Phillips, 
the best "old lady' we have had, and several others. Vincent continued as man- 
ager under Mr. Butsch till 1863. He was succeeded by Wm. H. Riley, who 
played leading parts as well as manager, and made himself deservedly popular^ 
not more by his judicious enterprise in one capacity than his correct and effect- 
ive performances in the other. His wife also appeared frequently and success- 
fully in such parts as "Desdemona," "Juliet," "Mrs. Haller," and the lighter 
characters of tragedy and serious drama. Mr. Riley remained in charge of 
the Metropolitan till 1867, when he removed to New Orleans, to take the 
management of the St. Charles Theatre, of that city. He died there within 
a month after his arrival, regretted alike for his professional excellence and 
social character. The season of 1867-8 was managed by Mat. V. Lingham, 
and that of 1868 by Charles R. Pope. The latter, besides his own acting, which 
has rarely been equalled by any "star," gave us a succession of the best per- 
formances we have ever had, including a week of John E. Owens, and another 
by Edwin Forrest, in which he appeared as "Virginius," "Spartacus," "Eich- 
■elieu," and "Othello." Madame Ristori, appeared one night, the 25th of March, 
1867, under Grau's management. Mr. Pope has since taken the Stj Charles 
Theatre in New Orleans. In 1868 Mr. Butsch closed. the Metropolitan and trans- 
ferred his personal management to the Academy of Music. Since then the 
Metropolitan has been opened as a sort of "Varieties" and "Minstrel" hall, 
though it has always inclined more or less to the drama. Mr. Sargeant had it in 
1870, and Mr. Fred. Thompson in the spring of 1871. 

In 1868 Mr. Butsch, perceiving the inadequacy of the Metropolitan to the rapidly 
growing population of the city, and resolved to "keep even" and retain his long 
mastery of amusement resources, bought the incomplete structure called " Mil- 
ler's block," on the southeast corner of Illinois and Ohio streets, paying $50,000 
-therefor, and completed it into one of the largest and handsomest edifices in the 


"West, making a theatre of the second and third stories, and business rooms of tie 
first, with an entrance on both streets. This he called the Academy of Music. 
The auditorium will seat about 2,500, and in completeness of arrangement, ele- 
gance of finish, comfort of accommodations, and general pleasantness of effect, it 
will compare with any of the smaller theatres of the United States. The dress 
circle is separated from the parquette by a line of boxes, and there are two well 
arranged galleries, the lower a better place than the parquette to hear music. The 
upper is usually reserved for "citizens of African descent." The Academy was 
opened in the fall of 1868 under the management of Mr. W. H. Leake, with a fair 
stock company, containing Mr. White, Mr. Hodges, and one or two others familiar to 
the theatrical public in past times ; his wife. Miss Annie Waite, being the leading 
lady, and one, in all respects of careful study, conscientious effort, pleasing appear- 
ance, and versatility, unsurpassed in the city. Mr. Leake has had Mr. Owens, M-. 
Forrest, the Kichings Opera Troupe, the German Opera Troupe, the Blondes, " Rip 
Van Winkle" Jefl'erson, Mr. Leffingwell, Mrs. Lander, J^anny Janauschek, and 
other distinguished performers in the Academy during his administration. In the 
fall of 1870 he and Mr. James Dickson leased it, with the Metropolitan, of the 
proprietors, Butsch & Dickson, and have since been running it, with the Terre 
Haute Opera House — the Metropolitan being leased, as before stated, for a Varie- 
ties establishment — with what success in money remains to be seen. 

Besides these regular theatres there have been several places of amusement «f 
a more questionable character opened from time to time. A Mrs. English kept up 
a cheap museum on Washington street for sometime, several years ago, and another, 
the greatest merit of which was its sign, was maintained in a shed on the corner of 
Illinois and Georgia streets. The Exchange building on Illinois street was con- 
verted into a "music hall" in 1869, which did pretty well with "minstrels" and 
dances of doubtful decency. In 1870 it was reopened with a similar "show," and 
drew full houses through the winter till it was closed up by the Young Men's 
Christian Association, which bought the building for its own use and emptied the 
theatre, ballet girls, "can-can" and "oil room" into the sti-eet. In the winter of 
1869, before the Exchange was first opened for this sort of entertainment, a "Va- 
rieties" affair of the vilest kind was maintained for a while in Court street, south 
of the Post oflflce. 

Both the Masonic Hall and Morrison's Opera Hall have been converted into 
temporary Theatres at times, and a notice of them will be found in the general 
history of the city. 

Among the amusements of earlier days may be mentioned the first " Pleasure 
Garden," corner of Tennessee and Georgia streets — the site of the present Catholi* 
block — laid out and maintained by John Hodgkins, one of our old restaurant 
keepers, and earliest ice cream and confectionary makers, who kept on Washing- 
ton street where Blackford's block now stands. The ground was well set with 
apple and other fruit trees, and under these seats were made, and bowers built, and 
flower beds were planted, and a very handsome resort created, which was well 
patronized for two or three summers. It was far superior to anything in the beer 
garden way we have since had, though the Apollo Garden, on Kentucky avenae, 
with its trees, bowers, open air theatre, and other attractions, made an approach 
to it at the outset. 

Although not exactly an " amusement," no more appropriate place occurs to 
mention our city brass bands, of which we have had several. Though in these 
later days they have become a regular occupation and passed out of the provin«e of 

A M USEMENTS. j^ 53 

history, the earlier ones were admired if not cherished objects of city enthusiasm^ 
and were quite as much of an " institution " as any place of amusement. The first 
that ever attained skill enough to be entertaining was the old Indianapolis Band,, 
taught and led by Mr. Protzman, a soap boiler. Its leading members were Edward 
S. Tyler, the bugler, James McCready, trombone player, Thos. Mc. Baker, another 
trombone performer, Aaron D. Ohr and James McCord Sharpe, clarionet player. 
The instruments were obtained by a subscription of the citizens. This band stuck 
together for some years, and achieved the reputation of considerable proficiency. 
It played for the Thespian Corps at one time, and provoked some harsh comments 
thereby from some of the preachers. Later, in 1850, or thereabouts, another band 
was formed by Mr. George Downie, a more accomplished musician than Mr. Protz- 
man, and was maintained for a time with considerable success. Mr. Downie was 
the manager of a great band convention held here in 1853, which gave concerts 
and held a sort of musical toui-nament for some prize or other. Since that time 
bands have ceased to be such prominent features of city history, and there is no 
occasion to trace them further. 

^hfxpi^t I f I I 


rROBABLY no town in the United States ever allowed a newspaper to strike 
root so- speedily and deeply as Indianapolis. It was laid out in 1821, and 
the first sale of lots were held in October of that year. The population was 
only about 400, possibly 450. There were no mails, no roads, no water routes, no 
access to the outside world, and there were no improvements and no population in 
the adjoining country. The promise of the means to make a paper either interesting 
or profitable was about as feeble as can be imagined. But, as stated in the begin- 
ning of this history, the Indianapolis Gazette was started early in the succeeding 
jear, January 28, 1822, and under one name or another remains here to-day, with 
a reasonable certainty of lasting as long as the city lasts. A sketch of its early 
Mstory is given in the place where its establishment is noticed and need not be 
repeated here. Its proprietors were George Smith and Nathaniel Bolton, the latter 
well known to the citizens of the "middle era,'' but the former is remembered now 
only by a few of the oldest settlers or their oldest descendants. Mr. Bolton's wife 
Mrs. Sarah T. Bolton, now Mrs. Reese, was for many years the only literary charac- 
ter of whom Indiana could boast, and her fame was by no means as wide as her 
worth, though it has extended since. In 1829, the proprietors, after dissolving 
partnership in 1823 and reuniting in 1824, separated finally, and Mr. Bolton main- 
tained the paper alone until the fall of 1830. In the spring of that year the 
Indiana Democrat had been started by Alexander F. Morrison, and the Gazette 
was sold out to it and consolidated with it, retaining the new name, however. Mr. 
Morrison was long the most prominent and able editor in the State. Though not 
a polished, he was a clear, forcible and pungent writer, and particularly effective 
in the use of sarcasm and personalities, in which he has had few equals. A news- 
paper in his day was merely a vehicle for the promulgation of political opinions 
and diatribes, and he was admirably adapted for its work. News was but a little 
part of its interest or value. Few expected or cared to find any thing more 
in it than its editor's or correspondents' notions. For the present duty and aim of 
a paper he might not have been so well suited, though as leading editor of the 
Sentinel in 1856, or thereabouts, he showed no lack of the ready ability necessary 
to the production of a daily sheet. He alone maintained and conducted the 
Democrat for some years. Subsequently he was joined by Mr. Bolton, and after a 
period of joint management he retired, and was succeeded by Mr. John Livings- 
ton, who finally purchased Mr. Bolton's interest and took the entire control himself. 
It was published the greater portion of the time during these changes, in a little 
brick building, on the site of Temperance Hall, erected for it. This building was 
fitted up as a theatre in 1841, Mr. Adams and Mrs. Drake played there as 
noted in the chapter on " Amusements." During the time of Mr. Livingston's 
sole ownership it was published in the upper story of the frame building where 



Thrgott A Krebsjjth. Cincinnati 

^JiMO^llBiniK* ^icTin^ TiN^Ti vRT wrrrp Trrfij 

;t ^mti:^ JIP.J1.E .3r, 


George F. Meyer's tobacco store is. In July, 1841, George A. Chapman and Jacob 
Page Chapman, who had previously published a Democratic paper in Terre Haute, 
bought out Mr. Livingston, removed the office to a one story frame, on the site of 
Blake's block, east of Masonic Hall, and changed the name to the Indiana Sentinel. 
The Sentinel, under the vigorous management of the Chapmans, speedily became 
the leading paper of the State, and its strong, racy editorials, mainly the work of 
Page Chapman, exercised an influence in the party it represented never before 
attained by any sheet, and probably not surpassed by any since. It was one of 
the' main influences in reversing the political condition of the State. Only weekly 
and semi- weekly editions were published at first, but on the 6th of December 1841 a 
daily sheet was issued and maintained through the session of the Legislature. 
The following year the daily was resumed and continued through the session as 
before, and in 1843 the experiment was repeated, but it was not until April 28th, 
1851, that this feature was made premanent. During this time the proprietary 
management remained with the Chapmans, though Mr. John S. Spann became a 
partner in November 1846. A new two story brick building was erected purposely 
for the paper in 1844, on Illinois street, (now occupied by a saloon), and the pub- 
lication, with an extensive job establishment, continued there till about June, 1850, 
when, Chapmans and Spann dissolving their connection, Mr. William J. Brown 
became the owner of the paper and removed it to a building on West Washington 
street, near Meridian. The job office was, at the sametime, sold to E. W. H. Ellis 
and John S. Spann, and retained in the old building. In April, 1852, Mr. Brown 
passed the paper over to his son, Mr. Austin H. Brown, remaining as leading editor, 
however, and it was removed to the Tomlinson building, on East Washington 
street, opposite the Glenn Block, then the Wright House. On the 2d of March, 

1855, John C. Walker and Charles W. Cottom bought out Mr. Brown but retained 
the old location. Messrs. Walker and Holcorabe were the editors. John S. 
Norman, of the New Albany Ledger, with Mr. John S. Spann, bought out Walker 
& Cottom, December 4th, 1855, Mr. Norman assuming the editorial control. But 
he did not like the position of "party organ," and returned to New Albany in 
about six weeks, the paper passing into the hands of William C. Larrabee and C. 
W. Cottom, with A. F. Morrison and Mr. Larrabee as leading editors, January 24th, 

1856. Seven months afterwards Mr. Joseph J. Bingham, then of Lafayette, 
purchased an interest, and the firm of Larrabee, Bingham & Co. held the con- 
cern till January 13th, 1857, when it was taken by Mr. Bingham and John 
Doughty and moved to the old Capital House building, which had been fitted up 
in first rate style, making the most commodious office then in the State. But 
here, just as it was starting ofi" with every promise of success, it was overtaken 
by an appalling catastrophe. A new boiler for the engine of the press-room, 
placed at the rear end, exploded a little after dark on the evening of the 7tb of 
April, 1857, tearing the eastern room of the building to pieces; precipitating type, 
eases, imposing stones, and all the apparatus of the office down upon the press- 
room ; breaking the presses, setting fire to the woodwork, and creating a scene of 
korror never before or since witnessed in this city. One of the press hands, by 
the name of Homer, was killed instantly and several others injured. Publica- 
tion was suspended and appeals for assistance, though by no means so liberally 
responded to as the ability and value of the paper demanded, brought out contribu- 
tions which the energy of the proprietors made sufficient to allow a resumption of 
work on the 21st. But the embarrassment caused by the calamity hung upon the 
proprietors for a long time. The Sentinel Company, which then took the establish- 


ment, retained it till July 31st, 1861, when Mr. John R. Elder and John Harkness, 
of the Locomotive, joined with Mr. Bingham and purchased it, removing it to the 
Locomotive office on South Meridian street, near Washington, in Hubbard's bloek. 
In 1863 a new three story brick building was erected for it, on the other side of 
Meridian street, and a little further south, and it remained there till 1865. Then 
Mr. Charles W. Hall bought it and took it back to its old Capital House locatioa 
and changed the name to the Herald. With Hall & Hutchinson as proprietors, 
and Judge Samuel E. Perkins as editor, it continued there till October 1866, 
when it was put into the hands of a receiver and bought in January 1867, by 
Lafe Develin, of Cambridge City. He was bought out by the present owner, Mr. 
Richard J. Bright, in April 1868, the name changed back to the Sentinel and Mr. 
J. J. Bingham installed as editor, a post he has held with but a very brief inter- 
ruption since 1856. The paper owes much to Mr. Bingham's ability, industry and 
sagacity as a political writer, and the party owes him no less as a shrewd and 
indefatigable leader. Mr. Bright removed the office in December 1869 to the 
lew building, corner of Circle and Meridian streets, which he had enlarged from 
Wesley Chflpel. It is now one of the largest and best in the West. On the 4th of 
September 1850, Messrs. Ellis & Spann began the publication of the Indiana States- 
man, in the old Sentinel office on Illinois street, and made it both a handsome and 
good paper for two years. It was sold to and merged with the Sentinel in Sep- 
tember 1852. 

A little more than a year after the appearance of the Gazette, the history of 
which has just been traced, on March 7th, 1823, the Western Censor and Emigranfs 
Guide was established by Harvey Gregg and Douglass Maguire, in a building 
opposite Henderson's tavern, near the spot where the Sentinel was afterwards 
located so long. Its history is given in the chapter covering the date of its first 
appearance, and only its later changes need notice here. On the 11th of January, 
1825, its name was changed by the proprietor, Mr. John Douglass, to the Indiana 
Journal, a name it has since retained through all changes of proprietorship, and 
fully entitle it to the honor of being the oldest paper of the Capital. Its career has 
been unbroken from that time till the present, and no other paper can claim a 
longer life than twenty-four years. The Journal is now forty-sis years old. 
Douglass Maguire was editor under Mr. Douglass' administration — the latter 
rarely attempted to manage the editorial department himself — till 1826. Then' 
Mr. Samuel Merrill occupied the "tripod" till 1829. Messrs. Douglass & Maguire 
renewed their connection in the fall of 1829, with the old arrangement of duties, 
and continued together till 1835, when Mr. S. V. B. Noel purchased the interest of 
Mr. Maguire, and the firm of Douglass & Noel was formed, lasting till February, 
1842. Then Mr. Noel, who had been editor, retired and was succeeded by 
Theodore J. Barnett, a man of decided talents and respectable attainments, an 
eloquent speaker, and well adapted by temper and tastes for his duties. In his 
time there was the bitterest newspaper quarrel that had been known in the Capital. 
The campaign of 1844 between Clay and Polk was warm, and personalities were 
freely thrown about. The editors, of course, came in for a large share, and they were 
Unusually offensive. The consequence was a close approach to a fight between Mr. 
Barnett and George A. Chapman in the Post Office, one day, in which pistols were 
drawn, or supposed to be, and a furious excitement created. But before this col- 
lision, Mr. Noel had purchased the paper, and Mr. Douglass retired for good and 
all from the business he had followed for twenty years here. Mr. Kent succeeded 
Mr. Barnett as editor, in Mr. Noel's administration, but remained only a few 


raonths. John D. Defrees, of St. Joseph, then recently a State Senator from that 
county, removed here and becanie editor in March 1845, and in February 1846 
purchased the concern and retained the sole control of it till the fall of 1854, 
when he sold out to the Journal Company, composed of Joseph M. Tilford, James 
M. Malhes, Ovid Butler and Kawson Vaile, the last recently editor of a free 
soil paper in Wayne county. Mr. Vaile became editor. Berry K. Sulgrove 
became its editor in 1852, and remained so up to 1864. For multifarious 
knowledge, indomitable industry, brillaint composition and power of conden- 
sation, he stands confessedly at the head of journalists of the past or present 
day. Since Mr. Sulgrove's return from Europe in 1867, he has been a fre- 
quent contributor to the editorial pages of the Journal, as well as its tem- 
porary editor during two sessions of the Legislature. Mr. Barton D. Jones ob- 
tained an interest in 1856, and became local editor. The company sold to William 
R. Holloway & Co., in the summer of 1864, Mr. Holloway assuming the editorial 
control with Mr. H. C. Newcomb as political editor. Mr. James G. Douglass 
and Mr. Alexander H. Conner became associated with Mr. Holloway in February 
1865, under the name of Holloway, Douglass & Co. In the winter of 1866 Mr. 
Samuel M. Douglass — he and James are sons of the old proprietor, John Douglass — 
joined with his brother and Mr. Conner and bought out Mr. Holloway, and the firm 
of Douglass & Conner retained the establishment till June 1870, when it was pur- 
chased by Lewis W. Hasselman and William P. Fishback. Mr. Holloway re- 
purchased a sixth interest in 1867 and still holds it. Some weeks ago Mr. Thomas 
D. Fitch purchased of Fishback a sixth interest, and Mr. Hasselman gave his eldest 
son. Otto W. Hasselman, a sixth of his interest, and these five now constitute 
the proprietorship of the Journal establishment. — In the summer of 1864, Mr. 
Horatio C. Newcomb became editor of the Journal and continued till December 
1868, making, by all odds, the ablest and most successful editor the paper had 
ever had. As a writer he was lucid, coherent and logical, little given to brilliance 
of effect, but never mistaken in his facts, or unsafe in his conclusions. He was 
an eminently safe party guide, and never set the "key note " of attack or defence 
from which he or his party had to abate a jot of pitch or force. His succes- 
sor, Mr. Fishback, though less experienced in his duties, gives ample promise 
of needing little else, if he needs any thing, to attain the same enviable posi- 
tion and influence. — The Journal office at the start was on Washington street — 
near the Capital House site as before stated — subsequently it was, on the south 
aide of the same street in the frame building west of Hubbard's block; then 
in the three story brick on the north side near Meridian street; then on Penn- 
sylvania street where it remained till the fall of 1860. Here the first steam press 
was erected, and here, in the spring of 1849, the office was seriously damaged by 
fire which involved the Post Office, then in the same building, and the "McCarty 
corner." During the spring and summer of 1860 the Journal Company 
erected the building on the corner of Circle and Meridian streets expressly for it, 
and had the best office in the State. In 1866, however, the proprietors, Holloway, 
Douglass & Co. purchased the First Presbyterian Church building and lot, corner of 
Circle and Market streets, and there erected a superb five story structure which is 
now the Journal Building, and likely to stay so. Semi-weekly editions of the paper 
were published during the session of the Legislature for a long time, the first 
appearing December 10th, 1828. A tri-weekly was first issued December 12th 
1838. A daily edition was first published during the session of the Legislature in 
1842, beginning with the 12th of December, and repeated at the same season there- 



after, till the assembling of the Constitutional Convention in 1850. Then the pub- 
lishing of daily verbatim reports of the proceedings of that body made a bigger 
effort necessary, and a larger sheet appeared on the 7th of October of that year, and 
in one size or another, with several varieties of "heads" and arrangements of mat- 
ter, finally settling into the quarto form and plain letter head, it has continued till 
now, with a probability of lasting as long as daily papers are needed here. — The 
Sentinel bought and absorbed the Statesman. The Journal has bought and absorbed 
two or three evanescent dailies. The first of these was the Atlas, started by John D. 
Defrees, on south Meridian street, in Yan Blaricum's block, with an Erricson hot 
air engine to run its presses, in July 1859. He maintained it till after the 
election of 1860, and sold in March 1861 to the Journal Company. In 1867 
Holloway, Douglass & Co. bought the Daily Gazette, another weakling that fell by 
ihe way. It was at first the Indiana American, a weekly removed here from Brook- 
ville by Rev. T. A. Goodwin in 1857. He sold it to Downey & Co., who changed 
it to a daily evening paper and sold it to Jordan & Burnett, who called it the 
Gazeiie and made it a good paper. They sold it in 1868 to Smith & Co.; they to 
Shurtleff, Macauley & Co., and they to C. P. Wilder who sold it to the Journal 
men. — The American, as a weekly issue, has been resumed by the original proprie- 
tor, Mr. Goodwin, within the past year. 

The daily press for the first few years of its existence was not distinguished by 
amazing energy or enterprise. The amount of reading matter rarely exceeded four 
or five columns, and of this a column of original matter would have been rather 
an unusual proportion. Telegraphic dispatches, though published when the first 
line was finished, were not made a permanent feature for some years, the dispatches 
of the Cincinnati papers being copied usually as a substitute. In fact it was not 
until the seige of Sevastopol made telegraphic news particularly interesting that 
much attention was given this now overshadowing feature of all daily papers. 
Even then the reports were received by the old "recording" process of dashes and 
dots on a long strip of narrow paper, written out in skeleton by the operator, and 
copied by the editors, each for himself filling up the skeleton as he thought best. 
Enterprise in other respects was not ahead of this exhibition in the telegraphie 
way. No attempt was made to report a night meeting for the next morning's 
paper. The reports of Council proceedings were usually copied from the Clerk's 
minutes the next day, and published the day after. On the night that Hasselman 
& Vinton's machine shop was burned the first time, it was thought a notable bit of 
enterprise in J. H. McNeely, the local of the Journal, to stop the press and put in 
a five line item announcing the catastrophe and probable loss the next morning. 
Editorial comments on late news were rare, and no thought was entertained of 
making a telegraphic item the text of a leader. The nearest approach to it that had 
ever been attempted were the leaders in both papers on the acquittal of Matt Ward 
for the murder of a school teacher in Louisville. The news came by the noon 
Cincinnati mail, and the articles appeared the following morning. In 1855 the 
Journal published a five column report of the proceedings and speeches of a 
meeting of "Old Settlers" at Calvin Fletcher's house, in which the language of ■ 
the speeches was followed with some approach to accuracy, the parenthetical 
"cheers" and "laughter" of Eastern papers indulged mildly, and a general effect 
of verbal daguerreotyping attempted, with considerable success. It was a novelty 
of domestic manufacture, and the demand for "extra copies" was heavy for several 
days after. It was the first decided achievement in the way of newspaper enter- 
prise, and was followed up by attempts to report, or at least notice, night meetings 


in the next morning's paper, and generally to substitute city fashions for the old 
time-ways of weekly papers. A single incident will show the condition of things 
into which this reform obtruded better than any description. The paper was put 
to press as soon as the day's "composition" was finished, usually about sun down 
or a little after. One Saturday the Journal for Monday was put to press pretty 
late in the afternoon, but in time to be sent to Cincinnati by the night train, and 
the Columbian, then edited by Albert D. Richardson, since so tragically notorious, 
came out on the same Monday with a quizzical notice of the Indianapolis paper 
that had so strangely managed to discount the almanac. If the Capital had 
tumbled into the gape of an earthquake, or a live angel had sailed across the State 
proclaiming the result of the next election, the paper would have had no mention 
of it. In the Sentinel the reform was made mainly by Mr. Bingham, in the Jour- 
nal by Mr, Vaile, the principal and working editors of their- respective papers. 
Besides the two earliest and beat known papers, and those which they have 
absorbed, there are others without some notice of which this sketch would be incom- 
plete. Somewhere about 1850, possibly before, a little paper called the Daily Dis- 
patch was published for some months by W. Thompson Hatch, a gentleman of con- 
siderable enterprise but restricted in pecuniary and intellectual resources. ItS 
leading feature was a aeries of sketches of members of the Legislature of the 
current session. There is an impression in the writer's mind that an effort was 
made both before and after, to establish a neutral daily of a milk-and-water com- 
plexion, but without success. — On the 14th of May, 1857, Messrs. Cameron & 
McNeely started the Daily Citizen, and made a very sprightly and valuable paper 
of it, but a year's experience proved it unprofitable and it was dropped in June 
1858. — In July 1859, the Daily Atlas was started by J. D. Defrees, as before noted. 
The Evening Gazette, changed from the American, transported from Brookville, has 
been noted. — The Telegraph, a German daily, was established by the Freie Presse 
Company in 1866. It is in existence and doing well yet.— The Evening Commercial 
was established by Dynes & Co., in 1867, in the place of the sold out and swallowed 
Gazette. It was printed at first at Downey & Brouse's place, in the Sentinel build- 
ing, on Washington street; afterwards in the Journal building on Meridian street. 
Then it was sold to M. G. Lee, the present proprietor and editor, who removed it in 
1868 to the corner of Washington and Illinois streets, opposite the Palmer House, 
and within the past year has taken it back to Circle street. — The Daily Evening 
Mirror, in 1868 developed from the Saturday Mirror, a weekly paper established 
by George C. Harding and Marshall Henry, December 22d, 1867. Although it 
was not allowed the use of telegraphic dispatches, its local matter was so piquantly 
written and its general tone so different from that of the party organs, that it attained 
a very good circulation. But the establishment of the Evening Neivs, in Decem- 
ber 1869, with a full supply of afternoon dispatches and market reDorts, and 
with an editorial conduct as independent as the Mirror^s, proved too much for 
the latter, and in February 1870 it was sold to the proprietor of the News and 
was absorbed by it. Judge Fabius M. Finch was associated with Harding and 
Morton during the greater part of the life of the Daily Mirror, and during 
the last four months it was edited by Mr. John Finch. — The Daily Evening Nevis 
was established by John H. HoUiday, in December 1869, and the first number 
appeared on the 7th of that month. It was the first evening paper that anticipa- 
ted any of the material news of the morning papers, and its low price — two 
cents — speedily introduced it into houses where a paper had never been taken 
before. Its circulation within the city now equals that of its older morning eotem- 


poraries, and its position is as firmly fixed. It is published in the new Sentinel build- 
ing. — In June IS^O, Messrs. Dynes & Cheney started the Daily Times, a morning 
paper in the Reform interest, which announced its "mission fulfilled" with the sale 
of the Journal establishment to Messrs. Hasselman & Fishback, and died after a 
short career of a week, selling its material to the Jour^ial. It had nothing else 
to sell. 

In distinguishing between Daily and Weekly papers the line of separation 
must not be pushed too far, for all the dailies have published weekly editions, 
made up almost wholly of matter kept standing from the several daily issues of 
the preceding week. But there have been weekly papers that had no daily connec- 
tions or off-shoots at all. The first of these that attained any position or reputation, 
if not the very first after the pioneer papers, was the Locomotive, a little sheet not 
much larger than the page of this volume, published by John H. Ohr, Daniel B. 
Culley and David K. Elder, three apprentices in the Journal office, which was then 
on the north side of Washington near Meridian street. The first number appeared 
on the 3d of April, 1847. It ran through one volume of three months and dis- 
appeared for six months. It was made up of selections, and contributions of school 
boys and young gentlemen of immature powers, and didn't die a day too soon. 
It was revived on the first of January 1848, by Douglass & Elder, land enlarged 
about an inch all round, from seven to eight in width, and from ten to twelve or 
thirteen inches. It was made of much the same material as before, but devoting 
itself wholly to local matters, gossip, business and improvements, which were 
clear below the range of the stately political papers, it became a sort of family 
necessity. In March 1850, John K. Elder and John Harkness took it — then pub- 
lished in Hubbard's block on Meridian street — and without changing its local 
character, put a new force not only into its editorial matter but its contributions, 
which sprang clear above the puerile level of its former life, and made it a " power " 
in the town. Its circulation for some years was the largest in the county and 
entitled it to the Post Office advertisements. In July 1861, the proprietors bought 
the Sentinel, as before stated, and amalgamented the Locomotive with it. 

In 1846 or thereabout, an anti-slavery paper, called the Indiana Freeman, or 
some such name, was started by a Mr. Depuy and maintained, with decided ability 
but little profit or popularity, for a year or two. Dr. Ackley assisted the editor 
at times, but "abolitionism" had but few friends in those days, and no amount of 
talent could have maintained it. The owner's sign was stolen one night and placed 
upon an out-house, and the office was besmeared with dirt and tar. Threats of 
mobbing were made at times, and more than once Mr, Depuy watched all night 
long for marauders, but the threats never exceeded the infliction of puerile malice. 

In September 1848, Julius Boetticher attempted the hazardous experiment of 
publishing a German paper here, and the Volkshlatt made its appearance, from one 
of the second story rooms in Temperance Hall. Mr. Boetticher and his daughter 
did most, if not all, the type setting, and he did all the writing, and worked the 
hand-press upon which it was printed. Nothing but the most untiring industry 
and perseverance could have saved it. At any other time it would inevitably died 
any how, but the universal European revolution, with the succeeding war in Hun- 
gary, gave an interest to foreign, and especially to German, news, which enlarged 
the circle of readers and advertising patronage at the same time. How important 
to it were little influences, which two or three years later it could have kept or 
lost almost without knowing it, may be judged from the fact that Mr. Boetticher 
attributes his determination to persevere, after the first disheartening effort, to the 


^accession df a considerable list of cash subscribers brought by Prof. Hoshour's class 
in German, who had been recommended by their teacher to take and read a German 
paper. The Volksblalt is now a "fixed fact," with a large and remunerative business. 
It was edited, after the first fierce struggle with adversity was over, by Mr. Paul 
-Geiser, a German of unusual attainments, and decided talents, but of very uncer- 
tain or unsettled principles. Later it fell into the hands of Mr. Adolph Seiden- 
sticker, who wns editor for several years. It is now published in Mr. Boetticher's 
own building on East Washington street nearly -opposite the City Hall.— In Sep- 
tember 1851, Ellis & Spann started the Statesman, as related in the account of the 
Sentinel and its "tributaries." It lasted just one year. — On the 15th of August 
1851, the Hoosier City, a neat little folio, about the size of a "foolscap sheet" 
squared, was commenced by Samuel H. Mathers, Francis M. Thayer, now editor 
of the Evansvilie Journal, and Henry C. Ferguson, another triplet of Journal 
appreotices, like those that originated the Locomotive. Its leading articles were 
■sprightly and well written, and attracted a good deal of attention. Two of them, 
"Apology for Tobacco" and "A Short Plea for Ugliness," were copied all over 
fthe country at the time, and one, the former, was republished in England. Mr. 
Thayer was generally supposed to be the author, though he never frankly — not- 
withstanding his name— admitted it. It was closed at the end of its three months 
volume and never renewed. — About the same time, 1851, Rev. B. T. Kavanaugh 
started a temperance weekly here called the Family Visitor. It subsequently 
became the Temperance Chart and was edited by J. W. Gordon, Esq. — On the 3d of 
September 1853, the Freie Presse was established by an association of Germans of 
free soil tendencies, to counteract the influence of the Volksblatt which was given 
-decidedly and eff'ectually to the Democrats. The same company, or its successor, 
published the Daily Telegraph. The editor of the Freie Presse who became most 
widely' known as connected with it was Mr. Theodore Hielscher, a German of the 
wildest speculative kind, who never had a moderate opinion about any thing, but 
withal a man of ability and scholarship. He remained in direction of the paper 
for some years. — In 1855 Mr. Charles Hand began a miscellaneous sort of Weekly 
called the Railroad City, but it died in a few months. It wasn't intended to live 
long. — Somewhere about this time the Western Universalist was established here 
by Mr. Manford and Dr. Jordan, and maintained for two or three years. — The 
Witness, a paper in the Baptist interest, conducted by Dr. M. G. Clarke belonged 
to the same period. It was published at the Jov/rnal office. — On the 3d of 
January 1857, the Bidwell brothers, Andrew and Solomon, began the publica. 
lion of a remarkably well printed, but decidedly radical, weekly, called the 
Western Presage, at No. 86 East Washington street. It lasted three months. — 
The Indiana American, late of Brookville, was brought here by Rev. Thomas 
A. Goodwin, as heretofore stated, and kept up for a time with a good deal of 
•energy, but it was sold in about two years to Downey & Co., who changed it to a 
Daily, and it subsequently became the evening Gazette, and still later a meal for 
the Journal. — The period of the war, though favorable to most other enterprises 
did not nourish new growths of newspapers. Tbe times were too feverish for 
Weeklies, and it took too much money to establish Dailies. One wouldn't and 
the other couldn't be done. The first important effort after the close of the war, 
was that of the Sunday Mirror, started by George C. Harding and M. Henry, in 
the building of the Franklin Printing Company on West Maryland street near 
Meridian street, December 22d, 1867. Mr. Harding was the sole editor for a time, but 
was subsequently joined by Mr. William B. Vickers. John R. Morton supplatited 


Mr. Henry, and the esta^blishment was removed to Meridian street, its present 
location. Its success, with the writing, especially the local and miscellaneous, of 
the two editors and of several admirable contributors, with the soliciting skill of 
Mr. Morton, was soon made apparent, and encouraged the perilous effort of grow- 
ing a Daily Eveni7ig Mirror, with the result already related. After the sale of the 
Daily to the News, the Weekly was abandoned, and Mr. Vickers began the publi- 
cation of Town Talk in its place, with much of the old spirit of the Mirror, and a 
good- promise of success. But Mr. Harding, after some weeks of silence, revived 
the ilirror, effected a reunion with Mr. Vickers and an absorption of the new 
paper, and the old name was filled up with the old paper in every important fea- 
ture. In the latter part of May 1870, Mr. Harding sold out and the Mirror has since 
been owned and edited exclusively by Mr. Vickers. It is the only exclusively 
literary Weekly in the city, and stands at the head of its class in the State. — Shortly 
after the suspension of the Mirror, Mr. John R. Morton established the Journal of 
Commerce, a Weekly devoted to the business interests of the city and State. It 
was ai first edited by Enos B-. Read, late of Cincinnati, but subsequently by Dr. 
"Winslow S. Pierce, a gentleman well known in the business- circles of the State. 
The office is now on- Washington street,- opposite the. Trade Palace. — The People, 
started by Eaos B. Read, late editor of the Jovnrnal of Commerce, Mr. Schellman 
and George J. Schley, is a Sunday paper, the only one we have, given to illustrations, 
sensations and intellectual spice and pepper generally. It is published on Circle 
street. With these may be mentioned the Little Sower, and Little Watchman,. 
Children's Sunday School papers, edited by Rev. W. W. Dowling. They are 
handsomely printed, well conducted and very widely circulated. 

The first monthly publication was the Indiana Farmer, established by Osbora 
& Willetts. It had not a very promising field, and accomplished little. It died 
somewhere, about 1839 or '40, or came so near it that its revival, with Henry 
Ward Beecher as editor, was like making a new affair. Mr. Beecher was hardly 
so profound an agriculturist as Mr. Greeley, for his experience did not extend be- 
yond his lot on Ohio and New Jersey streets, where he raised more flowers than 
fruit, but he could ring endless changes and pleasant ones on the primary ne- 
cessity of good ploughing and sound seed, and they were really more needed than 
instructions in "drainage" or "humic acids" or "constituent elements." One 
of his "squibs" on the unusual effect of a "well polished plow" in producing 
good crops, which explained in the conclusion that the polish would do no good 
unless made by constant rubbing in the earth, was widely copied and hardly ever 
properly credited. In very recent times the North Western Farmer, by Dr. T. A, 
Bland, succeeded by Messrs. Caldwell & Kingsbury, has taken the place, or a 
higher one, of the old monthly. The Christian Record, a monthly organ of the de- 
nomination of Christians, started at Bloomington, was removed to this city by the 
proprietor, James M. Mathes, in 18&4 or '55, and it has continued here ever since. 
It is now in charge of Rev. Elijah Goodwin. The following list of the publications 
now published here is all that need be said : 

Daily. — Journal, Sentinel, Commercial, News, Telegraph, (German.) 

Weekly. — American, Journal of Commerce, Mirror, People, Independenty 
(Temp.,) Little Sower, Volksblatt, (Ger.) Spottsvogel, (Ger.) Zu Kunft, (Ger. Turner.) 

Monthly. — Masonic Advocate, Odd Fellows' Talisman, Western Journal of 
Medicine, North Western Farmer, School Journal, Benham's Musical Review, 
Willard s Musical Visitor, Christian Record, Phonic Advocate, Little Chief, Bee 
Journal, American Housewife, Ladies' Own Magaz-ine, Morning Watch. 

£l£:fi.IlLTD " })2^i£D ^I^llLDIIL LHXJJMi: 




The Schools of Indianapolis have, from the early days of the city, been in 
good standing and repute. 

For thirty-three years after the founding of the town, the schools were all pri- 
vate or denominational ; but many of them were characterized by strong points of 
excellence, of which pleasant memories are cherished by many of the older citizens. 
Our object is to give a brief narration of some features of interest connected' 
with the public schools of the city, and our plan necessarily excludes any other 
than a casual reference to the private schools which ante-dated the organization of 
the common school system. 

In the year 1821, one year after the selection of the site for the capital, the 
first teacher appeared. With a very limited number of poor pupils, the income 
arising from his enterprise was not encouraging ; the school was soon given up, . 
and the teacher left to practice his profession in more fruitful fields. 

Several citizens, now living, received their first knowledge of letters from the 
instruction of the late venerable James Blake, in the well-remembered Sunday 
school conducted by him in Caleb Scudder's cabinet shop. 

During the years 1822, 1823 and 1824, there were private schools started, of 
moderate success and usefulness. In the Spring of 1825, the year after the removal 
of the capital from Corydon to Indianapolis, the number of children had multi- • 
plied in Lhe town, and no one was found willing or able to instruct them. The 
necessity becoming urgent, Samuel Merrill, then Treasurer of State, was induced 
to open a school in a log Methodist church building, on Maryland street, between. 
Illinois and Meridian. The school was much needed, and did a good work in . 
starting aright the lives of many of our useful citizens. 

In the Autumn of 1826, Mr. Ebenezer Sharpe came to the town, with his fam- 
ily, from Kentucky; and, in November of that year established a schjol in the ■ 
school-room of the old Presbyterian Church, on Pennsylvania street, between 
Market and Ohio. Mr. Sharpe at once took a posilion as a citizen of the first order 
of merit, and a teacher of rare ability and worth. He was a man of culture and 
accomplishments; and, by his excellent qualifications as a teacher, gave tone to 
popular education in the minds of the public. Many of our most estimable citizens 
are indebted to his moral and religious counsels, as well as to his instructions in 
literature and science, for their success in after life. He was well adapted to lay 
broad and deep the foundation of a popula.r system of education. In his schoo]j 
duties he was assisted by his son, Thomas H. Sharpe, now living, an honored and 
well-known citizen of Indianapolis. 

At a later period, in 1830 and after, Thomas D. Gregg taught an excellent 
school on the corner of Market and Delaware streets. 

Rev. Wm. A. Holliday will be well remembered as a worthy and successful ■- 

After the County Seminary was finished on University square, a series of ex- 


cellent schools were taught there, from 1845 to 1854, under the charge of James S. 
Kemper, Ebenezer Dumont, J. P. fcjaflFord, Benjamin L. Lang, E. P. Cole, and other 
successful teachers. During this period there were also a number of other private 
schools of merit. 

How THE Public Schools were Started. — It was not until the Winter of 
1846-7 that any attempt was made to establish a system of free 'schools for the 
city. The measures then taken grew by slow degrees, until six years afterward 
a free school was opened for two months ; but it was nine years after the initiatory 
steps were taken before free schools for the' full school year were actually es- 

From the Report of the Trustees of the Public Schools, for the school year end- 
ing September, 1866, we extract the following "historical sketch of the schools: " 

"During the Legislative session of 1846-7, the first city charter, prepared by 
the late Hon. Oliver H. Smith, for the town of Indianapolis, was introduced into the 
General Assembly. It would have passed without opposition as a matter of course 
and courtesy, had not a well-known member from this town, Mr. S. V. B. Noel, 
presented as an amendment Section 29, which provided that the City Council should 
be instructed to lay off the city into suitable school districts, to provide by ordinance 
for school buildings, and the appointment of teachers and superintendents; and, 
further, that the Council should be authorized to levy a tax for school purposes, of 
not exceeding one-eighth of one per centum of the assessment. 

"The amendment met with a vigorous and determined opposition from several 
influential members, * * whose arguments carried weight ; and the amendment 
was in peril, when a prudent and useful member, who advocated all sides on vexed 
questions, moved to still farther amend by providing that no tax should be levied 
unless so ordered by a vote of a majority of the town, at the ensuing April elec- 
tion, when the ballots should be marked ' Free Schools,' and ' No Free Schools.' 

" The charter, thus amended, became a law. 

" An animated contest ensued in the town, and at the first charter election the 
school question became the overshadowing issue. The opposition was thin and 
noisy. The friends of free schools were quiet, but resolute ; and on the day of 
election were by no means sanguine of the result. 

" A citizen, who was to a considerable degree a representative of the learning, 
jurisprudence and capital of tbe town, the late venerable and eminent Judge Black- 
ford, was earnestly cheered as he openly voted a ballot endorsed ' Free Schools.' 
The cause of impartial education triumphed by an overwhelming majority. 

" The population of Indianapolis was then about six thousand. City lots and 
building material were cheap and abundant ; but the valuation of property was 
low, and twelve and a half cents on a hundred dollars produced but a slender rev- 
enue. The proceeds of the tax were carefully husbanded, and economically in- 
vested, from time to time, in school lots and buildings. Lots were purchased and 
houses built in seven wards of the city, and teachers appointed, who received their 
limited compensation from the patrons of the schools. 

The Public Schools, from 1853 to 1871. — " For a period of six years the 
records show payments made by the city treasurer for lots and buildings, but none 
for teachers' salaries. Previous to 1853, the schools were managed by trustees in 
each of the school districts into which the city was divided. The schools had no 
central head, and no organization outside of the several districts. In January, 
1853, the Council appointed Messrs. H. P. Coburn, Calvin Fletcher and H. F. West, 


the first Board of Trustees for the city schools. At their-first meeting, March 18, 
1853, they elected ten teachers for the city schools, and ordered that they receive 
$2.25 a scholar for the term, to be paid by the parent or guardian. April 8, 1853, 
it was ordered that the sixth ward lot be graded. It is interesting to note that 
thirteen years elapsed before the grade was made. April 25, 1853, the first free 
schools were opened for a session of two months. On this date a code of rules and 
regulations, prepared and reported by Calvin Fletcher, was adopted. These rules 
were comprehensive and well matured, and constitute the basis of the code now 
in force in the schools. May 14, 1853, occurs the first record of the payment of 
salaries to teachers. 

" From this time forward, the receipts from city taxation and the State school 
fund, by slow degrees increased, and the schools flourished and grew in favor with 
all good citizeas. 

"Early in 1855, Mr. Silas T. Bowen was appointed superintendent of the 
schools, with instructions to visit and spend a day in each school every month, and 
to meet the teachers every Saturday for review of the work done, instruction in 
teaching, and classification. His contract with the Board called for about one-third 
of his time in the discharge of these and other duties. It is clear, from the ardu- 
ous labor performed, that the schools got the best of this bargain. 

" March 2, 1856, Mr. George B. Stone was appointed superintendent. All his 
time was given to the schools, and they were conducted with vigor and success. 
* * * The schools were fully and generously sustained by the public. The 
revenue, in great part derived from local taxation, was sufficient to sustain them 
prosperously during the full school year. But this period was of short duration. 
Early in 1858, the Supreme Court of the State decided that it was unconstitutional 
for cities and towns to levy and collect taxes for the payment of tuition. The 
effect was most disastrous. It deprived the city schools of the principal part of 
their revenue, and in spite of generous efforts on the part of a portion of the pub- 
lic, the -free-school graded system, which had taken ten years to build up, was 
destroyed at a blow. The superintendent and many of the teachers emigrated to 
regions where schools were, like light and air, — common and free to all ; with no 
constitutional restrictions or judicial decisions warring against the best interests of 
the people. 

"Then commenced the dark age of the public schools The school-houses were 
rented to such teachers as were willing, or able from scant patronage, to pay a small 
pittance for their use. The State fund was only sufficient to keep the schools open 
one feeble free quarter each year; and, in 1859, even this was omitted for want of 
money. * * # * » ^s- -*- » * 

At length the Legislature made provision for more efficient and prosperous schools 
and fuller taxation for their support. 

" During the last five years, the schools have been rapidly gaining in length of 
term, and in general prosperity and usefulness. We cannot here give even a con- 
densed statement of the successive steps by which this improvement has been ac- 
complished. The schools, during the last two years, have been in session the usual 
school year of thirty-nine weeks. Considering the ten years required to develop 
an efficient system of schools, previous to the judicial blotting-out, and the slow 
growth of the nine subsequent years, it is hoped that no further disaster will occur 
to set them back another decade, but that they may go on increasing in strength 
and vigor, and each succeeding year be stronger and better than the last." 

In April, 1854, an enumeration of the school population was taken by order of 


the Board of Trustees. The number of persons in the city between the ages of five 
and twenty-one was found to be three thousand and fifty-three. At that time there 
were enrolled in the schools eleven hundred and sixty pupils, with an average daily 
attendance of eight hundred and one, nearly equally divided between the then 
seven wards of the city. There were also in attendance at the High School in the 
Old Seminary, on University square, one hundred and fifteen pupils, under the 
charge of Mr. E. P. Cole as principal, who enjoyed the moderate salary of $250 a 

The course of study in the high school was about the same as in the A and B 
intermediate grades of the present day, and embraced instruction only in reading, 
writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, and grammar. 

The above is the firstrecord to be found, as regards either the school population, 
enrollment, attendance, or the grading of pupils. The public school statistics, 
therefore, date back from the present time only seventeen years. 

During ten of those years, from 1853 to 1863, the record is very imperfect, in 
respect of the working and grading of the schools and the enrollment and attend- 
ance of pupils. It is impossible to learn, with any accuracy, how many pupils were 
in the schools, or what methods of instruction were carried out. 

All the material facts to be found of record are embraced in the table of the 
statistics of the schools appended to this sketch. From April, 1857, to May, 1858, 
a period of thirteen months, the minute book of the School Board shows no record 

In June, 1858, the Trustees ordered their first levyfor school purposes, of fifteen 
cents on the hundred dollars of valuation, for the purpose of building school houses 
and for the current expenses of the schools. In December of the same year, the 
Trustees resolved that, " as circumstances have occurred since the levy of the above 
tax, making it difiBcult for the tax-payers to meet the requisition in full; and where- 
as the building in the northwestern part of the city can be postponed; therefore, 
resolved that the County Treasurer be instructed to collect but seven and one-half, 
instead of fifteen cents, of that levy." The school-house alluded to, the new Fourth 
ward house, was commenced seven years, and finished nine years, after the above 
action of the Board. 

During the long vacation of the schools, for the two years ending February, 
1860, the school property was cared for, and the School Board exercised some super- 
vision ovpr the private schools, which were kept in the rented school-houses. The 
quarterly rental of ten to thirty dollars a term for the small and large buildings, 
was moderate; but the payments were more moderate, as the schools receiv ed but 
limited patronage, and the rents were generally either excused or unpaid. 

In June, 1858, Mr T. J. Vater was employed to care for the school property ; 
and in September of the same year, James Greene was appointed School Director, 
at a salary of $250 a year during vacation, and $500 a year during "term time," 
when he was to give one-half of his time to the schools. 

The school fund fell to its lowest ebb in June, 1858, when the balance in the 
eity treasury, belonging to the schools, was $28.98. In April, 1859, there was in 
the Treasury $3,547, for the current expenses of the schools, being the proceeds of 
the levy of 1858; and in June, $3,377, belonging to the tuition fund, and available 
for teachers' salaries. The opening of the schools, however, was postponed until 
February, 1860, in order that the free schools might then remain open twenty-two 
weeks. Twenty-nine teachers were appointed, at salaries ranging from $50 to $100 


a-qtrarter. Of those then selected but one now remains in the schools — Miss Eliza 
Ford, the accomplished principal of the Ninth district. 

The average professional life, in this most useful vocation, is less than ten 
years ; few die, but nearly all resign. 

In August, 186C, the City Council ordered the removal of the old, decaying 
County Seminary building, on University square. The High .School had for some 
years been abandoned, but its home was now destroyed, 

November 26, 1860, the schools were reopened for the session of 1860-61, with 
twenty-nine teachers; among them Miss Ford and Miss Alice Gray, of the present 

In June, 1861, the first Board of Trustees, elected by the people, one from 
each ward, organized. 

After the close of the Winter session in 1861, the free schools were not reopened 
until February 3, 1862. They then continued in session for a period of twenty-two 

Professor Geo. W. Hoss was appointed School Director, to serve during the 
school term, giving one-half his time to the schools, at a salary of ^500 per annum. 
Twenty-nine teachers were appointed, at the following rates of pay, being an in- 
crease on the previous salaries: Principals of grammar schools, $150 a term of 
eleven weeks ; assistants of same, $75. Principals of intermediate departments, 
$75 to $85 a term ; and teachers in the primary schools, $50 to $68. The aggre- 
gate compensation of teachers for the two terms was $4,658. The name of Miss 
Nebraska Cropsey, the present competent principal of the primary departments of 
the schools, first appears on the roll of teachers for 1862. 

Owing to the pressure of taxation, by reason of the war of the rebellion, the 
annual levy, made in March, 1862, was reduced to three cents on each one hundred 
dollars valuation, and thirty cents on each poll. 

The same Spring, by order of the Trustees, shade-trees were planted on all the 
school property ; and the present appearance of the grounds, and the summer 
shade, promoting the comfort and well-being of the pupils and teachers, attest that 
the measure was useful and well timed. 

In October of this year Professor Hoss was appointed Superintendent. He was 
required to give one-fourth of his time to the schools, for the quarterly pay of 
$62.50; and never was a modest salary more industriously earned. 

The next term of the schools opened in November, 1862, with twenty-eight 
teachers. The salaries were fixed at the following prices " for each day's services 
actually rendered " : Principals of grammar schools, $2.50 per day; assistants, $1 ; 
principals of the 1st, 3d, 4th, 6th and 7th wards, (one-story buildings), $1.25 
per day ; principals of the 1st, 2d, 5th and 8th wards, (two-story buildings), $1.50 
per day ; primary and secondary principals, $1.10; and all assistants, 85 cents a 
day. A few months later an increase of twenty per cent, on the above salaries 
was voted. 

In the Spring of 1863 the Trustees levied a tax of fifteen cents on the $100. 
The pay-roll of twenty-nine teachers, for the quarter ending May 2, 1863, amounted 
to $2,834. 

In May, 1863, a new Board of nine Trustees, elected by the people, organized . 
and in August following elected twenty-nine teachers, with salaries varying but 
little from those of the previous year. The schools opened for the session of 1863-4 
tm the first Monday of September, 1863. 

Ob. the ^9th of August, the Trustees, by resolution, defined at length the duties 


of Superintendent, fixed th« salary at $1,000 a year, and eleoted to the position Pro- 
fessor A. C. Shortridge. The wonderful growth, vigor and success of the schools* 
during the last eight years, show how prudent was the selection, and how efficiently 
Professor Shortridge has discharged the duties of this important trust. 

From this time forward the income arising from special taxation, and the ap- 
portionment from the State Tuition Fund, rapidly increased ; so that the schools, 
although the number of pupils multiplied with each succeeding year, were still 
kept open during the usual school year of thirty-nine weeks. 

In August, 1864, the High School, which died out in the crash of 1858, was 
again organized in the school-house on the corner of Vermont and IS'ew Jersey 
streets, and placed in charge of W. A. Bell, the present Principal, at a salary of 
|900 a year. 

In the Spring of 1865, the income from the Special Fund was $1 5,993, and from 
the Tuition Fund, $14,489. In April of that year, under the new Common Schoo'^^ 
Law of the State, a Board of three Trustees was elected by the Common Council' 
and organized on the 23d day of May. 

In July, the School Board adopted plans for two new school-houses, with capac- 
ity for one thousand pupils ; one on the corner of Michigan and Blackford streets, 
and the other on the corner of Vermont and; Davidson streets; and appointed Joseph 
Curzjn, who designed the buildings, as architect and superintendent. One of 
these buildings was completed and opened in the Winter, and the other early in 
the Spring, of 1867. The two buildings, fitted and furnished complete, with enclos- 
ures and out-buildings, cost $71,009. 

In February, 1866, the lot, 223 by 160 feet, on Union street, on which the Sixth 
district house was afterward built, was bought at a cost of $5,500. 

The same month, the first Board of Visitors was appointed by the Trustees — 
two competent persons beiug selected from each ward of the city. Their services 
were cheerfully rendered, and their periodical visits to the schools did much to ac- 
quaint the public with the movements and progress of the schools, and to stimulate 
both teachers and pupils to increased diligence. 

In June, 1866, the largely increased attendance in the schools, and the urgent 
want for more school-room, warranted the Board in making the annual levy for 
building and curt-ent expenses, to the full amount allowed by law, viz : 25 cents on 
$100 valuation of property, and 50 cents on each poll. 

The same season the salaries were ordered, as follows: Superintendent, $2,000; 
Principal of the High School, $1,250 ; Teacher of Vocal Music, $1,500 ; and Teach- 
ers of the Ward Schools, from $400 to $625 per annum. Thirty-nine teachers were 
employed. ji_ 

Early in the Fall of 1866, an "Annual Reporfof th-fe' Public Schools, for the- 
year ending September 1, 1866" was published in a patn-phlet of ninety-four pages.. 
It contains much useful information with regard to the schools, statistics of perma- 
nent value, and a resume of the early history of the schools ; to which we are 
indebted for many of our facts. 

In January, 1867, the first Evening Schools were established, and have been 
continued during the Winter months to the present time. These schools have 
accomplished great good ; but the attendance has not been at all equal to the needs 
of the class most requiring such privileges. 

In December, the Second Presbyterian Church property, on the corner of Mar- 
ket and Circle streets, was purchased for the High School^ and for the offices of the^ 


Trustees and Superintendent. The cost of the property, refitted and furnished 
for its new uses, was $18,000. 

In February, 1866, a Training School was organized in the new Fourth district 
school-house. Miss A. P. Funnelle, a graduate of the Model School, of Oswego, 
N. Y., and of the N. Y. State Normal School, at Albany, was appointed principal. 
The object of this school was, to furnish persons desiring situations as teachers in 
the Indianapolis schools with the requisite instruction and training in the whole 
science and art of Education, so as to fit them to successfully perform their duties in 
any primary or intermediate grade. The results accomplished by the culture and 
discipline of this school have been most satisfactory. 

In the report for 1869, the Superintendent says : 

" The good influences of our Training School have permeated every part of our 
school system. Not a single one of the five thousand pupils, from the senior class 
of the High School, to the lowest primary grade, has failed to receive, directly or 
indirectly, some of the benefits of its organization. Twelve young ladies graduated 
the first year, fourteen the second, eleven the third, and ten the fourth ; making a 
total of forty-seven, all of whom at once became teachers in the public schools ; thus 
securing earnest, cultivated, and thoroughly competent teachers, for the most part 
brought up by our own firesides and in our own homes, and educated in our com- 
mon schools." 

Owing to want of room suitable for the purpose, the Training School was not 
continued for the year 1870-71, but it is understood it will be recommended for the 
year 1871-2. 

Immediately after the dedication of the new school-house on Michigan and 
Blackford streets, the old Fourth Ward House, on Market street was assigned to 
the use of Colored Schools, but without provision for the payment of teachers, as 
the law establishing such school had not then been enacted. 

June 16, 1867, a report from the School Trustees was presented to the Common 
Council, recommending a supplementary levy by the city of ten cents on the hun- 
dred dollars, for tuition. In this report it was estimated that the annual expense for 
teachers' salaries, for the next year, would be $40,000; while the annual revenue 
derived from the State fund was about $20,000. The levy called for was adopted 
by the Council. 

In September, 1868, the new building on Union street, in the Sixth Ward, 
which had been commenced in the spring of 1867, was opened for the reception of 
pupils. This School House was built from the designs, and under the superintend- 
ence, of Joseph Curzon, and has capacity for eight hundred and forty pupils, 
(though by crowding all its space and seating the attic story, nearly one thousand 
pupils have been admitted.) Its cost, including enclosure, furniture and out-build- 
ings, was $44,000. 

In August, 1868, sixty-eight teachers, and in July, 1869, seventy-six teachers, 
were elected to positions in the Schools. 

In April, 1869, a new Board of Trustees, elected by the Common Council, or- 
ganized. The usual full levy was made by the Board in August, and the Council 
was petitioned for a supplementary levy of eleven cents, and twenty-five cents on 
each poll. 

The report to Council showed an expenditure for instruction of $44,470 for the 
year just closed', and an estimated cost for teachers' wages for the year 1869-1870, 
of $55,000. 

In October, 1869, a lot one hundred and eighty-eight by one hundred and nine- 



ty-eiglat feet, on the corner of Walnut and Delaware streets, was purchased for the 
sum of $18,000, and the old Second Ward School House property sold for $9,000. 

Measures were immediately taken to build a suitable School House on the new 
lot. Enos and Huebner were selected as architects. The erection of the building 
was vigorously pro&ecuted, and it was finally opened for the reception of pupils 
during the winter of 1871. It is, like the Sixth District House, four stories high, and 
has capacity for 728 pupils. Its cost, including all fixtures, improvements, enclo- 
sures and furniture, was $70,000. 

In the Fall of 1869, the " Eighth Annual Keport of the Public Schools, for the 
year ending August 31, 1869," a volume of one hundred and thirty-nine pages, was 
published. This report contains much valuable information with regard to the 
schools and a full record of their movements during that year. 

In a report of the School Board to the Common Council, of June 18, 1870, we 
find the following compact exhibit, to which we add the statement for 1871. There 
were, at the close of the school years ending with the dates mentioned, the follow- 
ing results : 

Year Ending 

Pupils in the Schools. 

Annual Cost for Tuition 

Number of Teachers. 

June, 1868, 
" 1869, 
" 1870, 
" 1871, 







During the school year commencing September, 1869, schools for colored pupils 
were established in the old Eourth and Sixth Ward school-houses. The schools 
rapidly filled up with pupils, eager to learn ; and the accommodations becoming too 
small, the capacity of the Fourth ward house was doubled, by the addition of a 
second story, during the Summer of 1870. An Evening School for colored youth 
was also opened during the Winter of 1871, and was popular and very fully attended. 

The Evening Schools. — October 31, 1870, the Superintendent reported a 
total number of three hundred and seventeen pupils attending the Night Schools 
for the Winter of 1869-70. The average number was one hundred and sixty-one; 
and the cost, $507 — being $1.59 each on the enrollment, and $3.15 on the aver- 
age attendance. The previous year the cost was $2.15 per capita on the number 
enrolled, and $1.10 on the average number. 

From an unpublished report of the School Board we extract the following re- 
marks with regard to the Evening Schools : 

" Their instructions have been eminently useful to a class of persons who have 
no other opportunities for obtaining useful learning; but their numbers should be 
largely increased from that class of untaught boys and girls, who, as at present sit- 
uated, are subjected to the worst influences during the long nights of Winter. The 
Evening Schools have been even too respectable : containing few youth who are not 
of confirmed steady and industrious habits. We earnestly commend these schools 
to all good citizens, as worthy of their best endeavors to increase the interest in them, 
by frequent visitations, and to add to their numbers by solicitations, watchfulness, 
and missionary efi'ort among those young persons who can hardly escape becoming 
bad citizens, unless rescued by the influences thrown around them in these schools, 
by exciting a thirst for knowledge which shall overcome the fascinations of idleness 
and vice." 


The New Gkowth of the City Schools — Dates back only seven years, to 
the school year 1863-4, previous to which time, as will be seen, the schools were 
feebly supported, and kept open as free schools but a short period in each year. 

Seven years ago, there were in the city not less than nine thousand persons of 
legal school age, while there was room in the schools for less than fourteen hundred. 
Not a school-house in the city was well adapted to school purposes, or to the best 
approved graded system of conducting schools. No complete classification was 
possible. The school-houses were generally badly ventilated, uncomfortably seated, 
and some of them were situated on low and unwholesome sites. More than fifty 
percent, of the children between six and fifteen years had no room in the schools. 

At that time, and previously, a modest tax of three to fifteen cents was levied, 
which yielded scarcely more than enough revenue to cover current expenditures, 
without any considerable balance for building purposes. With half the children 
of the city practically excluded from school privileges, and no possibility of mate- 
rial relief without a much larger fund and more and better school-houses, the bur- 
den and responsibility resting upon the school officers were very great. The work 
neglected or delayed during many previous years had to be crowded into a short 
period, beside the necessities of the hour. 

The time, during the closing years of an exhausting war, was not propitious 
for heavy and unusual taxation. But the Trustees did not hesitate to use, to the 
utmost limit of the law, all the power in their hands to remedy the evil. During 
this period, additional permanent room and seats were provided in new buildings, 
and by rearrangement of the old, for thirty-six hundred pupils, at an expense of 
about $185,000; yet, even now, the most urgent, pressing duty devolved upon the 
school oflJcers is to provide for not less than fifteen hundred pupils, who are needing 
the advantages afforded by our schools, but are prevented for want of room. 
While the schools have thus largely increased in accommodation, the need has aug- 
mented in even greater ratio. We know of but two ways, in this rapidly-growing 
city, for preventing increased expenditure on account of the schools, from year to 
year : First, by permitting the schools to become feeble and unpopular, so that the 
children will stay out; secondly, by providing no further accommodations, so that 
they cannot get in. 

The Public School Funds. — The revenue for the support of the Indian- 
apolis Public Schools is derived from two separate and distinct funds. 

First, the Tuition Fund. This fund is derived, in part, from the general 
school fund of the State, and in part by taxation under the provisions of the Com- 
mon School law of the State, and is apportioned to the different counties by the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, on the basis of the number of persons of 
legal school age (six to twenty-one years) in each county. The County Auditors, 
on the same basis, apportion the fund to the different towns and cities of each 

Under the provisions of the law the counties which are richest in children 
receive the largest revenue. The effects of this apportionment on the county of 
Marion will be seen by the following table : 




Amount of school rev- 
enue collected in Marion 

Am't apportioned to 
Marion County. 

Net loss to Marion Co. 
under the apportionm't. 

May, 1869 


$35,662 ) 
10,532 I 
40,710 1 

October 1869 


May 1870 

October 1870 


Total for two years 




Over thirty per cent, of the School revenue collected in this county under the 
State tax, is distributed over the State, and aids in educating the youth of poorer 
counties. Perhaps, however, there is no basis of apportionment more equitable 
than that of the school population, provided the census of persons of legal school 
age is fairly taken in all parts of the State. There are reports of irregularities 
and frauds in some localities in the taking of this census, which, if true, make the 
apportionment most unjust and oppressive; and the unequal distribution is contrary 
to the intent and meaning of the law. 

The Tuition Fund in this city is not limited to the revenue derived from the 
above apportionment, but is complemented by local taxation for teachers' salaries. 
This tax has heretofore, since 1867, been levied by the Common Council ; but here- 
after, under the provisions of the law approved March 3, 1871, the authority for all 
supplementary taxation will rest with the Board of School Commissioners. 

The second source of revenue for the City Schools is the Special School 

This Fund can be used only for the current expenses of the schools, including 
school lots, buildings, repairs, fuel, and all items of expenditure except teachers' 
salaries. It is derived from a tax levied by the Trustees and placed upon the 
county duplicate, of "not exceeding 25 cents on each $100 of valuation, and 50 
cents on each poll." The amount of revenue raised by this tax is fully stated in 
the general table of statistics annexed. 

The School Officers. — From 1853 until the spring of 1861 the Trustees were 
elected by the Common Council. From 1861 to 1865, owing to a change in the 
law, the Trustees were elected by the people, onje from each ward. In 1865 the law 
was again amended, and the Trustees were elected by the Council, until the passage 
of a law, approved March 3, 1871, providing for a Board of School Commissioners, 
to be elected by the people, one from each "School District." At present the school 
districts are the ninfe wards, but the Commissioners are authorized to re-district the 
city for school purposes. They are also authorized to levy such additional taxes as 
may be necessary for the efficiency of the schools, and to provide suitable build- 

The annual report of receipts and expenditures of school revenue is made by 
the School Board to the County Commissioners, with whom all accounts and 
vouchers are filed and Settlement made in March of each year. 

The Superintendent of the Schools is the acting executive officer of the Board 
of Trustees or Commissioners. He is entrusted with the general organization and 
management of the Schools. The School Board elect the teachers annually, but all 
reports from them with regard to their duties, or the condition of their schools, are 
made to the Principals, or directly to the Superintendent, who is responsible for 




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the efficient grading and successful working of the whole. The Superintendent is 
assisted by two PriHcipals, one for all the schools north of Washington street, and 
one for the schools south of that street. There is an additional Principal, who has 
the general supervision of instruction in the Primary grades. There is also a 
teacher for all the schools in each of the departments, of vocal music, drawing and 
gymnastics. A competent mechanic is also employed, who has general charge of 
supplies and of all minor repairs to the school property. As the value of the school 
property exceeds $300,000, it requires constant attention and care. The judicious 
custody of this valuable estate, situated as it is in twelve different locations of the 
city, keeping it in repair, fit for its uses, comfortable for the children, and free from 
unnecessary wear and tear, form no small part of the duties of the School Trustees. 

Classification or the Schools. — The schools are divided into three Depart- 
ments — Primary, Intermediate, and High School. Each Department is sub- 
divided into four Grades, known, counting in order from the least advanced, as 
D, C, B and A, Primary; D, C, B and A, Intermediate; and the First, Second, 
Junior, and Senior years of the High School. 

The regular time required to complete the course of study in each department 
is four years, and for each grade one year. The twelve grades, from D, Primary, 
through the Senior year of the High Sahool, will therefore occupy twelve years. A 
pupil commencing in the Primary at six years of age, would, if " in course," grad- 
uate from the High School at eighteen. Many ambitious and industrious pupils are 
able to pass the examinations and finish their grades in a shorter period. Some 
rare pupils can pass two grades a year ; more can accomplish three grades in two 
years. But without "cramming" or overwork, any ordinary child can finish the 
regular course within the time prescribed. "All the scholars in the same grade in 
the different schools are pursuing like studies at the same time, and all are supposed 
to be equally anxious, at the next annual or semi-annual examination, to graduate 
into the grade next higher." 

The Methods of Instruction. — If our Common School System is a machine, 
it is a self-adjusting invention, and adapts itself to the wants of the individual child 
as well as to the requirements of the mass of children. The individuality of each 
pupil is preserved, and yet all in each grade work in accord and harmony in the 
same general routine of study. The key-stone of the system is the idea that the 
child teaches himself. He is neither taught, instructed nor „ crammed." His 
teacher directs his attention from one object of interest to another. He is so led that 
he observes, thinks and comes to correct conclusions by the exercise of his own 
powers. What is learned is thoroughly learned, because it is thought out, not con- 
ned by rote. That teacher is most successful whose power is greatest in securing 
the attention and directing the observation of the pupil. 

The Kange of Instruction — Primary Department.— 7/^? First Year, the 
pupils learn objects first, then words representing and describing objects. They 
next learn to read, and afterward to spell, both by letter and sound. The slate is 
introduced in the beginning, and the pupil learns to print, to write and to combine 
numbers, by the use of objects. He also learns the size, form color and uses of 
familiar objects, and the simple elements of drawing, both inventive and by imi- 
tation. Physical exercises, of a few minutes duration, occurring at stated periods 
during each day's session, are commenced this year and continued through the years 
in all the grades. ' 


The Second Year. — Keading, writing and spelling are continued. The words of 
the spelling lesson are written on the slate. Lessons in language are introduced, 
and further progress is made in numbers and drawing. 

The Third Year. — The pupil now reads fluently and understandingly, and 
both tells and writes readily in his own language the substance of his reading les- 
sons. Writing, both on slate and paper, is continued, and spelling is advanced. 
The four fundamental rules of arithmetic, where results do not reach thousands, 
are studied. Drawing is continued, and progressive lessons in language, geogra- 
phy, plants, animals, and objects. 

The Fourth Year. — Reading, spelling, definition, sentence-making, writing, 
geography, arithmetic, oral lessons in language, natural history, inventive and map 
drawing, are the leading exercises of the year. 

Intermediate Department. — The First Year, reading is further advanced in 
the number and difHculty of the objects read, and pupils answer questions based on 
the lessons. They spell all important words in their reading lessons and several 
hundred selected words and a limited number of pages from the spelling book in 
use; and the above, together with punctuation, definition, penmanship, arithmetic, 
abbreviations, geography, map drawing, inventive drawing, compositions, with 
oral instruction in language, and classification of plants, are the principal studies 
of the year. 

The Second Year. — The same general exercises by advanced steps are contin- 
nued. The intermediate arithmetic and the first book of algebra are completed 
and reviewed, and considerable advance made in the second book of geography ; 
further progress is made in map drawing and in composition. Oral arithmetic, 
with progressive lessons in language and miscellaneous topics, and drawing of leaves, 
plants, curved lines, etc., are continued. 

The Third Year. — Reading is further advanced, and the pupil is required to 
explain the reading lessons and answer questions based on them. Spelling, punctu- 
ation, definition, arithmetic to per centage, and penmanship are continued, and Guy- 
ot's Common Geography is completed and reviewed. Cutter's First Book of Physi- 
ology is completed and reviewed. The practice of English composition, from inci- 
dents, or elements, given by the teacher, continues ; and the important lessons in 
language, which, by this time, have become a thorough elementary analysis of the 
English tongue, are made a leading part of the course. 

The Fourth Year. — The fourth reader and the spelling book are completed. 
Three hundred selected words are spelled ; and five hundred are defined and placed 
correctly in English sentences. Arithmetic is continued to mensuration. A text- 
book on grammar, following and illustrating the language lessons, ia completed 
and reviewed. Anderson's grammar-school history of the United States is com- 
pleted and reviewed. The analysis of the language, with compositions, is contin- 
ued. The pupil, having thoroughly mastered the above course, is prepared for 

The High School. — The First Year. — The range of instruction embracea 
algebra, Latin, German, the science of common things, composition, book keep- 
ing, reading and spelling, and advanced English grammar, and a further analysis 
of Language. 

The Second Year. — Reading and spelling, arithmetic, Latin or German, the 
the analysis of English words. United States history, book-keeping, natural his- 
tory, and geometry, are the most important exercises. 

The Junior Year. — This, and the succeeding year, the studies are more or less 


elective, and embrace a course in geometry, trigonometry, physiology, Latin, Ger- 
man, universal history, natural philosophy, English grammar, botany, and physical 
geography. Hhetorical exercises and composition are continued. 

The Senior Year. — The range of studies embraces physical geogi'aphy, rhetoric, 
chemistry, Latin, French, Constitution of the United States, astronomy, mental 
philosophy, English literature, and geology, together with regular exercises in com- 
position and declamation. 

Musical Instruction'. — In February, 1866, instruction in vccal music was 
introduced as one of the regular branches of education, and was placed under 
the control of Mr. George B. Loomis, who has continued in charge of this impor- 
tant department to the present time. All the pupils are taught to sing, and the 
more advanced pupils to read music. 

The primary teachers are instructed by the music teacher in the art of teaching 
music, and by them daily instruction is given to their pupils. In grades above 
the primary the work is done exclusively by the teacher of music, who gives to 
each school, in most of the buildings, two half hour lessons each week, and, owing 
to the number of rooms, but one in some of the intermediate grades. The benefits 
of the instructian in vocal music during the last five years, are abundantly recog- 
nized by all who are acquainted with the progress of the schools. 

The High School. — This important school is worthy of especial care by rea- 
son of its eminent province, as the cap-stone of our school system. Five thou- 
sand pupils in the lower schools look to this institution as the summit of their 
ambition. Many never reach it, but all reach toward it. The present range of 
study will be seen above. 

To the minds of many friends of education, its course of instruction is incom- 
plete. The foundation is probably broad enough, but the structure built thereon 
admits of further improvement. One of the problems of our school system 
is whether we shall go beyond the present limits. Must the city of Indianapolis 
forever say to her young men and young women, who have succesfully finished the 
four years course prescribed in the High School, and who have prepared a strong 
foundation for future useful acquirements : " This city can be of no further service 
to you in obtaining an education — go elsewhere? " 

Must these pupils, the pride and future hope of our city, be banished from 
home if they desire to complete a more liberal course of instruction? 

In addition to the expense and other evils attending the removal of our culti- 
vated pupils from home, and the injustice, in that the rich can go and the poor can 
not, there is an additional grievance of no small moment. It is, that there is no 
course of study in our higher institutions of learning which fills out the course 
of our High School. That course is not designed, primarily, to fit our youth for 
the regular classes of a college course ; but to give them the greatest amount of prac- 
tical and useful knowledge, adapted to their wants in any position in life. As very 
few of its students have opportunity, or contemplate taking a regular college course 
after graduating at the High School, it was deemed best to incorporate into the 
studies of that school several important branches belonging to each collegiate year. 
Without this a majority of the pupils would have no opportunity of acquiring a 
knowledge of some of the most useful and indispensable principles of science, ethics 
and general literature; in the absence of which the culture so much desired in the 
High School would be fragmentary and incomplete. 


As the office of the CoramoQ School embraces only that elementary instruction 
which is indispensable to all ; so the High School should afford to the full that 
higher education in science, art and literature, which gives special qualification for 
the more eminent and responsible vocations in life. 

During the last two years of the present course the studies are in part elective. 
To these should be added from year to year, as needed, such other elective studies 
as may fit the pupil for his special life work. 

Indianapolis should be willing, able and proud, to prepare her pupils to enter 
the sharp competition of business life, and all the varied industries of this busy age, 
thoroughly fitted to achieve success and distinction. There should be a school of 
science and art, with a course thorough, rigid, exhaustive, and fully adequate to 
the instruction of students in the sciences and mechanic arts. 

The schools are always open to visitors. They belong to the public, and both 
school officers and teachers expect and desire citizens and strangers to look into 
them at any time. The public are welcome at all hours; and frequent visitations 
encourage both pupil and teacher. 

The appended statement presents in tabular form, all the important move- 
ments of the schools which can be found in the records for eighteen years, from 
1853 to 1871. We regret that for the first ten years the record is so incomplete. 
We also present an interesting exhibit showing the value of the school property 
and capacity of the buildings: 

Trustees and Superintendents prom 1853 to 1871, — From 1853 to 1861, 
the Board of Trustees was elected by the Common Council. From 1861 to 1864, 
the Board was elected by the people, one from each ward; and from 1865 to 1871, 
the Trustees were again appointed by the Council. In June, 1871, a Board of 
School Commissioners, one from each School District, was elected by the people. 

1853.— Henry P. Coburn, Calvin Fletcher, H. F. West. School Director— The 
City Clerk 

1854.— H. P. Coburn, Calvin Fletcher, John B Dillon, William Sheets. Di- 
rector—The City Clerk. 

1855. — Calvin Fletcher, David Beaty, James M. Kay. School Superintendent 
—Silas T. Bowen. 

1856. — Calvin Fletcher, David Beaty, D. V. Culley. Superintendent — George 
B. Stone. 

1857.— D. V. Culley, N. B. Taylor, John Love, Superintendent— George B. 

1858-1859. — D.V. Culley, John Love, David Beaty. Director — James Greene. 

1860. — Caleb B. Smith, Lawrence M. Vance, Cyrus C. Hines. Director — 
James Greene. 

1861-1862.— Oscar Kendrick, D. V. Culley, James Greene, Thomas B. Elliott, 
James Sulgrove, Lewis W. Hasselman, Richard O'Neal. Director — Geo. W. Hoss. 

1863-1864.— James H. Beall, D. V. Culley, I. H. Roll, Thomas B. Elliott, 
Lucien Barbour, James Sulgrove, Alexander Metzger, Charles Ooulon, Andrew 
May, Herman Lieber. Superintendent — A. C. Shortridge. 

1865-1866-1867-1868.— Thomas B. Elliott, William H. L. Noble, Clemens 
Vonnegut. Superintendent — A. C. Shortridge. 

1869-1870.— William H. L. Noble, James C. Tohn, John R. Elder. Superin- 
tendent — A. C. Shortridge. 


The School Property. — The estimated value of improvements includes build- 
ings, fences and furniture. 

First District School House — Corner of Vermont and New Jersey streets. Ca- 
pacity for 232 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $13,500. 

Secojid District School House — Corner of Delaware and Walnut streets. Ca- 
pacity for 728 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $70,000. 

Third District School House — New York street, between Illiaois and Tennes- 
see. Capacity for 296 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $13,000. 

Fourth District School House — Market street, between West and California. 
Capacity for 220 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $10,500. 

Fourth District New School House — Corner of Michigan and Blackford streets. 
Capacity for 592 pupils ; value of lot and improvements, $38,000. 

Fifth District School House — Maryland street, between Mississippi and the 
Canal. Capacity for 280 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $13,000. 

Fifth District New School House ['^Colony" — Root street, between West and 
White River. Capacity for 100 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $5,500. 

Sixth District School House — Pennsylvania street, between South and Merrill. 
Capacity for 110 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $10,000. 

Sixth District New School House — Union street, between Merrill and McCarty. 
Capacity for 848 pupils ; value of lot and improvements, $51,500. 

Seventh District School House — East street, north of Louisiana. Capacity for 
112 pupils; value of lot aad improvements, $7,500. 

Eighth District School House — Virginia avenue, corner of Huron street. Ca- 
pacity for 396 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $15,500. 

Ninth District New School House — Corner of Michigan and Davidson streets. 
Capacity for 550 pupils; value of lot and improvements, $38,000. 

High School Building — Corner of Circle and Market streets. Capacity for 27G 
pupils; value of property, $25,000. 

Value of school property recently added to the city, $25,000. 

Total valuation, $336,000. Total capacity of buildings, 4,-734 pupils. 




'■■The Census from 1854 to 1865, included all 
white persons between live and twenty-one 
years; from 1866 to 1871, all between the ages of 
six and twenty-one; and since 1870. all white 
and colored persons between the last mentioned 

t City Clerk, acting School Director. 
1 Salaries are based on the rate per annum for 
a full School year of furty weeks. 

1 Superintendent was also Principal of the 
High School. ^ 

g High School suspended until 1864. 

tt No free Schools— School Houses rented. 

2 From 18.08 to 1863, the Executive Officer of 
the Board was called the "Director." His 
pay was 8250 during vacation and gSOO during 
term time. 

i 11 This falling off in the Census is asciibed to 
the minimum age being increased by one year 
(six and twenty-one years,) and in part to 
incomplete returns. 

B Two Principals only appointed; one for the 

Districts North and one for the Districts 

South of Washington street. 
§g Includes the first enumeration of Colored 

persons of School age, being 12,382 white and 

831 colored. 

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240 to 260 

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36"6 to 376 

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The site of this institution is in the northeastern suburb of the city, near the 
terminus of the Street Railway, and about two miles fiom the Circle Park. It is 
conducted under the auspices of the Christian diuioniinati.n. 

The charter of the University was granted by the General Assembly of Indi- 
ana in January, 1850, and provides for the fornianon of a jcint stock company, 
with a capital of not less than $95,000, nor mo'-c than $500,000 ; to be divided into 
shares of $100 each ; two-thirds of the amount of the stock to be ."^et apart lor an 
endowment fund. Under this charter the requisite amount of stock was subscribed ; 
and in July, 1852, the company was organized by the election of the first Board of 

The institution was opened on the 1st of Novembei', 1855 ; and has had a steady, 
sure growth. 

Toe capital stock of the company now amounts to about $170,000; of which, 
in accordance with the charter, two-thirds is in the endowment fund, and is advan- 
tageously invested, so as to sustain the institution. 

The c<'llegiate year beg'ns about the middle of September, and closes about the 
last of June; being divided into three terms of about thirteen weeks each. 

The system of instruction consists of a Collegiate Course of four years ; a 
Preparatory Course of two years, in which students are prepared for the collegiate 
course; and a Primary Department, called the "Academic Course," of which Mrs. 
E. J. Price is Principal. 

The regular Course is substantially that of the o'dest and most efficient Col- 
leges in the East. * 

The Law Department was recently organized, and its first term commenced 
the 16th of January, 1871. This Department has three chairs, filled by Hon. Byron 
K. Elliott, Charles P. Jacobs, Esq., and Hon. Charles H. Test. 

The institution also has a Commercial Deparimient, to qualify students forbusi- - 
ness pursuits; of which C. E. HuUenbeck, Esq., an accomplished teacher in this 
important branch of instruction, is Principal. 

The Musical Department, in which students are taught the principles of vocal 
and instrumental music, is under the charge of Prof H. J. Schonacker, a gentle- • 
man of superior qualifications as a musical instructor. 

The number of students in attendance during the present term is about three 

One of the first colleges in the We~t to abandon the old-time policy of 
excluding female s'udents from collegiate advantages was the JSorthwestern Chris- 
tian Unwersity During the year just closing about sixty female students have 
attended the University; and all its students enjoy equal rights, privileges and 
opportunities, irrespective of sex. 

There are four Societies, composed of membf-rs of the institution, each having 
handsome halls: the Mathesian, Pythoniin, Athenian (the members of which are- 
female students,) and the Philocurian. Of these the first three are literary, and 
the last is religious. 

The edifice, (of which a large portion of the original design is yet unbuilt,) 
is in the Gothic style of architecture. Its principal material is brick, handsomely 
trimmed with dressed stone, and the whole building is at once tasteful and 
commodious. It is proposed to commence the erection of the remaining portions 


of the building, and so complete the original design, during the present year ; 
which will make it perhaps the largest and most elegant college edifice in the 
West. The completed building will have the following dimensions: Length, 
three hundred and eighty feet; greatest depth, one hundred and forty feet; height, 
four stories. The site of the institution embraces an area of twenty-five acres, the 
■whole forming a large and beautiful grove, within the corporate limits of the 
city, and valued at $100,000. Stately forest trees adorn the site and assist in mak- 
ing the institution pleasant and attractive — a persuasive and congenial spot to the 
'Student of even ordinary appreciation of beautiful surroundings. The value of 
the present building is about $75,000; that of the completed buildings will be 
more than double this amount. 

Faculty. — Eev. W. F. Black, A. M., President, and Professor of Hebrew and 
Syriac ; W. M. Thrasher, A. M., Vice President, and Professor of Mathematics ; 
'S. K. Hoshour, A. M., Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, and of Bib- 
'lieal Literature; A. Fairhurst, A. M., Professor of Natural Science; H. "W. 
Wiley, A. M., M. D., Professor of ^tbe Latin Language and Literature; Miss Cath- 
arine Merrill, A. M., Professor of English Literature, (Demia Butler chair ;) M. 
Manny, A. M., Professor of French ; Professor H. J. Schonacker, Principal of the 
Musical Department ; Professor C. E. Hollenbeck, Principal of the Commercial 
Department ; J. W. Lowber, A. B., Tutor in Greek ; D. L. Thomas, A. B , Tutor 
in Latin ; E, T. Lane, A. B., Tutor in Latin ; J. Q. Thomas, A. B., Tutor in Math- 
ematics; J. H. Roberts, A. B., Tutor in English Literature; Mrs. E. J. Price, 
Principal of the Academic Department. Law Department, — Hon. Charles H. Test, 

• Judge Byron K. Elliott, and Charles P. Jacobs, Esq., Professors. 


This Institution is advantageously located,on the northeast corner of Penn- 
sylvania and Michigan streets ^ 

The Institute was founded, andis conducted, by the Baptist denomination. It 
was founded in 1858, in the belief that there was a need for such an institution 
under the auspices of that denomination in this State; and that Indianapolis pos- 
sessed, in its extent and most accessible location, in its intellectual and social 
aspects, and in its healthfulness, the best advantages for such an institution. The 
•success of the enterprise has justified this belief and action of its founders. 

To establish the Institute a joint stock company, called the " Indianapolis Edu- 

• cational Association," was formed in 1858, who secured the above site. The Asso- 

• ciation being as yet without financial standing, it was found necessary that per- 
-sonal credit be pledged for the fulfillment of the contracts entered into; and Revs. 
.J. B. Simmons and M. G. Clarke, with Messrs. J. R. Osgood and James Turner, of 

this city, became personally responsible for the payment of $16,000, the purchase 
money, ten years from that time, with annual interest -until maturity. The work 

■ of building up'the Institute was at once vigorously begun. The Association gen- 
erously resolved that the proceeds of the bchool, if any, should be devoted, after 

'the school was placed on a firm foundation, to the gratuitous education of the 
daughters of indigent clergymen. The stockholders retained for themselves only 

■ the right to determine the general management of the Institute, without thought 

• af personal gain. 

Rev. Gibbon Williams, a man of large experience aJid proven worth, was 


selected as the General Superintendent; and his daughter, Miss Emily Williams, 
an accomplished educator, was the first Principal of the school. Under their 
direction, with the aid of very valuable assistants, the school advanced, with vary- 
ing fortunes, for four years. But its legitimate income was small. The money 
paid by subscribers was soon exhausted by accruing interest and necessary im- 
provements; and the work moved slowly, as such enterprises, however worthy 
are apt to do. 

In the year 1862, Rev. 0. W. Hewes, a graduate of Brown University, and a 
gentleman of nearly twenty years experience in public life, became virtually the 
proprietor of the school. Under the management of Professor Hewes, the Insti- 
tute prospered to such a degree that its accommodations soon became inadequate; 
and it was found necessary to enlarge the building, at a cost of neax-ly $8,000. 

Soon afterward the site was enlarged, at an additional cost of $5,000. In 1866, 
the growth and prosperity of the institution demanded a further enlargement of 
the building, at a cost of $14,000: making the total cost of the buildings and site 
to that date, $53,000. 

The friends of the Institute take pleasure in knowing that all this expendi- 
ture has been eventually a profitable investment; for, leaving out of consideration 
the benefits of the enterprise as an instrument of education, the property would, 
to-day, bring an increase over what it has cost. 

On a beautiful site of one and one-fourth acres, in one of the most valuable 
localities in the city, the Association now have an institution of learning creditable 
to themselves and to the city. 

More than $40,000 have been paid on the property; and the Association 
expect soon to extinguish the remainder of the debt. 

Under the administration of Professor Hewes the Institute attained a high 
state of efficiency and popularity. It has graduated many accomplished young 
ladies, who furnish in their own attainments convincing evidences of the excel- 
lence of the Institution. 

The Trustees, not content with the success already secured, are laboring to 
increase the advantages and enhance the popularity of the Institute. They pro- 
pose that it shall no longer be conducted as a private enterprise in any sense ; feel- 
ing that it will be more largely useful when administered solely in the interest of 
the great cause of education. 

In the belief that educated ladies are better adapted to the duties of preceptors 
in female colleges, the Trustees engaged a corps of competent lady instructors ; and 
now feel more fully justified than ever before in inviting patronage of their insti- 
tution, as one capable of satisfying in an eminent degree the requirements of a 
first class Female College. 

In the language of Professor J. R. Boise, of the University of Chicago, the condi- 
tions of a superior institute, "which shall be as nearly like a well-regulated home 
as possible; where my daughter, above all, shall be safe; where she will be kindly 
treated; where only kind words are heard, and where courteous manners, without 
affectation, prevail ; where the instruction in all branches of learning is thorough ; 
and where Christian influences are constant and all-pervading, are very fully real- 
ized in the Young Ladies' Institute of Indianapolis." 

The Institute is at present under the control of the following 

Board of Trustees— Rev . Henry Day, President; Samuel C. Hanna, Secretary ; 
H. Knippenberg, Treasurer; E. 0. Atkins, Esq.; Rev. W. Elgin; E. J, Foster, 


Esq.; John A. Ferguson, Esq.; Dr. H. C. Martin ; Aaron McCrea, Esq.; J. R. Os- 
good, E'q.; Wm. C. Smock, E.sq. And the following 

Board of Instruction — Rev. L. Hayden, D. D., Superintendent; Mrs. M. J. P. 
Hayden, Principal; Miss C. F. Barney, Miss Rebecca I. Thompson, Miss H. M. 
Williams. Miss Esther Boise, Teacher of Ancient and Modern Languages; Mrs. 
Sarah S. Starling, Teacher of Painting, etc.; Miss Leonora Cole, Teacher of Music; 
Mis- L, D. Hawley, Matron. 


St. John's Academy for Girls, under the charge of the Sisters of Providence of 
the Catholic Church, located at the corner of Tenness.-;e and Georgia streets, was 
established in 1859. It is a graded school, conducted by Sister Ann Cecelia Buell, 
as Superior, and ten teachers. The course is comprehensive, including the usual 
English studies, practical mathematics, the various branches of natural science, 
French and German, music, drawing, etc. The year is divided into two terms ; 
beginning on the first Monday in September, and ending with the momhof June. 
The school has now about three hundred and twenty-five pupils. 

St. Joh"'s School for Boys, is conducted by the Brothers of the Sacred Heart; 
with Brother Aloysius, as Superior, assisted by live teachers. The average atteni- 
ance is about two hundred. 

Saint Mary's School for Boys has about one hundred pupils. 

Saint Mary's Academy for Girls, is under the charge of the Sisters of St. Francis; 
has seven teachers and about two hundred pupils. 

St. Patrick's School for Boys, under the care of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart, 
has four teachers and one hundred and fifty pupils. 

Connected witu St. Patrick's parish is, also, the Novitiate of the Brothers of the 
Sacred Heart, a training school for teachers, open only to members of the Brother- 
hood ; having three preceptors and twenty students at this time. 

St. Patrick's School for Girls, is conducted by Mrs. L. A. Kealing, and has 
about sixty pupils. 


Zion's church, one hundred and eighty pupils; St. Paul's (German Evangelical,) 
two hundred and forty pupils; Second German Reformed, one hundred pupils. 


A very extensive institution of this description is located at 122, East Mary- 
land street, and is now in its twelfth year. It was founded, and is supported, by 
German citizens of Indianapolis; and its object as stated by the Principal is, that 
the children of German citizens may have the requisite facilities for instruction in 
the German as well as the English language. Its corps of instructors consists of 
one Principal and six assistant teachers. The principal is Professor George A. 
Schmidt. The present number of pupils is about three hundred. The school is 
sustained by the subscriptions of about one hundred German citizens, constituting 
an Association, and by the tuition fees. The school property of the Association 
is woith about $25,000. 

Professor Mueller is also proprietor of a large and flourishing German-English 
school, located on East Ohio street. 



The Indianapolis Practical Business, Military, and Lecture College — Is the title 
of an institution consolidated with the Bryant ^ Stratton Business College a few 
months ago, and organized by an association of prominent citizens of this city. It 
is in successful operation, and, when it has fully occupied its proposed field of 
instruction, as it gives good promise of doing, will be a most important institution. 
Its general plan comprehends "a college of specialties, or a number of special 
institutions under one management; a large business school, and shortly a scientific 
school, a law school, and perhaps other special schools. The intention is to extend 
the field of the business college so as to give instruction in ever v thing relating to 
the business transactions which may arise in connection with any pursuit of life, 
all kinds of business records, forms, calculations, correspondence, and the customs 
and laws of business; also instruction in all the purely practical branches, phys- 
ical training by military drill, and a system of daily lectures." 

The Board of Directors is constituted as follows: — Dr. R. T. Brown, William 
C Tarkington, Esq, Col. James P. Harper, Calvin A. Elliott, Esq., Alexander L. 
Southard, John Fishback, Esq., Austin H. Brown, Esq., Hon Byron K. Elliott, 
Hon. Daniel Macauley. 

The ofiBcers are: — Dr. E. T. Brown, President; Calvin A. Elliott, Esq., Vice 
President; Alexander L. Southard, Secretary and General Superintendent of Col- 
lege; Austin H. Brown, Esq., Treasurer. 

Location, corner of Meridian and Maryland streets. 

Professor C. Koerner & Co. are the conductors of a Business College, located in 
«Glenn's block. 


Brief mention has already been made, in the general historical portion of this 
volume, of the various Benevolent Institutions located in or near this city. The 
ensuing pages will now give a more particular description of these. 


One of the most efficient and successfully administered institutions of the kind 
in the country, is beautifully located two and a half miles west of the city, on the 
continuation of W ashington street. It was founded by an act of the General Assem- 
of the State in 1847. 

The administration of the institution is under the general direction and super- 
vision of a Board of Commissioners, now composed of three gentlemen, namely: 
Dr. P. H. Jameson, of Indianapolis, President; and Dr. James H. Woodburn, and 
John M. Caldwell, Esq., of Indianapolis. The other principal officers consist of a 
Superintendent, two Physicians, a Steward and a Matron. 

The institution was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 

The main building consists of a central building and two wings. The latter 
extend from each end of the center structure laterally and backward, giving to the 
front a broken, receding range. The entire linear extent of the edifice is 624 feet. 
The three principal parls of the building, as it now stands, were erected at as many 
different periods: the center, in 1847-8; the south wing in 1853-6; and the north 
in 1866-9. Each addition has had the effect to somewhat impair the architectural 
symmetry and unity of the original design. 

The structure is built of brick, trimmed with dressed stone. Its architecture^ 
though it cannot strictly be classed with any distinct order, may appropriately be 
termed a modification of the Plain Doric. The Doric is dimly shown in the square 
columnar projections on the corners and faces of the walls, rising from the base- 
ment story to the entablature, and surmounted by capitals in imitation of that 

The architrave, frieze, and cornice more nearly correspond with the Doric than 
any other style. All* the principal elevations, though modified in the details of the 
wings, have the same general features. The cornice elevation of the center and of 
the first principal sections, is 57 feet. The center building is surmounted by an 
octagonal belvidere 17 feet in diameter; and in height 36 feet from the superior 
line of the roof. The elevation to the top of the balustrade on the belvidere, is 
103 feet. 

The center building has five stories, inclusive of basement and a superior or half 
story. The basement is used for store rooms, etc.; the second story for offices, 
public parlor, dispensary, officers' dining room, etc.; the third and fourth stories 
for private rooms for the Superintendent and other officers; and the fifth story 
is occupied by the female employes. 

The wings are three and four stories in height, and are entirely occupied by 


wards for the patients. The entire capacity of the wards is about five hundred 

Forty-four feet in the rear of the center building, and connected with it by a 
wooden corridor three stories in height, is the chapel building, 50x60 feet, the first 
floor of which contains the general kitchen, bakery, dinijig rooms for the employes, 
etc.; the second, the steward's office, sewing room, rooms for employes, etc.; and 
the third floor is entirely occupied by the chapel, having seating accommodations 
for three hundred persons. 

Immediately in the rear of the chapel building is the engine building, 60x50 
feet ; the first floor of which contains the requisite boilers for heating all of the 
buildings throughout, and the pumps of the water-works — connected with which 
are six fire-plugs to furnish hose attachments in case of a fire breaking out. The 
second floor is occupied by the laundry, and the third by rooms for the male em- 

Additional to the foregoing buildings, is a carpenter shop, 30x50 feet, and two 
stories in height, containing the ordinary machinery, etc. 

The north wing was constructed under the direction of the present Board of 
Commissioners, and is superior in its style, workmanship and adaptation to its 

The south wing and portions of the center would bear some remodeling and 

The entire building is lighted by gas. It has complete water works, of the Holly 
system, for supplying water throughout the institution, and for the extinguishment 
of fires, should occasion arise ; also, an approved apparatus for forced upward ven- 

The grounds of the institution consist of 160 acres — the buildings being situated 
near the center, on a slight eminence. Of this area, about 40 acres are set apart for 
the immediate grounds surrounding the buildings; they are liberally adorned with 
shade trees, shrubbery, etc.; and are suitably laid out with walks, drives, etc. 
Twenty acres are contained in a forest grove ; and the remainder is used for agri- 
cultural purposes, being tilled by the patients. 

The original cost of these grounds was but $4,000. They are now worth, at a 
low estimate, $50,000. 

Under its managment for several years past, the institution has attained a 
superior degree of efficiency and usefulness — " worthy alike of the wealth, intelli- 
gence and humanity of its patrons, the people of the State." 

During the year ending October 31st, 1870, 792 patients were under treatment — 
a much larger number than during any previous year; and indicative, not so much 
of an unusual increase in insanity, as of the increased capacity of the institution. 
During the same time, 317 patients were discharged ; of whom 187 were restored ; 1& 
improved; and 59 not improved. There were 51 deaths during the year. 

The increasing demands on the institution necessitate the enlargement of the 
south wing at an early day, at an estimated cost of $50,000. 

The expenditures during the past year were $122,745.96. 

During the past 22 years, 4,431 patients have been treated in the institution^ 
in regard of whom the following statistics are of interest : 

Former Occupation — Males. — Bakers, 6; Bankers, 2; Brewers, 2; Brickmakers, 
5; Blacksmiths, 39 ; Butchers, 7; Clerks, 49; Carpenters, 56 ; Coopers, 21; Clergy- 
men, 18 J Contractor, 1; Cabinet makers, 10; Cigar makers, 3; Confectioner, Ij 


Chair makers, 4; County officers, 5; Daguerrean artists, 3; Dentists, 3; Druggist, 
1; Editors, 2; Engineers, 4; Farmers, 1,291; Fullers, 5; Foundrymen, 4; Gun- 
smiths, 8; Hatters. 3; Hotel keepers, 3; Hunters, 2; Harness makers, 4; Labor- 
ers, 226; Lawyers, 9; Locksmiths, ,2; Mechanics, 9; Merchants, 61; Miners, 4; 
Musicians, 2; Machinists, 7; Manufacturers, 34; Millers, 19; Millwrights, 2; No 
occupation, 64; Physicians, 17; Plasterers, 22; Pump makers, 3; Printers, 9; 
Painters, 15; Peddlers, 6; Potters, 3; Railroad men, 7; Shoemakers, 30; Slater, 
1; Stone masons, 3; Siloon keepers, 3; Steamboatmen, 2; Saddkrs, 8; Soldiers, 
36; Students, 1«; Tanners, 3; Telegrapher, 1; Teachers, 28; Tailors, 24; Tinners, 
€; Traders, 9; Tragedian,!; Upholsterers, 1; Wagon makers, 16; Weavers, 7; 
Watchmakers, 5; Watchmen, 3. 

Females — Actress, 1; Housework, 1,982; Mantua maker, 16; No occupation, 
52; Paper makers, 2; Schoolgirls, 33; Tailoresses, 29; Teachers, 41. 

Ages of Patients when Admitted — Under 20 years, 396; from 20 to 25 years, 
688 ; from 25 to 30 years, 723 ; from 30 to 35 years, 624; from 35 to 40 years, 558 ; 
from 40 to 45 years, 423; from 45 to 50 years, 404; from 50 to 55 years, 277; from 
55 to 60 years, 144; from 60 to 65 years, 106; from 65 to 70 years, 50; from 70, 
to 75 years, 32; from 80 to 85 years, 4; from 85 to 90 years, 2, 

The present officers are: President of the Board of Commissioners, Dr. P. H. 
Jameson; Commissioners, John M. Caldwell and Dr. James H. Woodburn ; Super- 
intendent, Dr. Orpheus Evarts; Physicians, Drs. W. W. Hester and W. J. Elstun; 
Steward, Charles H. Test ; Matron, Mrs. Mary Evarts. The officers and employes 
number nearly one hundred. 

The succession of Superintendents has been as follows: Dr. John Evans, Dr. 
Patterson, Dr. James S. Athou, Dr. James H. Woodburn, Dr. Wilson Lock- 
hart, Dr. Orpheus Evarts, the present Superintendent. 

The whole cost of the buildings and grounds has been about $375,000 — a much 
less sum than their real value to-day. It would require $600,000, perhaps, to pur- 
-chase the site and erect and furnish such a hospital, if required at this time, 


Is situated very nearly in the center of the most beautiful section of the city. 
Its site occupies the space of two city blocks, an area of eight acres ; bounded on 
the south by North street; on the west, by Meridian; on the north, by Walnut; 
on the east by Pennsylvania. 

The Institute was founded by an Act of the General Assembly, in 1847, and 
•was first opened, in a rented building, on the first of October of that year. The 
permanent buildings were completed, and first occupied, in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1853. The original cost of buildings and grounds, was $110,000; their pres- 
ent valuation is $300,000. The principal edifice is composed of a center building, 
having a front of ninety feet, and a depth of sixty-one feet, and is five stories in 
height; together with two four stcry wings, each thirty feet in front, by eighty- 
three feet in depth; making a total frontage of one hundred and fifty feet. Each 
of these sections of the building is surmounted by a handsome cupola, of the Co- 
rinthian order of architecture. The building is mainly constructed of brick, stuc- 
coed in imitation of sand-stone: the basement story being faced with sand-stone 
ashler, rustic-jointed. The portico of the center building, and verandas on the 
fronts and sides of the wings, are of sand-stone : the former thirty feet wide by thirty 
five feet det^p, and extending to the top of the third story. The portico and corni- 
ces of the building are of the Ionic order. 





In addition to themain structure af.d usual out-buildings, there is a plain three 
story brick building, forty by sixty feet, containing the work-shops for the several 
trades of the pupils. 

The number of pupils in attendance during the past year was one hundred 
and seven ; of whom forty-six were males, and sixty- one females. 

The corps of oflBcers and instructors is composed as follows: 

Trustees. — P.H.Jameson, President, John Beard, Cass Byfield ; Secretary, 
H. W. Ballard; Superintendent, W. H. Churchman; Teachers in Literary Depart- 
ment, Albert Stewart, Miss S. A. Scofield, Mrs. C.'C. Wynn, Miss Kate C. Landis, 
Miss Mary Maloney; Teachers in Music Department, R. A. Newland, D. New- 
land; Teachers in Handicraft Department, J. W. Bradshaw, Mrs. S. J. Ballard; 
Household OlBcers, J. M. Kitchen, M. D., Physician, H. -W. Ballard, t^teward, 
Mrs. A. C Landis, Matron, Mrs S. J.Ballard, Girl's Governess. 

The Superintendents of the Institution have been: W. H. Churchman, from 
October, 1, 1847, to September 30, 1853; George W. Ames, from October 1, 1853, 
to September 30, 1855; William C. Larrabee, from October 1, 1855, to January 31, 
1857 ; James McWorkman, from February 1, 1857, to September 10, 1861 ; W. H. 
Churchman, the present Superintrndent, reappointed October 10, 1861. 

The annual appropriation for its maintainance, is about $30,000. 

The grounds are handsomely adorned, the government of the Institution ex- 
cellent, and its efficiency second to none of the kind in the country. 

The engraving on another page gives a correct view of the building. 


This Institution was authorized by an Act of the General Assembly in 1844. 

Its location is particulaily beautiful, in the eastern suburb of the city, just 
south of Washington street. 

The Institute, proper, consists of three buildings connected by corridors. Two 
of these buildings were erected in 1848-9; the third in 1869-70. 

The front building has a facade of two hundred and sixty feet; and con- 
tains the offices, library, general study rooms, officers' and teachers' rooms, and 
the dormitories for the pupils. The center of this building is eighty by fifty- 
four feet, and five stories high ; the lateral wings sixty by thirty feet, and three sto- 
ries in height ; the transverse wings, thirty by fifty feet and four stories high. The 
middle building contains the store-rooms, kitchen, laundry, bakery, dining-halls, 
servants' rooms, hospital, and several school-rooms. It is three stories high: the 
center being forty by eighty feet; and the wings thirty-two by seventy feet. The 
rear building contains the chapel and ten school-rooms. It is two stories high ; 
the center being fifty feet square; and the wings forty by twenty feet. 

In addition to the above described buildings there are others, detached from 
them, containiiig the engine house, wash-house, and the shops for the Industrial 
Department. The aggregate cost of the buildings has been $220,000 

The grounds comprise one hundred and five acres, worth $1000 per acre. The 
grounds more directly surrounding the buildings are beautifully laid off in walks, 
and drives, and are elaborately ornamented with shrubbery and forest trees; and 
contain, also, a flower garden with conservatory. Appropriate spaces are devoted 
to the purposes of an orchard, a vegetable garden, and play grounds for the pupils. 
The remainder, and principal area, is laid off in pasture and farm^ots. 

Altogether it is one of the most beautiful spots in or about Indianapolis; and 


must go far to make those for whose benefit it was ordained forget their misfor- 
tunes, in the scenes of beauty about them; It reflects the largest credit on the 
State that founded and has maintained this noble charity ; and on the efficiency 
of the successive managements that have so beautified and adorned the place. Nor 
have the efi"orts of officers and teachers to malie the Institution useful — in respect 
of the intellectual and moral welfare of those committed to their care — been less 
successful, than the pains taken to make the grounds ornamental. 

The number of pupils in attendance during the past year was two hundred and 
sixty-four. « 

The principal officers of the Institute are: Dr. P. H. Jameson, President; 
Dr. J. M. Kitchen and W. K. Hogshire, Trustees ; Thomas Mac Intire, Superintend- 
ent; Dr. F. S. Newcomer, Physician. The following are the Instructors in the In- 
tellectual Department : Horace S. Gillett, A. M., William H. Latham, A. M., M, D., 
Walter W, Angus, Sidney J. Vail, H. N. Mac Intire, Wiiliam N. Burt, A. M., 
John L. Houdyshell, Naomi S. Hiatt, Eugene W. Wood, Sarah C. Williams; 
Teacher of Articulation, Joseph C. Gordon, A. M. 

The first Instructor in the Institution was William Willard, a deaf mute, who 
was employed in 1844, at a salary of |800 per annum. Mr. Willard had previ- 
ously conducted a small school for the instruction of deaf mutes in this city. He 
acted as Principal to the Institution until July, 1845; and was succeeded by J. S. 
Brown, who served as Principal until July 7, 1853. The latter was succeeded by 
the present Superintendent, Thomas Mac Intire; who, for seventeen years, has 
most efficiently discharged his responsible duties. 

The annual appropriation for its support has for several years been $44,000. 


This Institution is one of the fruits of the recent agitation for Prison Reform, 
and of the progress lately made in that field, It had its origin in that wise benev- 
olence that having long noted the defects of the prison system, in its relation to the 
management and care of female inmates, in 1869 began that agitation for re- 
form in this respect, which resulted in attracting considerable attention to such 
defects, and in stimulating philanthropy to labor for their correction. The atten- 
tion of Governor Baker was attracted to the subject of Prison Reform, in which he 
became very much interested ; and to the interest and investigation given the sub- 
ject by him, is due the first practical step taken toward realizing the idea of the 
present Indiana Female Prison and Reformatory. To this end he drafted a Bill ; 
and the Legislature endorsed the Governor's recommendation by giving it the au- 
thority of a statute. The following extracts from the Act of the Legislature are 
here quoted, as best explaining the nature and objects of the Institution : 

"As soon as the Penal Department of the institution created by this act shall 
be ready for the reception of inmates, it shall be the duty of the warden of said 
State Prison, upon the order of the Governor, to transfer and convey to the insti- 
tution created by this act all the female convicts who may then be confined in said 
prison, and deliver them to the Superintendent of said institution, with a certified 
statement in writing, signed by such warden, setting forth the name of each con- 
vict, the court by which, and the ofi'ence of, and for which she was convicted and 
sentenced, the date of the sentence, the term of the court at which sentence was 
pronounced, and the term for which said convict was sentenced, which certified 
statement in writing shall be sufficient authority for the confinement of such con- 


vict in the institution created by this act, for the portion of the term of such con- 
vict which may be and remain unexpired at the tioae when she shall be transferred 
to said institution as aforesaid." 

The provisions with regard to the Reformatory Department declare that: 
" Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be open for the re- 
ception of girls in the Reformatory Department thereof, it shall be lawful for said 
Board of Managers to receive into their care and management, in the said Reform- 
atory Department, girls under the age of fifteen years, who may be committed to 
their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

First. — When committed by any Judge of a Circuit or Common Pleas Court, 
either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and due proof by the parent or 
guardian, that by reason of her incorrigible or vicious conduct, she has rendered 
her control beyond the power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly 
requisite that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the protec- 
tion of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

Second. — When such infant shall be committed by such judge as aforesaid, 
upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such complaint, that such infant 
is a proper subject for the guardianship of said institution, in consequence of her 
vagrancy or incorrigible or vicious conduct, and that from moral depravity or 
otherwise of her parent or guardian, in whose custody she may be, such parent or 
guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the proper care or disciplin-e over 
such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

Third. — When such infant shall be committed by such judge as aforesaid, on 
complaint and due proof thereof, by the Township Trustee of the township where 
such infant resides, that such infant is destitute of a suitable home, and of adequate 
means of obtaining an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up 
to lead an idle and immoral life." 

By authority of the Act creating the institution, the Governor appointed Hon. 
E. B. Martindale, of this city, (who has been succeeded by James M. Ray, of this 
city,) Ashael D. Stone, of Winchester, (who has been succeeded by Dr. Armstrong, 
of Carroll county,) and Joseph I. Irwin, of Columbus, a Board of Managers. 
These gentlemen secured the service of Isaac Hodgson, of this city, who drafted a 
plan for the proposed prison, which was accepted; -but by reason of the fact that 
the appi'opriation for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the act, 
amounted to only $50,000, the entire plan could not be fully carried out at 

The building, now nearly completed, is situated just north of the Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum, between it and the Arsenal, and presents quite a commanding appearance 
when viewed from the National road. It is a two story brick, with a basement and 
Mansard roof. It will be one hundred and seventy-four feet long, and is composed 
of a main bi^ilding with side wings, and traverse wings at either end. The latter 
are to have a length of one hundred and nine feet. Standing in front of the cantral 
portion of the building, is a dwelling house three stories high, with a basement, 
which will be occupied by the Superintendent and officers of the Institution, 
and connects with the Reformatory by a passage way on the first floor. 

A building in the rear, and connecting with the Reformatory in the base- 
ment and .first story by passage ways, will be occupied by a large boiler room and 
bath rooms. A brick ventilating stack seventy feet high will be located here. 
The btyle of architecture is "Utilitarian," and exhibits excellent taste on the 


part of the arcliitect, and practical knowledge of the requirements of such an in- 

Although the pres'ent ed'fice does not embrace the entire plan for the completed 
building, it is perfect in itself, and contains all that is necessary for the proper 
working of the institution. The complete plan is for a builiding with an extreme 
length of five hundred and twenty-five feet. But several years will necessarily 
pass before the entire building can be finished, or indeed, before it will be needed. 

Owing to the premature adjournment of the last General Assembly, the neces- 
sary appropriation for finishing the building, for furnishing it, and for carrying on 
the institution, was not made. The inauguration of the institution has, therefore, 
been delayed. The Committees of both Houses of the late General Assembly, 
however, unanimously approved the expenditures already made, the work that has 
been performed, and the estimates submitted for future appropriations; so that 
the opening of the institution has only been deferred for a brief period, by the de- 
fault of the General Assembly. 


The Legislature of Indiana, by an Act approved March 8, 1867, authorized an 
institution to be known as "A House of Refuge for the Correction and Reforma- 
tion of Juvenile Offenders."' 

To carry out thi provisions of this Act the sum of $50,000 was appropriated. 
The general supervision and government of the Institut'on is vested in a Board of 
Control, consisting of three Commissioners, to bo appointed by the Governor, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The members of the first Board 
hold their offices for the respective terms of two, four, and six years, and after this 
one member of the Board to be appointed in the same manner, every two years, 
whose term of office shall continue for six years. 

The following gentlemen were the first Board, viz: Charles P. Coffin, Esq., 
of Wayne county, Hon. A. C. Downey, of Ohio county and General Joseph Orr, 
of Laporte county. 

The Board held their first meeting in the Governors rooms in Indianapolis, 
Ind., on the 23d day of April, 1867, and organized by electing Charles F. Coffin, 
President. The Board then resolved to visit and examine the Reform School at 
Chicago, 111., the House of Refuge at Cincinnati, 0.,'and the Ohio State Reform 
Schools, at Lancaster, 0. After a full examination and consideration of the 
merits of these institutions for the reformation of juvenile offenders, the Board 
unanimously adopted what is known as the " Family System," (in imitation of the 
Ohio State Reform Schools,) as contra-distinguished from the " congregate plan." 
This system divides the iu mates of the Institution into families of fifty boys each — 
each family having a separate house and proper family officers. The officers to 
each family are a House Father (who has the immediate charge of the family of 
boys) assisted by an Elder Brother; all the families are under the jurisdiction of 
a common Superintendent. 

It was contemplated by the founders of the Institution, and by the legislature 
calling it into existence, that it should be located at some suitable point near Indi- 
anapolis, combining the several necessary conditions. Manifestly it should not be 
located so near a large city as to allure unruly and truant inmates from the quiet 
and discipline of the Institution to the temptations of the city. In view of this 
and other essential considerations controlling its location. Governor Baker selected 
and established a site for the institution, three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, 


in Hendricks county, on the line of the Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Vandalia and 
St. Louis Railway, fourteen miles west of Indianapolis. The site is a very eligi- 
ble one: being easy of access from all parts of the State. 

The farm upon which the institution is located contains two hundred and 
twenty-fiye acres; combining beauty of location with fertility of soil; and particu- 
lary favored with running streams affording an abundant and unfailing; supply of 
water for the use of the institution, and for the needs of the live stock on the 
farm. The site of the buildings is a beautiful plateau, about eighteen feet above 
the level of the adjacent valley. 

The engraving on another page will serve to give a good general idea of the 
appearance of the buildings and grounds. 

The Board, with the approval of the Governor, adopted a plan for the grounds 
and buildings, with a view to the ultimate erection of one main building and eight 
family houses, besides one house for a reading room and hospital, and two lai'ge 
shops for mechanial labor, intended to accommodate four hundred bojs. 

On the 27th of August, 1867, the Board, with the approval of the Governor, 
appointed Mr. and Mrs. Frank B Ainsworth, Superintendent and Matron. They 
immediitely entered upon the discharge of their duties, which they have ever since 
discharged with great credit to themselves and to the institution. 

On the first of January, 1868, three family houses and one work shop were 
completed and ready for occupancy, and the Governor issued his proclamation 
declaring the Institution ready for the reception of inmates. During the past 
year the main building and one additional family house have been completed, 

The plan of the buildings is an elongated octagon. All the family houses 
front to the center of the plateau save the two on the east side, which front to the 
east. The main building stands east of the centre, fronts to the east; it is sixty- 
four by one hundred and twenty-eight feet, external measurement, and is three sto- 
ries high- above the basement. In the basement are the vegetable cellars, wash 
room, ironing room, furnace room and kitchen. On the first floor are tlie office, 
reception room, officers and boys dining rooms, pantry and store room. On the 
second floor are the Superintendent's family rooms, private office, and five dormi- 
tories for officers, etc. On the third floor are the Assistant Superintendenfs rooms, 
a store room and library, the chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are uniform in style, and are thirty-six by fifty-eight feet 
external measurement. The basement contains a furnace room, a store room, and 
a large wash room, which is also used for a play room in stormy weather. On the 
first floor are two rooms for the House Father and his family ; and a school room, 
which is also used for a sitting-room for the family of boys. On the third floor are 
the boys' dormitory, a clothes room and a room for the Eider Brother, etc. 

These buildings are erected on a plan suggested by an experienced reformer, 
and admirably serve the purpose for which they were designed. 

The first boy was received January 23d, 1868, into the institution, from Hen- 
dricks county. A few days after this ten boys were transferred from the Northern 
Prison. Since the opening of the institution twenty-two boys have been received 
to its guardianship. There are at this time one hundred ard seventy-eight inmates 
remaining in the institution; two having been indentttred; one having died, and 
the rest having been discharged. Nothwithstanding that there are no high fences, 
walls, or physical contrivances to prevent the boys from escaping, not a single boy 
has succeeded in getting away, and although the inmates are of the most hardened 
and desperate classes, not one has been subjected to corporal punishment. 


The plan of instruction is that of the most approved common school system. 
All the boys attend school one-half of each day and are engaged at some useful 
employment, either on the farm, or in the garden, or shoe-shop, or tailor-shop, or 
chair-shop, or some other division of the domestic department, the other half. 
This discipline is mild and firm, and eminently parental — the higher sentiments of 
the hoys being appealed to. 

The institution is a success beyond all expectations, and it has already demon- 
strated its value to the State by converting to a life of usefulness and respecta- 
bility, many neglected children who would, but for its saving influence, have been 
miserable waifs among the scum of society. 


This institution is situated about three miles north-west of the city, and was 
established in 1832. It is a well-managed and efficient institution. The "farm," 
consisting of 160 acres, was purchased in 1832. At this date the only building 
on the site was a log cabin of two rooms. Buildings were erected from time to 
time, as the demand for accommodations increased, of which the principal S'truc- 
ture was erected in 1845. To this an addition for the accommodation of the insane 
paupers was made in 1858. These buildings were soon found inadequate to the 
demand upon them; and in 1869 was commenced the erection of the present capa- 
cious and appropriate structure. The corner stone of the building was laid on the 
28th of July, 1869; and it was dedicated in October, 1870, under the auspices of 
the Young Men's Christian Association. 

The principal building is in the Norman style of architecture. Its front is 
two hundred and four feet; extreme depth, one hundred and eighty-four feet; height, 
four stories. The building presents a fine architectural appearance. The plan of 
the interior is excellent; securing neatness, convenience, and plentiful light and 

In the rear of the main structure is another building twenty-eight by seventy 
feet, and two stories in height. 

The increased room thus obtained has afforded opportunities for introducing a 
much more thorough and efficient system than before existed. The contrast be- 
tween the system of management of the Marion County Infirmary of to-day and 
that of the past, is as striking as the contrast between the present buildings and 
those they superseded. 

Now the institution is so conducted as to secure the well-being of the inmates; 
then it was merely a receptacle, into which was thrust that inconvenient class in the 
community who, being unable to help themselves, were thus stuck away out of sight 
and dismissed from public concern. Now the management conforms to common 
morality and propriety by separate accommodations for the sexes ; then no adequate 
separation of this kind was practicable. Now the insane are cared for apart from the 
others, and humane and adequate means employed to ameliorate their condition and 
conduce to their cure ; then they were hidden away and confined in repulsive quar- 
ters and surroundings calculated to craze the sane, and with nothing but the rudest 
diet for eking out a miserable existence. Then the institution was unsightly, the 
quarters unclean, the regimen scant and unwholesome, the medical assistance inad- 
equte, because of inaequate compensation ; no regard was paid to the education of 
the children, or to the moral instruction of either old or young. Now the converse 
of all these conditions prevails: cleanliness pervades the buildings, and is enforced 


on the part of the inmates; religious services are regularly held in the chapel; a 
"nursery department" has been provided for the children, where they are separ- 
ately kept, and given the needful attention in respect to their education, their mor- 
als and their health; the insane are appropriately provided for; and the due dis- 
tinction between the sexes is observed. This contrast, so favorable to the present 
condition of the asylum, does not signify that it was formerly in a worse state than 
most similar institutions of to-day; on the contrary it only illustrates the superi- 
ority of the Marion County Infirmary over most pauper asylums. Neither is 
any reiiection on past ofBcials intended ; nor is it charged that they could have 
done better with the means with which they were furnished. The improvement 
in the condition of the asylum is principally due to the attraction of the attention 
of the community to the need for reform in the institution, and to the enlistment 
of the benevolent and humane sentiment of the people in its behalf. 

The first Superintendent was Peter Newland. From 1832 to 1839 the oflice of 
Superintendent was discontinued, and its functions were discharged by a Board of 
Directors. The records show the following to have served as Directors: Wm. 
McCaw, Gary Smith, James Johnson, Isaac Pugh, Samuel McGray, George Lock- 
erbie, and Thomas F. Stout. 

The office of Superintendent was revived in 1839; since which time the follow- 
ing have served in that capacity: Aquilla Hilton, James Higgenbottom, Nelson 
McCord, Henry Fisher, William H. Watt, John Adams, Levi A. Hardesty, Parker 
S Carson, Joseph L, Fisher, and William H. Watt,the present Supei-intendent. 

The office of Physician to the Infirmary was created in 1840, previous to which 
date the Superintendent was authorized to call in a physician whenever the services 
of one might be required. Since the creation of the office the following have suc- 
cessively served the county as Physician to the Infirmary : Drs. Parry, Yeakle, 
Dunlap, Mothershead, Dunlap, John S. Bobbs, Sanders, John M. Gaston, M. H. . 
Wright, H. G. Brown, Michael Lynch, E. N. Todd, Milton Phipps, J. K. Bigelow, . 
Wm. Wands, and H. H. Moore, the present Physician. The office of Physician was 
for years an unattractive trust. The salary was the merest trifle; The duties con- 
siderable and forbidding. Recently the salary has been increased ; but is still too ■ 
small to possess any pecuniary temptation to any competent physician to under- 
take the discharge of the duties. 

It was during Dr. Wand's term as physician that the new buildings were ■ 
instituted and completed. It is due to this gentleman to give him large credit for 
agitation of the question of reform, for urging the necessity for the improvements 
that have since been made, and for the present beneficent system of the Infirmary. 

At this time there are about 38 children in the nursery department, which is 
under the charge of Mrs. Durham. 

In the department for the insane there are about 58 patients, under the imme- 
diate charge of Nicholas Daly. 

The whole number of inmates at this time is about 185. 

The new buildings were erected at a cost of about $120,000, and the value of ' 
the site is about $32,000. 


A visitation of the small pox in 1855, first suggested the idea of a Gity Hos-- 
pital in Indianapolis. The result was, that early in March, 1856, the establishment 
of such an institution was authorized by the Common Council. A site was secured- 


in the north-western part of the city, containing nine and one-half acres ; and the 
Hospital building was completed in 1859. 

To the efforts and influence of Dr. Livingston Dunlap, an estimable citizen, 
an eminent physician, and a member of the Council, is the establishment of this 
institution so largely due, that he has been appropriately called the "Father of 
the City Hospital." 

For about two years after its completion the Hospital was an idle piece of 
property. First it was proposed to sell the propei'ty ; then various uses were sug- 
gested ; and a proposition from the Catholic Church to conduct it as a hospital was 
defeated, because of denominational objections. Finally the property was placed 
in the care of a keepfer; in which condition it was found at the beginning of the 
Kebellion. The concentration of troops at this point dictated the employment of 
the institution as a hospital for military purposes; and to this end Drs. Kitchen 
and Jameson were appointed by the State authorities to the charge of the hospital 
in May, 1861. 

Under the zealous and very efficient direction of Dr. Kitchen, the institution 
was used as a military hospital until July, 1865; during which period its great 
usefulness vastly more than compensated for the outlay incurred in iis establish- 
ment and maintenance. From July, 1865, to April, 1866, the institution was used 
for a Soldiers' Home, under Dr. M. M. Wishard, in which capacity it again sub- 
served in a large degree the causes of philanthropy and patriotism. 

During Dr. Kitchen's administration extensive improvements in buildings, as 
well as in the hospital system, were made ; so that at the close of the war, when the 
institution was surrendered to the city, the latter found itself the possessor of 
a hospital organized at the expense of the United States Government. 

About 13,000 patients were treated in the hospital during the war. Under Dr. 
Kitchen's administration, also, the grounds were ornamented by shade trees, fur- 
ther adding to the usefulness and attractiveness of the place — another result of 
his constant concern and efforts for the improvement of the institution. 

April 27th, 1866, Dr. Kitchen published a card in the Jbz<rna^ calling attention 
to the neglected state of the institution, and to the necessity for putting it into an 
efficient condition for use by the city. A meeting of the citizens was immediately 
held, and Hon. J. D. Rowland appointed to present the subject to the Council. 
April 30th a committee of the Council, consisting of Dr. Jameson and Messrs. 
Kappes and Emerson, were appointed to meet the Board of Health and perfect a 
plan for the improvement and management of the hospital, and to report the neces- 
sary ordinance for that purpo'se. At a special meeting. May 2d, an ordinance was 
introduced authorizing the purchase of materials sufficient to equip a hospital with 
accommodations for 75 patients. William Haunaman was appointed the agent of 
the city to make purchases. An ordinance for the management of the hospital was 
. also passed at the same time. These efforts were greatly accelerated by a threat- 
ened visitation of cholera, then prevailing in Europe. 

The ordinance for the management of the hospital provided for the election of 
a Board of Directors, in which each ward was to be represented, who were invested 
with full control of the management of the institution. The Board organized 
June 12th, 1866, by the election of Dr. J. M. Kitchen President, and L. B. Wilson, 
Esq., Secretary. June 28th, 1866, Dr. G. V. Woolen was elected Superintendent 
.for one year, also the following Medical and Surgical Staff: 

Surgeons — Drs. J. S, Bobbs, J. S. Athon, J. A. Comingor, and L. D. Waterman. 
Fhysicians—Dis. J. H. Woodburn, T. B. Harvey, R. N. Todd, and J. M. Gaston. 


©r. Woolen opened the hospital on the 1st of July, 1866. To the requisite 
attainments in medical science he added great energy and much previous experi- 
•ence in like responsibilities; and it was not long before the hospital was placed in 
good condition for the reception of patients. Large repairs and some important 
additions were made during his administration. Great care and economy were 
necessary during the first year of its existence, in-order to inaugurate and maintain 
the charity without making it oppressive financially. Its officers found much 
ignorance prevailing as to the nature and wants of such an institution, encountered 
many perplexities unknown to the people generally, and certainly are deserving 
the thanks of the public for their industry, and patience, and good management. 

Dr. Woolen was Superintendent of the institution until July 1st, 1S70, when 
"when he was succeeded by Dr. E. Hadley, the present Superintendent, who is serv- 
ing the hospital well and acceptably. 

Since his retirement from the superintendence of the institution. Dr. Kitchen 
has remained the President of the Board of Directors ; and still continues to take 
his old interest in the success of the hospital. 

During the official year ending July 1st, 1870, the number of patients treated 
was 245; number of births 27; number of deaths 25. During the same period the 
total expenditures of the institution witre $6,606.97; and the average expense per 
capita was $0.50. 

The present number of patients is 48 ; the whole number treated in the insti- 
tution from the beginning, 1,180. 

The officers for the current year are : President of the Board of Directors, 
Dr. F. S. Newcomer; Superintendent, Dr. E. Hadley; Assistant Superintendent, 
Dr. R, D. Craighead; Matron, Mrs. E. M. Porter. The Medical and Surgical Staff 
is composed as follows : Consulting Officers — Drs. George W. Mears and James 
S. Athon; Surgeons — Drs. J. A. Comingor, L. D. Waterman, G. V. Woolen and J. 
K. Bigelow; Physicians — Drs, Thomas B. Harvey, K. N. Todd, D. H. Oliver and A. 
W. Davis. 


Location: Tennessee street, just beyond city limits. 

In 1863, StoHghton A. Fletcher, sr., donated to the city of Indianapolis, seven 
acres of ground lying southwest of the city, near White river, on condition that 
within a certain time a house should be built for abandoned women, to serve as a 
prison for the vicious and intractable — as a home for the more mild and teachable. 
The gift was accepted, and the house commenced. Seven thousand dollars had 
been expended oe. a foundation, when the work suddenly came to a stop; all the 
means in the public treasury being required for bounties for the soldiers. The 
building was never completed, nor the site occupied for the use for which it was 
donated, being too far from the city. 

The Young Men's Christian Association cooperated with the active friends of 
the enterprise; committees of the Association canvassed the city for funds; and 
finally a building of nine rooms was obtained for a temporary Home, situated on 
North Pennsylvania street. The early efforts of the Home were directed to the 
amelioration of the condition of the prisoners in the county jail, from which its 
first inmates were taken : all of whom were more or less benefitted, and many of 
■them greatly. 

But the publicity of the location, as well as other reasons not necessary to be 


stated here; was an obstruction to the highest usefulness of the institution; andi 
steps were soon taken to obtain the necessary means for a permanent Home in a 
more suitable location. For this purpose the city and county appropriated $7,500 

A location on North Tennessee street, just outside the city limits was secured; 
and by means of the city and county appropriations, money donations, and dona- 
tions &£ city lots' by James M. Ray, William S. Hubbard and Calvin Fletcher, of 
Indianapolis, and by Stillman Witt, Esq-, of Cleveland, Ohio, and early in May. 
1870, a suitable building had been erected. The Home was dedicated on the 21st 
day of May, 1870, the religious servicos on the occasion being conducted by Rev. 
Drs. Scott, Holliday, Day, and others. 

The building thus completed and dedicated was in the Renaissance style of 
architecture, of brick, fifty-seven by seventy-five feet, three stories high, with forty- 
nine pleasant rooms and chambers, having a capacity for one hundred inmates, and 
was a neat, convenient, and commodious structure. 

In this building for several months, the institution was condacted with the most 
commendable philanthi'opy. It Was conducted not as a prison, but as a Home, to 
which the inmates should become attached. Pains were taken to learn the work-- 
ings of similar institutions elsewhere; for which purpose some of the Managers 
traveled extensively. 

It has been indeed, what its name signifies— a " Home for Friendless Women." 
Not alone as a refuge for Fallen Women; but also for the needy and helpless of 
thesex, irrespective of the causes of their misfortunes. 

The success of the Home has exceeded the expectations of its benevolent 
founders. "Lost" girls — "lost" in the dreariest sense of the word — "lost" in 
their own reckless abandonment to vice — " lost " in the judgment and estimation of 
society — shelterless and utterly depraved — whose only home was the jail, the low 
brothel, or the open air — have found in the Home a refuge, and a restoration to the- 
community's and their own respect. 

The institution was suddenly interrupted in its mission of usefulness by a fire 
on the 23d of September, 1870, which laid the braiding in ashes, save a portion of 
the walls. By this calamity, a loss of several thousands of dollars over insurance 
was sustained. A building for a temporary Home was secured at No. 476 North 
Illinois street; where the inmates have been provided with a home, while the mana- 
gers and the community set themselves busily to work to rebuild the institution on 
its old site. It was found that the wallsof the burned building were available for 
nse in erecting the new; appropriations were again obtained from the city and^ 
county; and by these aids and individual donations, the work of rebuilding the 
Home was prosecuted with such vigor and success, that the new building, on the 
site of the old, was recently dedicated and occupied — a building as commodious, as 
convenient, and as attractive as the one destroyed. 

The results of the institution attest its usefulness, and speak the praise of its man- 
agement. The Home was opened on the 2 2d February, 1867. During that year it 
had 70 inmates; during 1868, 140; during 1869, 133; during 1870, 225. Its man- 
agement has been as economical as it has been useful. During the first thi-ee years 
of its existence, its aggregate expenses were $5,612.19. Conspicuous in the admin- 
istration of the institution from the first have been James Smith and his wife, Sarah 
J. Smith members of the Society of Friends Both have been faithful and effi- 
cient. Mrs. Smithas City Missionary, has blended decided energy with philan- 


The limits of this sketch do not admit of mention of all those, dead and living, 
Tvho have given important aid and encouragement to this enterprise. Conspicuous 
among these has been James M.Ray, Esq.; and it is justly claimed that to him 
more than to any other one person is the establishment of the institution indebted. 
The late CoL Blake was also a fast and useful friend of the enterprise. Both of 
.these citizens — the one yet living, and the other gone to his reward — have been 
permanently connected with many benevolent institutions and enterprises in the 
city and county. 

The present officers of the institution are: Jam^s Smith, Superintendent; 
Sarah J. Smith, City Missionary; Miss Sarah M. Alcorn, Matron. 

Officers of the Board of Managers. — Mrs John S. Newman, President; Mrs. 
J. L. Ketcham, Mrs. Hannah Hadley, Vice Presidents; Mrs.O. N. Todd, Treas'r; 
Mrs. Charles W. Moores, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. J. H. Kappes, Recording 
Secretary; Mrs. J. M. Ka,y, Auditor. 

Officers of the Board of Trustees. — James M. Eay, President; William S. 
Hubbard, Treasurer; Samuel Merrill, Secretary; D. E. Snjder Auditor. 

Xocation: Corner of Tennessee and Fifth streets. 

The movement for the erection of this institution was started in the year 1849, 
Tjy the Indianapolis Benevolent Society. At the annual meeting of this associa- 
tion, in that year, the destitution among the widows and orphans in the city was 
a prominent subject of consideration; and committees were appointed to enlighten 
■i;he public as to the estent of such destitution, and to enlist popular charity for 
its amelioration. At a called meeting of the same society in November of the 
:above year, a society for the relief of the classes stated, was organized, by the elec- 
tion of a President, three Vice Presidents, a Treasurer, a Secretary, a Depositary, 
thirteen Managers, and a Visiting Conamittee, — all of whom were ladies; -and an 
Advisory Committee of gentlemen. 

In January, 1&50, this society obtained a legislative charter for the establish- 
sment of the Home. The first officei-s were as follow: 

Mrs. A. W. Morris, President; Mrs. Alfred Harrison, Mrs. William Sheets, 
Mrs. Judge Morrison, Vice Presidents ; Mrs. Phipps, Treasurer ; Mrs. Hollings- 
iead, Secretary; Mrs. Wilkins, Depositary ; Mrs. Calvin Fletcher, Mrs. Graydon, 
Mrs. McGuire, Mrs. I. P. Williams, Mrs. Cressy, Mrs. Williams, Mrs. Willard, 
Mrs. Underbill, Mrs. Irvin, Mrs Dr. Dunlap, Mrs. I. Hall, Mrs. Bradley, Mana- 
gers; Mrs. Duncan, Mrs. Ferry, Mrs. Paxton, Mrs. Dunn, Mrs. Campbell, Mrs. A. 
F. Morrison, Mrs. M'Carty, Mrs. Myers, Mrs. Brouse, Mrs. Wiseman, Visiting Com- 
mittee; Messrs. N. M'Carty, A. Harrison, Judge Morrison, William Sheets, J. R. 
■Osgood, Butler, A.G. Willaird, Ohr, and Wilkins, Advisory Committee. 

In 1S54, the association was enabled to purchase two city lots for a site for the 
Home; a third being then donated for that purpose by James P. Drate, Esq. In 
1855, the first building on this site was erected, -costing $1,200. In 1869, the build- 
ing was greatly enlarged and improved, at a cost of ^3,000; all — as well as the 
■sums previously expended — having been raised by popular donations. The prop- 
-erty and improvements are now worth about $14,030; aod the institution is in a 
/prosperous condition. It has an average family of thirty-five children. While the 
zaeeessaries of life are provided for the children, their education is not neglected : 


in tho institution a school is conducted three hours each day, by a competent 

The domestic arrangements, which are managed in a most excellent manner, 
are administered by a matron, governess, nurse, cook, and a man-of-all-work. 

The Home is one of the most useful and efficiently conducted permanent char- 
ities in the city. It has no endowment, and its successful establishment and main- 
tainance is due to the unwearying philanthropy of those who have had its inter- 
ests in charge — sustained, of course, by popular contributions. Of late years the 
County has come to the assistance of the institution with a quarterly allowance for 
the board of each child. 

Prominent in the infancy of the institution, and during their whole lives, foi- 
valuable services and persevering benificence in this field, were Mrs. Alfred Harri- 
son, Mrs. A. G. Willard, Mrs. Richmond, and Mrs, John H. Bradley. 

The donations in support of the Home have been many, and, in the aggregate, 
large. Among these we find record of the following: A lot, donated by W. S. 
Hubbard, Esq., from which $800 was- realized ; a legacy, of $1,200, from Mrs. 
Bryant; considerable donations from Calvin Fletcher, Sr., Mrs. Givan, and Mrs. 
John H. Bradley; and $600 worth of provisions from the Society of Friends. 

The number of children cared for at the Home during the past year was 120. 

The Presidents of the Society, so far as record of them is found, from the begin- 
ning, have been, Mrs. A. W. Morris, Mrs. A. G. Willard, Mrs. W. T. Clark, Mrs. 
Wilson, and Mrs. Hannah T. Hadley. 

At the last meeting of the Managers, held on the first Tuesday of May, 1871, 
the following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

Mrs Hannah T. Hadley, President; Mrs. Dr. J. H. Woodburn, Mrs. John S. 
Tarkington, and Mrs. John Bradshaw, Vice Presidents ; Mrs. Fred. Baggs, Treas- 
urer; Mrs. Benj. Harrison, Secretary; Mrs. John C. Wright, Corresponding 

Board of Managers. — Mrs. William Mansur, Mrs. Joseph E. McDonald, Mrs. 
John C. New, Mrs. David Macy, Mrs. Rachel Clarke, Mrs. John I. Morrison, Mrs. 
William D. Hawk, Mrs. Cyrus Boaz, Mrs. J. T. Wright, Mrs. R. M. Pattison,. 
Mrs. Margaret Evans, and Mrs. John Fishback. 

Advisory Committee. — His Excellency Governor Baker, Alfred Harrison, Esq., 
Hon E. B. Martindale, J. R. Osgood, Esq., John M. Lord, Esq., General Daniel 
Macauley, Hon. Jos. E. McDonald, Jacob T. Wright, Esq., Thomas H. Sharpe, 
Esq., W. H. Morrison, Esq., William Jackson, Esq., Hon. John W. Ray, James- 
M. Hume, and Gen. George P. McGinnis. 


' This institution is located in the north-western quarter of the city. 

The Articles of Association for its establishment were filed for record on the 28th 
of February, 1870. The building was erected and completed, during that year. 

The management of its affairs is vested in a Board of Directors,, now composed 
as follows: 

William Hadley, President; Solomon Blair, Treasurer; William C. Hobbs, 
Secretary; James Kersey, of Hendricks county ; Joseph Morris, Plainfield ; Allen 
Hadley, Mooresville; B. C. Coflin, W. L.Pyle, Enos G. Pray,. Indianpolis ; Charles- 
Reeve, Friendswood. 



On page 50, mention is made, in a general way, of this society. Its antiquity ; 
its large usefulness ; the honored names, living and dead, connected with it in 
the past and present ; make appropriate a fuller sketch of its history in this 

The society was organized on Thanksgiving evening, in November, 1835. The 
movement was participated in by representative Christian citizens of the city 
generally, irrespective of denomination ; and the usual religious services on the 
above mentioned evening, were dispensed with in all the churches, to enable the 
members to participate in the work of 'organizing this society. Each succeeding 
anniversary has been celebrated on Thanksgiving evening; on which occasions, 
it is well understood that the usual Thursday evening services are not to be held 
in the churches, that their members may attend the Anniversary meeting of this 
society. Its plan is simple, as its work of charity is great. 

For the purposes of the society, the city is divided into districts, now thirty 
in number. The officers consist of a President, Secretary, and Treasurer. Who- 
ever contributes to the charities dispensed by the society, is a member of it. At 
each anniversary meeting officers are elected for the ensuing year, donations are 
collected and a canvassing committee (consisting of one gentleman and one lady) 
is appointed for each district. 

The officers, and these committees, constitute the whole Executive authority of 
the society. The committees canvass their respective districts for contributions of 
money and clothing. The money goes into the care of the Treasurer; the cloth- 
ing, etc., into a depository. 

The committees draw on the depository as occasion arises, for the articles there 
deposited, for the benefit of the destitute in their respective districts. To prevent 
the misappropriation of the money thus raised, a contract is made with one or more, 
(generally two) grocers, to supply groceries on the order of the members of the 
committees. The usual weeky allowance thus made is $1.50 for each family; in- 
creasable, if required, in cases of sickness. A committee is also empowered to re- 
lieve the destitution of transient persons, and aid in securing them transportation 
to their homes or friends. 

The first President of the society was the late James Blake, Sr.; who held that 
trust continuously, to the period of his death, November 26th, 1870. Calvin 
Fletcher, Sr., was its Secretary from the time of its organiztion, until his death, 
May 26th, 1866; and James M.Ray, was its Treasurer, from the beginning, until 
Mr. Blake's death, when he became President. The present officers are : 

James M. Ray, President; Ebenezer Sharpe, Treasurer; Rev. Elijah T. 
Fletcher, Secretary. 

ladies' society fok the relief oe the poor. 

This society was organized on the 10th of February, 1869, by a few Protestant 
and Catholic ladies of this city. Its object, in a word, is benificence. Its means 
are derived by such methods as fairs, donations, etc. 

The society is strictly undenominational in its membership, and its charities 
are dispensed without reference to creeds. In an unostentatious manner, it has ac- 
complished a great deal in the way of practical philanthropy. The officers are : 

Mrs. J. H. McKernan, President; Mrs. John A. Reaume, Treasurer; Miss 
Julia Cox, Secretary, 



This body was permanently organized on the 11th day of August, 1867, with 
Frederick Thorns, Esq., as the first President. 

Like every other young organization of a benevolent character, unaided by 
appropriations from the public treasury, its progress was at first slow; while ob- 
stacles were abundant and diiScult. The society, has, however, been superior to 
all discouragements and come to be an important instrumentality in the work of be- 
nevolence. In the absence of a building for an asylum for those for whose benefit 
the society was organized and has labored, its benefactions have been performed in 
such other ways as were practicable. 

The society has purchased a site of six and three-quarter acres, at the termi- 
nus of Virginia avenue, on which will be erected, as soon as possible, a suitable 
building for an Orphans' Home. The association has about one hundred members. 
Its present ofiiicers are : 

Conrad Eusse, President; J. J. Wenner, Vice President; Tobias Bender and 
Fr. Hillman, Secretaries; Henry Helm, Treasurer; Frederick Thorns, J. Helm, 
H. H. Koch, T. Sander, William Teckenbrock, and Henry Mankedick, Trustees. 


This is an auxiliary to the foregoing society, and its stated meetings are held 
at the same times and place. It was founded in the month of October, 1870. 
Its oflBcers are : 

Mrs. Ruscbaupt, President; Mrs. Schoppenhorst, Vice President; Mrs. Rein- 
heimer, Secretary ; Mrs. Reiher, Treasurer. 


The system of Benevolent Institutions of this State, caring so liberally and 
extensively for the Insane, Blind, and Deaf and Dumb, makes no provision for a 
class at least as large as either of these, as helpless, and that would seem to be also 
entitled to similar assistance from the State — its crippled, impotent and deformed 

To remedy the condition of this class of unfortunates, a number of the liberal 
and benevolent citizens of this city, incorporated the above named Society on the 
7th of September, 1870. The proposed capital stock of the society was $100,000, 
subject to enlargement. "Over that sum has been promptly subscribed for the ob- 
ject here, mostly by citizens of the Capital, but that this foundation may be en- 
larged, so as to provide for the aid of the afflicted and needy in all parts of the 
State the co-operation of the friends of such an effort, in the several counties, is 
needful and is earnestly solicited. 

"The whole management of the association is in the hands of the subscribers 
thereto, each sum of $25 entitling tte subscriber to membership and an equal voice 
in all its control, while the payment of ten dollars entitles to membership without 

"The subscription of $25 also entitles the subscriber to nominate a patient for 
treatment. $100 entitles the subscriber to the annual nomination of a patient. 
$1000 entitles to the nomination of a patient for a free bed annually, $5000 enti- 


ties the subscriber, and his heirs or assigns, to the nomination of a patient to a 
perpetual free bed from the society. 

"The aim of the society is to provide comfortable homes and boarding in the 
City of Indianapolis, at low rates or free of charge, as the necessities of the poor 
may require — also, surgical treatment, and mechanical apparatus, appliances, sup- 
porters, etc., for relieving deformities, paralysis, and other affections destroying the 
usefulness of their limbs or bodies." 

The articles of association provide that no salary shall be attached to any ofiice 
held in the society. 

All apparatus and appliances to be furnished at the cost only of the time and 
materials required for their manufacture. 

The society is, as yet, without a building of its own ; but the patients are pro- 
vided with suitable board. The surgeons are Drs. Allen and Johnson, of the Sur- 
gical Institute; and the superior facilities of that institution are thus afforded the 

"Sixty patients have already received gratuitous treatment, aid, and relief, 
through the society. Twenty cases have required and been provided with appara- 
tus or mechanical appliances for deformity. Twelve cases have required and been 
relieved by surgical operation. Fourteen of these patients reside in this city, but 
the benefits of the society are designed to extend to sufferers of this class in every 
part of the State, and already patients have been received, cared for, treated and 
relieved, from the counties of Eipley, Jennings, Blackford, Franklin, Miami, Ma- 
rion, Floyd, Morgan, Tipton, Vigo, Wayne, Warren, Fountain, Parke, Putnam, 
Madison and Dearborn." 

It is the expectation of the society, that the State will finally make appro- 
priate provision for this class of its helpless population. 

Its management is vested in a Board of Directors, an Executive Committee, 
and the following officers : 

James M. Kay, President; Barnabas C. Hobbs, Addison Daggy, W. P. John- 
son, A. L. Koache, Vice Presidents ; William H. Turner, Kecording Secretary; 
K, H. Boland, Corresponding Secretary ; John 0. New, Treasurer. 



Located on the north-east cornei' of Meridian and Circle streets, is an artistic speci- 
men of the early English, or plain-pointed, architecture; and is, as all edifices 
erected to the worship of the True God should be, tnie throughout. "Where it 
looks like stone, it is stone ; even to the mullions of the windows. Its floor consists 
of a tower porch, nave, and shallow north and south transepts ; which, together, 
■will seat about five hundred worshipers. The chancel — sixteen feet deep, and 
raised four feet — is lighted by a triplet window, adorned with rich glass, filled with 
Christian symbols. The other windows of the Church, many being memorial, are 
less elaborately decorated. The altar — memorializing the one perfect and sufficient 
sacrifice, propitiation and atonement — is prominent in position, and superior in orn- 
amentation. It is placed high against the east wall of the chancel. The font is 
on the level of the nave, at the steps of the chancel. An oaken lecturn stands just 
outside the chancel, on the north side. The pulpit, situated at the left side, is an 
octagonal oaken structure, supported on a pedestal, all plainly but handsomely fin- 
ished. The roof is open, heavily timbered, and the ceiling is colored with ultra 
marine blue. 

Outside, the whole building presents a beautiful, true, and churchly appear- 
ance, with its lancet, triplet, and trefoil windows, appearing along the side, among 
the buttresses, and up in the gable angles. The gray lime-stone walls, well laid in 
irregular shapes and varying tints, are relieved by prominent buttresses, with 
water-sheds and caps, high above the eaves. The roof is of blue and purple slate, 
laid in square and octagonal courses. 

The chief feature, however, of the building, is the fine tower and spire, which 
occupies the south-west angle, and is the centrally prominent object in the city. 
The tower proper, is about seventy-five feet high, heavily built, and boldly but- 
tressed. Two doors open, one west, and the other south, into the lower story, 
forming a vestibule; the one south being decorated with appropriate carvings and 
inscriptions. "Windows mark the stories above, until four bold stone gables pierced 
by triplets, with open blinds, complete the stone work. Within the last story a 
chime of nine bells Is placed, which ring out joyfully or plaintively, in the success- 
ive seasons of festival and fast. Above the stone-work a timber octagonal spire, 
slated like the roof, pierced with four windows, and having the angles covered 
with a moulding of galvanized iron, rises sixty feet higher. This is surmounted 
by a finial, which gives the name of the Church in monogram. It is formed by a 
combination of the first two Greek letters in the name of CHRIST ; and has been 
since early in the fourth century, a well known symbol of Christianity, signifying 
" Christ." 

The parish and congregation of Christ Church, have been in existence nearly 
a quarter of a century. The Eev. Melancthon Hoyt, first resided in Indianapolis) 

-» I! 



as a Missionary of the Protestant Episcopal Church. No- records of his work are 
preserved. The JRev. Jehu C. Clay, (late Dr. Clay, of Philadelphia,) had also vis- 
ited the place, and had been requested to settle, after Mr. Hoyt left. The Kev. Mr. 
Pfeiffer, had preached here some fourteen years before, and baptized an infant ; 
and the Rev. Henry M. Shaw, had also appeared here as an Episcopal Clergyman. 
On the 4th of July, 1837, the Eev. James B. Britton, (now of Ohio,) took up his 
residence as Missionary, and on the Sunday following, July 9th, the regular servi- 
ces of the Church in Indianapolis, commenced. In April, 1837, a few persons 
started a movement, which, in July, of that year, resulted in the following agree- 
ment and association : 

" "We, whose names are hereunto affixed, impressed with the importance of the 
Christian religion, and wishing to promote its holy infliTence in the hearts and 
lives of ourselves, our families and our neighbors, do hereby associate ourselves to- 
gether, as the Parish of Christ Church, in the town of Indianapolis, township of 
Centre, county of Marion, State of Indiana, and by so doing, do recognize the ju- 
risdiction of the Missionary Bishop of Indiana, and do adopt the Constitution and 
Canons of the Protestant Episcosal Church in the United States of America-" 

Indianapolis, July, 13, 1837. 

(Signed )— Joseph M. Moore, D. D. Moore, Chas. W. Cady, T. B, Johnson, Geo. 
W. Mears, Thomas McOuat, Janet McOuat, Wm. Hannaman, A. St. Clair, Mrs. 
Browning, Miss Howell, Miss Gordon, Mrs. Riley, Miss Drake, Mrs. Julia A. 
McKenny, G. W. Starr and Mrs. Starr, James Morrison, A. G. Willard, M. D. 
"Willard, Jas. Dawson, jr., Edward J. Dawson, Jos. Farbos, Nancy Farbos, Joseph 
Norman, Joanna Norman, Stewart Crawford, J no. W. Jones, Edward Boyd, 
Mrs. Stevens. 

The first vestry,, elected under this organization, (2,1st August, 1837,) consisted 
©f five persons, to wit : 

Arthur St. Clair, Senior Warden ; Thos. McOuat^ Junior Warden ; James- 
Morrison, Joseph M. Moore, and Wm. Hannaman. 

On the 7th of May, 1838, the corner stone of the Church was laid by the- 
Rector, and the work progressed with such rapidity that the building was opened 
for Divine Worship on the 18th of November following,, and consecrated Decem- 
ber 16, by the Right Reverend Jackson Kemper, D. D., Missionary Bishop of Indi- 
ana and Missouri. This church was a plain, but neatly finished and strongly 
built Gothic edifice, of wood, which, while it made no pretensions to architectural 
beauty, was very far superior to any house of worship then erected in the place^ 
and, undoubtedly, gave impulse to the building of other places by the several de- 
nominations, as its successor, the present beautiful Christ Church, did again, twenty 
years later. It was, indeed, strange as it may seem in these days of architecural 
taste, considered to be the handsomest church in Indiana ; and many letters were- 
received, from various parts of the State,, requesting drawings of the "spire," as 
it was called ; the said spire, being merely a belfry stuck upon the front gable of 
the church. This building stood for twenty years, and was removed in 1857, to. 
make room for the new church. It was sold, afterwards, to the African Methodist 
Congregation, and subsequently was destroyed by fire. 

The succession of rectors in Chi'ist Church, has been as follows, viz: 

Rev. James B. Britton, three years, from 1837 to 1840 • Rev. Moses H. Hunter^ 
one year, form 1842 to 1843; Rev. Samuel Lee Johnson, four years, from 1844 to 
1848;, Rev. Norman W. Camp, D.D,, three years, from 1849 to 1&52 ; Rev. Joseph. 


C. Talbot, seven years, from 1853 to 1860; Rev. Horace Stringfellow, Jr., two and 
one-half years, from 1860 to 1863; Rev. Theodore J. Holcomh, one and one-half 
years, from 1863 to 1864; Rev. J. P. T. Ingraham, four years, from 1864 to 1868; 
Rev. Benjamin Franklin, 1868, the present Rector. 

Of these all are living, save one — ^^the Rev. Samuel Lee Johnson, who died in 

The present church was feegun and nearly completed under the rectorship of 
-the Rev. Joseph C. Talbot, D. D. (now Assistant Bishop of the Diocese.) 

The chime of bells was hung in the spring of 1861 ; and the spire erected in 
the autumn of 1869. 

The list of communicants numbers about two hundred and fifty. On the I5tli 
■of October, 1869, the seats in this church were declared free; and reliance for sup- 
port is made successfully upon the Sunday offerings. 

The Sabbath-School is in a flourishing condition, and has about two hundred 
and twenty-five members. 

The value of the church property is about $70,000. 

SAINT Paul's cathedkal. 

Location : Corner of Illinois and New York streets. 

This parish was organized on the iOth of July, 1866, a vestry elected, and the 
Rev. Horace Stringfellow, Jr., called to the rectorship. For a brief period, begin- 
ing September 2d, 1866, the regular services of the parish were held in Masonic 
Hall. Meanwhile the present church site was purchased, on the rear of which a 
brick chapel was erected. The first services in the chapel were held on Christmas 
.day, 1866. 

The erection of the Cathedral was commenced in the spiring of 1867. It was 
opened for Divine worship at the meeting of the Diocesan Convention, in June, 

The Rev. Mr. Stringfellow resigned the rectorship, in June, 1869, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. Treadwell Walden, the present rector, in February, 1870. 

The parish was organized with six communicants ; the number in June, 1870, 
was one hundred and ninety-seven. 

The dimensions of the Cathedral are sixty-five by one hundred and fifty feet ; 
the extreme dimensions of tlie entire building, sixty-five by one hundred and 
eighty-three feet. 

The style af the architecture is the rural English Gothic, of the twelfth cen- 
tury. The exterior aspects of the building are striking, and well illustrate the 
sharp, bold, outlines and details of the Gothic style. Its greatest length is on New 
York street. The superior elevation of the roof is sixty feet; and the height of 
4;he tower one hundred and twenty feet. 

The interior of the Cathedral consists of a central and two side naves, with 
-three aisles. West of the auditorium is th* baptismal font and section room. In 
■the transept are the chancel, vestry-room, library, etc.. The chancel, thirty by 
forty feet, containing the Bishop's seat and sixteen stalls, is very elegant. It has 
fifteen windows, of stained glass, and is artistically ornamented with appropriate, 
•emblematical designs. The windows of the auditorium are also of stained glass, 
t)ut less ornamental than those of the chancel. The window of the baptismal font 
is likewise richly ornamented. The ceiling of the auditorium is of the ornamental 

m. ^A^3.5 XA7^ l£®:KAiL. 



open-roof construction. The seating capacity of the auditorium is about one 

The principal material of the walls is brick, tastefully trimmed with dressed 
stone and Milwaukee yellow brick. 

The Cathedral is furnished with a splendid organ, worth about $8,000. 

From Saint Paul's parish has sprung a flouris'hing Mission in the north-wes- 
tern portion of the city, elsewhere spoken of. 

The vestry is composed of the following: W, H. Morrison and T. A. Hend- 
ricks, Wardens ; Joseph E. McDonald, John M. Lord, E. S. Alvord, John W. Mur- 
phy, David E. Snyder, W. J. HoUiday, and J. A. Moore. 

The Sabbath-School is in a prosperous condition; numbering, (including the 
Sunday School Mission,) about two hundred and fifty pupils. 

The cost of Saint Paul's Cathedral, and value of site, are about $75,000. 


Location : Corner of Pennsylvania and St. Joseph streets. 

This parish was organized in January, 1854. The membership of Christ 
Church, having become very large, and it being believed that there was a field for 
a new enterprise, Messrs. Deloss Root, J 0. D. Lilly, and Nelson Kingman, with 
their families, withdrew, and organized the present parish of Grace Church. 

The present house of worship of the parish was built without delay, and 
dedicated in the summer of 1854. Shortly afterward, the Rev. M. V. Averill, was 
called to the rectorship of the parish, who remained about two and a-half years, 
Mr. Averill was an energetic, as well an able rector; and the prosperity of 
the parish during his rectorship, is atteeted by the fact that in that period, the 
number of communicants increased from ten to sixty. Mr. Averill was succeeded 
by the Rev. Dr. C. B. Davidson, who remained with the parish about three years ; 
at the end of which time the number of communicants was about seventy-five. 
Dr. Davidson retired on the 10th of October, 1870. For several months the parish, 
was without a rector. On the 1st of January, 1871, the Rev. James Euncie was 
called to the rectorship; who entered upon bis duties on the 1st of March, 1871. 

The present membership of the church is about seventy-five. 

The Sabbath-School, of w^hich George W. Geiger, Esq., is Superintendent, has 
one hundred and ten members. 

The church edifice is a frame building, of the modified Gothic style, and is 
particularly neat and tasteful in its ensemble, finish, and appointments. It is 
doubtful if at a like expense, a better effect in respect of a house of worship, 
could be produced. The aspects of the interior are inviting and suggestive of 
comfort. The windows are of stained glass ; the ceiling, of the open-roofed con- 
struction. The chancel, in the ornamentation of its triple windows, and its ap- 
pointments, is artistic ; the symbols typifyng, with fine effect, the idea expressed 
in the name, Grace Church. The church has a fine organ. 

The value of the building and site, is about f 11,000. 


Location : Corner of Fletcher avenue and Cedar street. 

This parish was organized as a " Mission Sunday School of Christ Church," 
in July, 1866, at the residence of James Meade, No. 50, Forest avenue, by Eev. C. 
C. Tate, Assistant Minister of Christ Church. The attendance upon the services 


of the young gouiety augumented to such an extent, that increased accommodations 
soon became necessary. Steps were accordingly taken to build a chapel on the 
north-east corner of Fletcher avenue and Cedar street, which had been donated for 
that purpose by S. A. Fletcher, Jr. The required amount for building the chapel, 
$1,800, was raised by the members of Christ Church — mainly through the exei-tions 
of the Eev. C. 0. Tate, and of that earnest worker, the Rev. J. P. T. In graham, 
Hector of Christ Church, who was the moving spirit of the enterprise. 

The chapel, in size, twenty-five by forty feet, beside the chancel and robing- 
r«om, was opened for public worship on the afternoon of the Epiphany Sunday, 
January, 6, 1867, the services being conducted by the Revs. J. P. T. Ingraham and 
C C. Tate. The singing exercises were assisted by a cabinet organ, the gift of 
Miss C. J. Farrell. The chapel then took the name of the Holy hmoeents. Reg- 
ular afternoon services were held by Rev. Mr. Tate, until the following July, when, 
he resigned as Assistant Minister of Christ Church, to accept the Rectorship of 
St. Paul's Church, Columbus, Ohio. At the latter date, Mr. Willis D. Engle, was 
elected Superintendent of the Sunday School, the afternoon services being con- 
ducted by the Eev. J. P. T. Ingraham, assisted by a lay-reader. During this 
time the chapel building was further improved through the exertions of the few 
who labored there. 

January 1st, 1868, the Rev. George B. Engle, as Assistant Minister of Christ 
Church, took charge of the Mission, and continued to serve in that capacity, until 
January 4th, 1869, when, with the consent of the Bishop, and the concurrence of 
the other parishes in the city, the Church of the Holy Innocents was organized, with 
a membership of about thirty. The first oflScers of the Church were : 

A. Willis Gorrell, Senior Warden; William A. Taylor, Junior Warden; 
Ansel B. Denton, George Davidson, Daniel S. Moulton, David B. Hunt, Edwin 
Yickers, Thomas V. Cook, and Willis D. Engle, Vestrymen ; Willis D. Engle, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 

A call was extended to the Rev. George B. Engle to become the rector of the 
church, and was accepted. 

On Easter Monday, March 29th, 1869, the same officers were re-elected, except 
John Boswell, whose place as vestryman, was filled by the election of Joseph 
Thompson. Willis D. Engle was elected as delegate to represent the parish in the 
Diocesan Convention. 

On Easter Monday, April 10th, 1871, the following officers were elected: 

A. Willis Gorrell, Senior Warden; William A. Taylor, Junior Warden; 
Ansel B. Denton, John Algeo, George Davidson, D. B. Hunt, James Meade, Daniel 
S. Moulton, and Willis D. Engle, Vestrymen. Willis D. Engle, Secretary ; William 
A. Taylor, Treasurer ; and Willis D. Engle, delegate to represent the Parish in the 
Diocesan Convention. 

During the fall of last year, considerable expenditures were made in improve^ 
ments on the church building, in neatly inclosing it, and in adorning the grounds 
with shrubbery and shade trees. 

The membership at this time is about sixty. The Sunday-School numbers 
eighteen teachers, and one hundred and forty pupils. The seats are all free. The 
rectors salary is paid by subscription, and the current expenses by the offertory. 


A flourishing Mission, sustained by St. Paul's Parish, has been established in 
the north-western part of the city, A suitable site has been purchased ; and du- 



ring the present year, Saint Paul's Chapel (Second) will be completed ; the site and 
building to cost about $5,000. 

Pending the appointment of an Assistant Ministei" of Saint Paul's the Mission 
■will continue to be served by the Rector, the Rev. Mr. Walden ; who conducts its 
regular religious services every Thursday evening, in the temporary building 
occupied by the Mission. Of Sundays its members attend the services in Saint 
Paul's Cathedral. 

The Sabbath-School, of which Mr. S. R. Lippencott, is Superintendent, and 
Mrs. Harriet Preston, Lady Manager, is in a flourishing condition. 

Summari/.~Tota\ membership of the Episcopal denomination, in Indianapolis, 
five hundred and eighty-two; total Sabbath-School membership, seven hundred 
and forty-three ; total value of church pi-operty, $168,000. , 



Location: Corner of Pennsylvania and New York streets. 
The First Presbyterian Church is one of the religious landmarks of this city, and 
with its early history is associated the early history of Presbyterianism in this 
State. The foundation of this church society was half a century ago, when this 
was the "Far West," and when the church was following closely in the foot- 
steps of pioneer civilization. Of those who took an active part in the organi- 
zation of this church there yet remain a very few to tell the story of its early 

In 1820, the future city of Indianapolis was mapped out and its lots offered 
for sale. In August of 1821 Rev. Ludlow G. Gaines preached the first Presby- 
terian sermon in the city, in a grove south of the present State House square. In 
1822, Rev. David C. Proctor, of Connecticut, was engaged as a missionary for one 

In 1823 a subscription of $1,200 was raised and a bouse of worship erected on 
Pennsylvania street, near the corner of Market. On the 5th of July of the same 
year, a Presbyterian church was organized and the names of fifteen members 

In 1842, a second house of worship was erected, on the corner of Market and 
Circle streets, at a cost of $8,300, and on the 6th of May, 1843, it was dedicated. 

In 1864, the foundations of the present church edifice were laid. The chapel, 
containing a lecture room, a social room, Sabbath-School rooms and pastor's study, 
was erected and opened for service in 1866. The present audience room was 
opened for service December 29th, 1870. 

Since the organization of the society in 1823, a period of nearly 47 years, 
the congregation has built three church edifices and one mission church — now 
the Seventh Presbyterian Church — and has had the following pastors: Rev. Geo. 
Bush, Rev. John R. Moreland, Rev. James W. McKennan, Rev. Phineas D. Gur- 
ley, D. D., Rev. John A. McClung, D. D., Rev. Thomas Cunningham, D. D., Rev. 
J. Howard Nixon, and Rev. R. D. Harper, D. D. Dr. Harper recently resigned the 
pastorate to accept a call from Philadelphia, and the church authorities have not, 
at this writing, selected his successor. 

The only surviving pastors are Rev. Dr. Cunningham, of San Francisco; Rev. 
J. Howard Nixon, of Springfield, Missouri, and Rev. Dr. Harper, of Philadelphia. 

At different intervals the following persons have served the church with great 


acceptance as stated supply : Eev. Ludlow G. Gaines, Rev. David C. Proctor, 
Kev. Isaac Keed, Eev. William A. Holliday, Rev. Samuel Fulton, Rev. Charles S. 
Mills and Rev. J. P. Dripps. 

The following persons have served as elders in this church from its organization 
until the present time: Dr. Isaac Coe, Caleb Seudder, John Johnson, Ebenezer 
Sharpe, John G. Brown, Col. James Blake, Hon. Samuel Bigger, George S. Bran- 
don, Charles Aitell, H. C. Newcomb, James M. Ray. Thomas H. Sharpe, William 
Sheeta, Thomas Mclntire, General Benjamin Harrison, Myron A. Stowell and "Wil- 
liam R. Craig. 

In December, 1838, fifteen members of this church were granted letters of dis- 
mission to organize the Second Presbyterian Church of this city; and in 1851, 
thirteen years subsequently, letters of dismission were granted to twenty-one per- 
sons, including three Elders, Caleb Seudder, James Blake and H. C. Newcomb, to 
organize the Third Presbyterian Church of this city. These little bands, who sep- 
arated from the parent society, have grown into full, well-equipped organizations, 
and are doing good service in the cause of Christianity. 

The church has a membership of three hundred and fifty one. The Sabbath- 
School has four hundred and twenty-five members. The principal officers of the 
church are : 

Ruling Elders— James M, Ray, Thos. H. Sharpe, Wm. Sheets, Thos. Mcln- 
tire, M. A. Stowell, Benj. Harrison, Robert Browning, James W. Brown, Jere. Mc- 
Lene, Isaac C. Hays, H. L. Walker, A. M. Benham. 

Deacons — Wm. J. Johnston, J. A. Vinnedge, Henry D. Carlisle, E. P. Howe, 
Carlos Dickson, Charles Latham. 

Trustees — E. B. Martindale, Robert Browning, James W. Brown, William 
Braden, Upton J. Hammond. Superintendent of Sabbath School, E. B. Martin- 

The church edifice is in the Gothic style of architecture, and is an artistic and 
elegant structure. The main building, sixty by one hundred feet, fronts on Penn- 
sylvania street; and in the rear, on New York street, is the chapel building, fifty 
by seventy-five feet, The audience room, in its design and appointments, is one 
of the finest in the country. Its pews are arranged in curved lines; the windows 
are ot beautiful stained glass; the ceiling is very ornamental, "rafter finished," 
and finely frescoed. The tower is one hundred and seventy-six feet in height. . 

The building is built of pressed brick, trimmed with dressed stone. The 
chapel is divided into three rooms: two for social meetings, and one for the pastor's 
study. The second story contains the Sabbath-School room. The dimensions of the 
building are sixty-five by one hundred and fifty-five feet. The cost of building 
and site was $104,117.74. 


Location: Corner of Pennsylvania and Vermont streets. 

The materials for the ensuing sketch of this organization have been chiefly 
obtained from a discourse preached at the opening of the present chapel, by Rev. 
Hanford A. Edson, the pastor. 

The society was formed, with fifteen members, November 19, 1838, in the 
Marion County Seminary, a small brick building standing, until 1860, at 
the south-west corner of University Square. The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, the 
first pastor, entered upon his work July 31st, 1839. Worship was continued in 


the Seminary for a year. Afterward the congregation removed to their own edi- 
fice, the present High School building, on the north-west corner of Circle and 
Market streets, occupying at first the lecture-room. This house was dedicated to 
the worship of the Most High, October 4th, 1840. On tha 19th of September, 1847, 
the pastorate of Mr. Beecher closed, and he removed to Brooklyn, New York, where 
he has since gained the reputation as a pulpit orator, with which the world is 
familiar. He was succeeded by Rev. Clement E. Babb, at the time a student in 
Lane Seminary, now associate editor of the Herald and Presbyter, of Cincinnati. 
He commenced work May 7th, 1848, and continued in the pastorate until January 
1st, 1853. It was under his supervision that a colony, now the Fourth Presbyte- 
rian Church, was established, with twenty-four members. This occurred Novem- 
ber 30th, 1851. The third pastor, Eev Thornton A. Mills, began his work Janu- 
ary 1st, 1854, and remained with the Church three years, the relation between pas- 
tor and people, being dissolved by the Presbytery, February 9th, 1857. Dr. Mills 
having been elected Secretary of the General Assembly's Committee on Educa- 
tion, went at once to New Tork. He is the only one of the pastors of the Church 
not now living. He died suddenly June 19th, 1867. Kev. George P. Tindall was 
his successor, called to the pastorate August 6th, 1857, and continuing in the field 
until September 27th, 1863. During his ministry, in 1858 and 1859, large numbers 
were added to the Church. The present pastor. Rev. Hanford A. Edson, has oc- 
cupied the place since January I7th, 1864. On the 15th of May of that year, a 
building was dedicated at the corner of Michigan and Blackford streets for a Mis- 
sion Sunday School, which had been established by members of the Second Church, 
and which has now grown into the " Fifth Presbyterian Church." November 20th, 
1867, another colony, the "Olivet Presbyterian Church," was formed with twenty- 
one members, a bouse of worship having been dedicated for them a month pre- 

For the beautiful stone edifice at the corner of Pennsylvania and Vermont 
streets, of which we present an engraving, ground was broken in the spring of 
1864. The corner stone was laid May 14th, 1866; the chapel occupied December 
22d, 1867; and the completed edifice dedicated January 9th, 1870. Mr. Joseph . 
Curzon. of this city is the architect. The entire cost of the property is about 
$105,000. The present membership of the church is considerably above four hun- 
dred. The Sabbath-School is in a flourishing condition, and has three hundred pu- 
pils enrolled. 

Besides the pastor, the oflScers of the society are as follows : 

Euling Elders. — William N. Jackson, Samuel F. Smith, Enoch C. Mayhew, 
Edwin J. Peck, John S. Spann, William S. Hubbard, Thomas A. Morris, Moses R. . 
Barnard, and Frederick W. Chislett. 

Deacons. — Sandford Morris, Edward S. Field, Clement A. Greenleaf, George 
W. Crane, William W. Wentz, Richard M. Smock, David W. Coffin, and Willis 
H. FeLtit. 

Trustees. — William P. Fishback, William M. Wheatley, John S. Spann, James 
M. Bradshaw, and William Mansur. 

The church edifice is massive and imposing. It is built, from foundation to 
spire, of rubble limestone; the corners, buttresses, and other projecting angles, 
being artistically faced with dressed stone. Its architecture is the Gothic style of 
the twelfth century. The auditorium is seventy-eight feet in length by fifty- 
seven feet in width ; thirty-seven feet high in the center, and twenty-six and 
one-half feet at the side walls ; with a recess for the choir twelve by thirty-two 


feet, and another for the pulpit, five by fourteen feet. The ceiling is finished in 
ash and black walnut; with plastered panels separated by stucco mouldings. The 
pews, pulpit, and other wood work, in the interior, are also, richly finished in wal- 
nut and ash. The windows are highly ornamented. The chapel, session room, 
and pastor's study, are in keeping with the elegance of the auditorium ; as is, also, 
the Sabbath- School room, now in the secoad story. The auditorium is lighted by 
silvered reflectors. The main tower is one hundred and sixty-one and one-half feet 
in height, and eighteen feet square at the base. A smaller tower at the entrance 
to the chapel, is ninety-five and one-half feet in height. Without, the structure is 
massive and artistic ; within, it is elegantly and tastefully finished and furnished. 


Location: Northeast corner of Illinois and Ohio streets. 

This church was organized on the 23d September, 1851, at the residence 
of Caleb Scudder, Esq., in this city, by the Presbytery of Muncie; twenty-one 
person withdrawing for the purpose from the First Church. 

Prominent among the founders of this association were James Blake, Caleb 
Scudder, John W.Hamilton, H. C. Neweomb, Nathaniel Bolton, Dr. W. C. Thomp- 
son and C. B. Davis. The congregation first met for religious worship in Tem- 
perance Hall; and afterward erected the present church building, which was com- 
pleted and dedicated in 1859. 

The Third Church has for many years been a prominent religious power in the 
community. Its present membership is four hundred and fifty. The Sabbath- 
school numbers two hundred and thirty-three pupils. 

In 1867 a colony went out from this congregation and formed the Fifth Pres- 
byterian Church; which has since been sustained in part bj^ the parent church. 

The Third Church has had the following pastors: The Rev. David Stevenson, 
from 1851 to October, 1860; the Kev. George C. Heckman, D. D., from 1861 to 
1867; the Kev. Robert SIoss, the present pastor, since June, 1868. 

Prominent among the earlier members and oflicers of this church are the 
names of James Blake, Caleb Scudder, flon. H. C. Newcomb, John W. Hamilton, 
Chas. N. Todd, Dr. W. C. Thompson, the Rev. C. G. McLean, D. D., Wm. M. Blake, 
William Stewart, Silas T. Bowen, Dr. Theophilus Parvin, J. D. Carmichael, L. N. 
Andrews, William Glenn and H. W. Keehn. 

The church edifice, though not so imposing or elegant in its architectural as- 
pects, as several others in the city, is nevertheless a commodious and substantial 
structure, built of brick, with stone facings, in the modified Norman style of archi- 
tecture. Its external dimensions are eighty by forty-eight feet. The size of the 
audience room is seventy-one by forty-five feet; and it has, including the gallery, 
seating capacity for about six hundred persons. The value of the property is 
about $50,000. 

The present officers of the church are : 

Pastor. — Rev. Robert Sloss. 

Elders.— H. C. Newcomb, S. T. Bowen, J. D. Carmichael, Dr. T. Parvin, C. N". 
Todd, L N. Andrews, A. S. Walker. 

Deacons, — James Muir, James Wilson, Wm. M. Blake, Chas. G. Stewart, D, H. 
Wiles, E. Frank Kennedy, Wm. Judson, Mames D. Brown. 

Trustees.— Thos. D. Kingan, W. W. Woollen, D. H. Wiles, R. F. Kennedy, Wm. 
Judson, James Hasson, Frank Landers. 



Location: Comer of Delaware and Market streets. 

The Fourth Presbyterian Church was formed by a colony from the Second 
Presbyterian Church. 

On the 30th of November, 1-851, twenty-four members of the latter society 
withdrew by letters, and proceeded at once to organize under the name of the 
Fourth Presbyterian Church of Indianapolis. Two elders were elected, Alexander 
Graydon and Samuel Merrill. A call was extended to the Rev. George M. Max- 
well, of Marietta, Ohio, with the offer of a salary of $800. The call was accepted, 
and Mr. Maxwell commenced his services as pastor early in the year 1852. 

After nearly six years of struggle, the society, on the 13th of September, 1857, 
was enabled to dedicate the present house of worship to Divine service. The num- 
ber of members at that date was one hundred and fifteen. 

In the spring of 1858 a religious revival resulted in a large increase of the 

In November, 1858, Mr. Maxwell's health failing, he resigned, much to the 
regret of his congregation. 

In October, 1859, the Rev. A. L. Brooks received a unanimous call, which he 
accepted, at a salary of $1,500.00, and commenced his labors immediately. Rev. 
Mr. Brooks labored with the church until March, 1862, when he accepted a call 
from Chicago. 

In July, 1862, the Rev. Charles H. Marshall accepted a call to the pastorate 
of the Fourth Church. His salary, at first ^1,000, was gradually increased during 
his stay to |2,500. 

Many additions were made to the church during the revival of 1869. 

In October, 1870, Mr. Marshall was compelled by failing health to sever his 
pastoral relation with the church, to the general regret of the membership. J}\xv- 
ing his pastorate the war for the Union began and ended; and at one time the 
Fourth Church demonstrated its patriotism by sending to the field not only its pas- 
tor, as chaplain, but some forty of its young men. 

On the 1st of January, 1871, Mr. Marshall was succeeded by the Rev. J. H. 
Morron, of Peoria, Illinois, the present pastor. 

The church membership numbers one hundred and eighty-five; that of the Sab- 
■bath-Schools, about one hundred and seventy-five. 

The church edifice presents a' somewhat ancient and time-worn aspect exter- 
nally. It is quite commodious, having seating accommodations for about six hun- 
dred persons. The building is of stuccoed brick, and is surmounted by a high 
tower. The value of the property is about $50,000, and it is free of debt. 

The elders of the church since its organization have been: 

Alexander Graydon, Samuel Merrill, Horace Basseit, John L. Ketcham, Henry 
S. Kellogg, Alexander H. Davidson, Charles W. Moores, David Kregelo, Robert 
Evans, Emanuel Haugh, John McKeehan, Samuel Merrill, J. H. Brown, Robert 
M. Stewart. Col. Samuel Merrill is Superintendent of the Sabbath-schools. 

The officers for the current year are : 

Elders. — David Kregelo, Robert Evans, John McKeehan, Samuel Merrill, 
Robert Stewart, James H. Brown. 

Deacons. — William H. Comingor, Joseph R. Haugh, Hervey Bates, John L. 
E«lcham, Robert W. Cathcart, Daniel W. Grubbs. 

Trustees. — Wm, A. Bradshaw, Joseph K. Sbarpe, David Kregelo, Joseph R. 
Haugh, John D. Condit. 

2J;2 BOLLowArs iNDiANAPorm: 


Location: East side of Blackford street, between Vermont and Micbigan* 

A frame chapel, erected on the above stated site in 1864, for the purposes of 
a Mission Sabbath-richool, was purchased in the autumn of 1866, by the Third 
Church, into whose control the School then passed. In October, 1867, it wag or- 
ganized by the authority of the Indianapolis Presbytery, as the Fifth Presbyterian' 
Church, with eighteen members: twelve from the Third, and one from the First 
Presbyterian Churches of this city, and five from churches elsewhere located. 
The exercises incident to the organization were conducted by Kevs. George C. 
Heckman, L. G. Hay, W. W, Sickles; and Elders James Blake and Charles N. 

The first, only, and present pastor of the society, is the Rev. William B. 
Chamberlain, who began his labors as such in the summer of 1869; was ordained 
in October of that year, and installed in October, 1870. 

The chapel is a frame building; cost, with site, $2)000;' and will seat two 
hundred persons. 

The growth and prosperity of the society have been such as to demand and; 
warrant a better and more commodious house of worship. For this purpose a 
desirable site has been secured on the south-west corner of Michigan and Black- 
ford streets; where excavation is now being made for a new building, to be of 
brick, cruciform, with a fine tower; having a basement for Sabbath-School and 
other purposes; and an audience room with a capacity to seat four hundred and 
fifty persons. The cost of the new structure will be from $12,000 to $15,000. The 
society expect to occupy the basement by the fall of 1872, and hope to complete 
the building within two or three years. 

The number of members is about one hundred and fifty. The Sabbath-School 
has two hundred and fifty members. 


Location : Corner of Union and McCarty streets. 

This church was established by a colony from the Second Church. A few 
members of the parent body, met with their pastor, on the 22nd of June, 1867, 
and instructed a committee to buy a suitable site in the south-western quarter 
of the city. The corner of Union and McCarty streets was selected for that pur- 
pose; the present church building was erected without delay, and was dedicated 
on the 20th of October, of the same year, bj' the Eev. H. A. Edson, pastor of the 
Secocd Church. On the 20th of November, 1867, a church organization was 
effected. The first pastor v;as the Eev. J. B. Brandt; the second the Rev. Luman 
A. Aldrich; the third, and present, the Rev. Joseph E. Scott. The house of wor- 
ship is a plain, comfortable frame building. The property is valued at f 2,500, and 
is' free from debt. The Church membership numbers over one hundred persons;- 
that of the Sunday-School about one hundred and twenty-five. 


Location : Elm street, near Cedar. 

Originally established as a mission enterprise, by the First Church, and in its 
infancy conducted and sustained by the parent body, the Seventh Church has 


110W about attained the stature of a full grown and self-sustaining organization; 
able and entitled to manage its own affairs. Of the maxim that " Christianity is 
the greatest civilizer," the results of this enterprise are a triumphant exemplifi- 

One Sabbath day, early in the year 1865, Wm. R. Craig, a resident of the south- 
eastern part of the city, was much disturbed by a rude and lawless troop of boys, out- 
rageously wanting in that training which inspires a decent respect for the Sabbath 
day. Their repeated and flagrant violations of the Sabbath, and unruly conduct 
generally, had often outraged the feelings of the staid old Scotchman, but never to 
•such a degree as on this occasion; and now, for the first time, he began to seriously 
■debate with himself the question of a remedy. He thought of applying to the po- 
lice; and then dismissed that recourse, as being an inadequate measure of relief, 
and not sufficiently radical. Finally he decided that a Sabbath-School, by reach- 
ing the consciences of the oflfenders, would, in the course of time, effect a thor- 
•ough and lasting cure. Mr. Craig, who was a member of the First Church, pro- 
-ceeded at once to prepare for the application of his remedy. 

The pastor and elders of that church concurred in his proposition, and called 
a meeting of the pastors and elders of the four principal Presbyterian churches, 
to consult upon a plan for opening the campaign ; a meeting of the of&cers and 
pastors of the First and Third Churches was shortly afterward held to consider 
■the question ; and finally it was agreed that the First Church should take suitable 
steps to provide spiritual instruction for the south-eastern quarter of the city. Wm. 
:E. Craig and N. M. Wood were shortly afterward appointed a committee to estab- 
lish a Sabbath-school there; for defraying the expenses of which work of organi- 
:zatioD, $130 was voted. A room in an old carpenter shop, belonging to Jfeter Rou- 
tier, on Cedar street, was rented for the purpose. The school was organized by 
Messrs. W. R. Craig and Thomas Mclntire, and successfully conducted through the 
■summer of 1865 under the superintendence of N. M. Wood, Esq. 

The rude building then occupied by the mission proving too small and uncom- 
fortable for the purpose, it was decided to erect a suitable building for Sabbath- 
School and other religious services. Through the exertions of James M. Ray, a 
member of the First Presbyterian Church, a site was secured in Fletcher's Addi- 
ction, donated by Calvin Fletcher, Sr., A Stone, W. S. Witt, Elisha Taylor and 
James M. Hough. The Board of Church Extension pledged $500 to aid in the 
■erection of a building, and the First Church took upon itself the responsibility of 
■seeing to it that the new enterprise should not fail. To this end Elder Thomas 
Mclntire and James W. Brown, Esq., were appointed a committee to superintend the 
work of erecting the new building. Subscriptions to the amount of over $3,200 
were collected, and the building was completed and occupied by the Sabbath-School 
early in December, 1865. The parent church supplied the Rev. W. W. Sickles to 
preach for the young congregation for a period of six months. The dedicatory 
exercises were held on the 24th December, 1865, and were conducted by the Rev. 
J. H. Nixon, pastor of the First Church. The Rev. Thomas Gait, licentiate, of 
•Chicago, preached for the congregation from May to September of 1867; and was 
succeeded by Rev. C. M, Howard. 

At 7J p. M., on the 27th November, 1867, the church was formally organized 
■by order of the Presbytery; the committee consisting of the Revs. J. H. Nixon and 
William Armstrong, and Elders Thomas Mclntire and William R. Craig. Twenty- 
ihree persons, either by examination or by letter, were admitted into the new organ- 
isation. Wm. R. Craig was chosen the first elder, and the Rev. C. M. Howard was 


invited to become the pastor. Mr. Howard was a gentleman of extraordinarj 
religious enthusiasm and industry. Tiie field was forbidding, and a pastor in search 
of a pleasant sphere of labor, where the wilderness had been subdued by Christian 
cultivation, would have avoided the pioneer duty assumed by Mr. Howard. The 
latter labored with such patient and persevering industry, that great success 
followed his efforts, and the church rapidly increased in numbers. Worn out by 
hard service, he was obliged to ask a release from his pastoral duties, and he retired 
from that position in October, 1869. 

In November, 1869, the Rev. John B. Brandt was called to supply the congre- 
gation. At the end of the year he was compelled to discontinue his pastoral rela- 
tion to the church, on account of the demands on his time by the Young Men's 
Christian Association of this city, of which he was the Superintendent. 

During the year 1869 Samuel E. Kennedy, Edwin G. Barrett and Alexander 
Craig were elected eldeis; Messrs. J. W. Kolwes, Lewis H. Decker and James 
Duthie, deacons ; G. A. Griffith, Robert J. Pedloe, John R. Childers, Jacob Beltz, 
Hiram C. Husted, J. W. Brown, Edwin G. Barrett, and John Jolly, Trustees. 

Rev. L. G. Hay took charge of the church November 1st, 1870, remaining 
about six months. He was specially qualified for this post by many years of expe- 
rience in similar fields, and by a happy union of religious zeal with practical 
sagacity, and the society flourished during his pastorate. 

Rev. Charles H. Raj'mond has recently assumed pastoral charge of this church, 
and entered upon his work with the hearty co-operation of his people. 

The Scotchman's remedy for the cure of disorder in his locality has proven 

The prfsent number of communicants is over one hundred. The Sabbath- 
S'chool reckons about two hundred and fifty members and twenty officers and 
teachers The success of the latter is largely due to the Superintendent, Mr. Ebe- 
nezer Sharpe, who lately retired from this position to take charge of the North 
Street Mission School. The present Superintendent is Mr. Alexander Craig. 

The value of the property is about §2,000. 


North Street Mission. — Location : On the corner of North and Delaware streets. 

This flourishing mission of the First Presbyterian Church, was established ia 
July, 1870. The mission building had been occupied for Sabbath-School pur- 
poses before this time, being known as the "Saw Mill Mission," but for several 
months the field had been abandoned. The leading spirits in the new organiza- 
tion were Gen. Ben. Harrison, Dr. 0. C. Burgess, Ebenezer Sharpe, Capt. E. P. 
Howo, I. C Hays and others, all members of the First Presbyterian Church. 

The Sibbath School has an average attendance of over two hundred, some- 
times reaching nearly two hundred and flfty. Regular religious services are held of 
Sunday evenings, and a prayer meeting, conducted by the officers of the mission, 
is held on each Wednesday evening. 

Rev. L. G Hay has been appointed to take charge of this mission, and it is 
expected that a church will be established in the course of the present year. 

The laborers in this work have been active and zealous, and it has been a suc- 
cessful. enterprise from the start. The chapel occupied by the mission, was» pur- 
chased for that pui'pose by James W. Brown, Esq., a citizen noted for his munifi- 
cence in reg,ard to religious enterprises, in this city. The mission has thus had a. 


chapel furuished free of rent — an assistance of no small moment to a young organ- 

From the importance of this field and the encouragement which the enter- 
prise has received, it is confidently predicted that the North Street Mission will, at 
no greatly distant day, develop into one of the largest and most prosperous 
churches of Indianapolis. 

The value of the property is about $2,500. 

Memorial Chapel is located on the corner of Christian avenue and Bellefon- 
taine street; and was founded, as it has since been maintained, by the Second Pres- 
byterian Church. A Sabbath-School, under the charge of Mr. M. K. Barnard, as 
superintendent, was immediately organized, and has steadily increased in pros- 
perity ever since. George Crane, Esq., succeeded Mr. Barnard, in October, 1870. 
His labors in building up the mission have been both zealous and successful ; so 
that the average attendance is about seventy-five. From the first, weekly prayer 
meetings have been held; which have also been well attended — the citizens in 
that vicinity taking an active interest in the success of the mission. Should the 
enterprise continue to prosper in the future as in the past, (of which there is no 
reason to doubt,) the result will be the early admission of this mission into the 
Presbytery as a full grown church. 

The building in which the services of the Mission are held, is a neat frame 
structure, with seating room for about two hundred persons, and was erected in the 
spring of 1870, at a cost, inclifding that of site, of about $3,500. 

West Street Mission. — Location : West street, near Georgia. 

This mission was established on the 25th of July, 1869, by a colony of young 
men from the First Church, assisted by two or three other persons ; who secured, 
for their purpose, a building formerly used as a Soldiers' Barracks, located as. 

The field was not inviting, and the building anything but elegant or attract- 
ive ; but the founders of the enterprise, with little but their own zeal and persist- 
ence (of which they have certainly expended an extraordinary amount) to aid 
them in the work, succeeded in establishing and conducting a useful and growing 
mission of the Presbyterian Church, in a locality where there was great need of 
such an undertaking. 

They began by organizing a Sabbath-School, with Henry D. Carlisle as super- 
intendent- The school was successful from the beginning. The average attendance 
of pupils is about seventy-five; any material increase of which number is hin- 
dered by the limited capacity of the building. Mr. Carlisle has, with the excep- 
tion of an intermission of a few months, been the superintendent ever since. The 
young men who founded the mission have, with the assistance of an additional 
helper or two, continued to sustain it; and have managed to accumulate a hand- 
some Sunday-School library, and an organ, besides fitting up the room and paying 
the rental. 

During the past summer, out-door meetings, largely attended, were held every 
Sabbath in front of the building ; and when the cold weather put a stop to these, 
and forced the " Colony " to adjourn to the inside, these meetings were not dis- 
continued. These religious services have been conducted by the five young men 
in charge of the Sabbath-School, (Henry D. Carlisle, P. L. Mayhew, K. D. Craig- 
head, Leroy W. Braden, and Charles Meigs;) who — as they express it — "being 


too poor to secure a regular minister, have had to do their own preaching, — -with 
what help they could get from laymen of the different churches of the city.' 

The attendance at these Sabbath evening meetiogs has generally been as large 
as the limited capacity of the building would admit of. 

Indimiola Mission. — The location of this mission is in Indianola, on Washing- 
ton street, half a mile west of the White Kiver Bridge. The property was, for a 
number of years, occupied as a Methodist church. Having fallen into disuse by 
the latter denomination, a mission Sabbath-School was started thereon the 15th of 
July, 1870, by three of the young members of the Third Presbyterian Church ; 
H H. Fulton, E. G. Williams, and John G. Blake. The field for ihe mission was 
large and necessitous ; and it has had a good degree of success. Beside the usual 
Sabbath-School exercises, religious services of Sabbath evenings, have for some 
time been regularly held — chiefly by laymen. 

Arrangements for the purchase of the property by the Presbyterian denomi- 
nation, will, it is expected, be concluded shortly ; and thus another addition to the 
list of Presbyterian churches in this city, is far advanced in its developement. 

The mission is directed by John G. Blake, as Superintendent, with an Assist- 
ant Superintendent, ten teachers, and the usual additioaal officers. The number of 
members is about one hundred. The value of the property is about ^1,000. 

Summary — Total membership of the Presbyterian Denomination in Indiana- 
polis, 1,736; total Sabbath-School membership, 2,008; total value of church prop- 
erty, $320,117.74. 



Location : North-east corner of New York and Pennsylvania streets. 

The first assemblage of Baptists in Indianapolis was nearly fifty years ago. 
An old record, still preserved, quaintly states that "The Baptists at, and near Indi- 
anapolis, having removed from various parts of the world, met at the School House 
in Indianapolis, in August, 1822, and after some consultation, adopted the follow- 
ing resolution : Resolved, that we send for helps, and meet at Indianapolis, on 
the 20th day of Sept'r next for the purpose of establishing a regular Baptist church 
at s'd place. That John W. Reding write letters to little Flat Rock & Little Cedar 
Grove churches for help. That Samuel McCormack write letters to Lick Creek and 
Franklin churches for helps — then adjourned." 

The next meeting was pursuant to adjournment. Elder Tyner attended from 
Little Cedar Grove church and "after Divine service went into business." "Let- 
ters were received and read from Brothers Benjamin Barns, Jeremiah Johnson, 
Thomas Carter, Otis Hobart, John Hobart, Theodore V. Denny, John McCormack, 
Samuel McCormack, John Thompson, and William Dodd, and Sisters Jane John- 
son, Nancy Carter, Nancy Thompson, Elizabeth McCormack, and Polly Carter^ 
then adjourned until Saturday morning 10 o'clk." 

Saturday morning : 
" Met according to adjournment and after Divine service letters were rec'd from 
John W. Reding and Hannah Skinner. Brother B. Barns was appointed to speak 
and answer for the members — and Brother Tyner went into an examination, and 
finding the members sound in the Faith pronounced them, a regular Baptist church, 
and directed them ta go into business." 

3uj^^ip OMPi^aa mocami, 


"Brother Tyner was then chosen moderator, and John W. Reding clerk 1st 
agreed to be called and known by the name of the First Baptist Church, at Indi- 
anapolis, then adjourned until the third Saturday in Oct'r 1822. 

J. W. Reding, ck." 

Benjamin Barns appears to have been rather the most prominent among the 
early membership, for on the third Saturday of June, 1823, the record recites: 
"agreed that Bro. B. Barns be called to preach to this church once a month until 
the end of this year: to which Bro. Barns agreed." 

The first deacon was John Thompson, who was, by a unanimous vote of the 
charch, called to that office on the third Saturday of December, 1822. 

In May, 1823, Samuel McCormack was "ordered to be a singing elk. to this 

A committee appointed to secure a place for worship, consisting of J. Carter, 
H. Bradly, and D. Wood, reported that "the School hou?e may bo had without in- 
terruption." This was a new log school house, situated on the north side of, and 
partly in, Maryland street, between Tennessee and Mississippi streets. 

On the third Saturday, in November, 1824, a committee of three was appointed 
'• to rent a room or repair the school house for a meeting house the ensuing sfason, 
to report at the next meeting." At the next meeting, in January, 1825, the com- 
mittee reported "that f 1.25 had been expended in repairing the school house, — 
and the deacon is requested to pay the same out of the joint funds, and that each 
Brother pay the Bro. deacon a small sum on to-morrow." At the same meeting it 
was, " on motion, agreed that the church petition the present Gen'l Assembly for a 
site to build a meeting house upon; and that the S. E. half of the shaded block 90 
be selected,— and that Bro. J. Hobart, H. Bradley and the elk. be appointed to bear 
the petition." In due time the committee reported that the petition had "failed." 

In the spring of 1825, Major Thomas Chinn invited the church to use his 
house as a place for worship during the summer; which invitation was accepted. 

In June, 1825, the church purchased from Wm. Wilmott, Esq., lot 2, in square 
50, for use. There was a small frame house on the lot, which was not plas- 
tered, and arrangements were made to finish it, which were afterwards " post- 
poned sinadi," and the house left as it was. An apportionment was ordered to pay 
for the house and lot, and a committee reported an assessment of $48, divided 
among the fifteen male members of the church. 

In January, 1826, Rev. Cornelius Duvall, of Owen county, Kentucky, was 
called to the pastorate. Nothing resulted from this call, so far as appears upon the 
records, and in December, 1826, Rev. Abraham Smock was called as pastor for 
one year ; he accepted and soon began his labors. Soon afterward, the church 
disposed of the lot purchased from Wilmott, and lot 3, in square 75 (where SchnuU's 
block now stands) was purchased for $100, and a meeting house erected in 1829. 

In July, 1830, Rev. A. Smock resigned, and for some time the church was 
without a pastor. 

In September, 1831, of two members received into the church, by letter, one 
was ''Bro. Mosely Stewart, (man of color.") 

In May, 1832, Rev. Byron Lawrence was " requested to preach for us as fre- 
quently as he can on Lord's day for six months." 

In April, 1833, Revs. Jameson Hawkins, Byron Lawrence, and Ezra Fisher, 
were "invited to preach for this church statedly, on each Lord's day, making 
their own arrangements." 

In August, 1833, " Bro. Anthony A. Slaton, (man of color,) was rec'd by letter." 


la February, 1834, Rev. Ezra Fisher was called " to be the stated preacher 
of the church." He served in this capacity some months, and in January, 1835, 
T. 0. Townsend was requested to preach by the church, until a regular pastor 
should be settled. 

In July, 1835, Rev. J. L. Richmond was called to the pastorate and accepted. 

The house of worship first erected on the new lot was replaced in due time 
by a more pretentious frame edifice, which was occupied by the church as a place 
of worship, for a number of years. 

In 1843, the Rev. George C. Chandler took the pastorate and remained until 
1847. He was succeeded by Rev. T. R. Cressy, who continued until 1852. He, in 
turn, gave way to Rev. Sidney Dyer, who labored until 1857, and was followed by 
Eev. J. B. Simmons, who preached from 1858 to 1861. On the morning of the 
first Sunday, in January, 1861, the church building was destroyed by fire, and 
for a time after that, the congregation worshiped in Masonic Hall. Mr. Sim- 
mons resigned the pastorate in 1861, and Rev. Henry Day, of Philadelphia, was 
called to the vacant pulpit. Mr. Day accepted the call, has been the pastor of 
the church ever since, and has fully earned his high place in the public esti- 
mation, without as within his congregation. To repair the destruction caused by 
the fire, the church at once purchased a desirable site on the north-east cor- 
ner of New York and Pennsylvania streets, and in 1862, began the erection of 
the commodious and handsome brick edifice shown in the accompanying engrav- 

Under the ministration of Rev. Mr. Day, the church has enjoyed an uninter- 
rupted progress ; so that to-day, in respect of the extent and character of its con- 
gregation, and of influence, it occupies the front rank in the numerous religious so- 
cieties of Indianapolis, 

The present number of members is five hundred and fifty-eight. 

The Sabbath-School is also in a highly prosperous condition. For a period 
of over twenty years, it was under the charge of the late J. R. Osgood, to whose 
eminent zeal, piety, and efBciency, a large measure of its prosperity is due. The 
school now numbers over six hundred scholars. 

The church building, though not strictly homogeneous and " true " in re- 
spect of its architecture, is nevertheless, a commodious and elegant edifice ; and 
its internal appointments are of the first class. It cost about $50,000; and will 
readily seat twelve hundred people. It has a fine organ that cost $2,500. Its 
erection was one of the fruits of that quite recent spirit of rivalry in splendor of 
church architecture, that has resulted in making Indianapolis eminent for the 
number of its elegant church edifices. 

The officers for the present year are as follow : 

Pastor. — Reverend Henry Day, D. D. 

Deacons.— E. C. Atkins, H. S. Gillet, and J. M. Sutton. 

Trustees.— 0, P. Jacobs, J. W. Smither, E. J. Foster, H. Knippenberg, H. C. 
Martin, J, M. Sutton, S. C. Hanna, and W. 0. Smock. 


Location : Corner of South and Noble streets. 

The "Home Church" (as the First Baptist Church is called) purchased a lot 
on the corner of South and Noble streets, erected a neat brick chapel thereon, and 
began a mission in that part of the city. A Sunday-School was at once estab- 
lished, which developed a deep interest, and in 1869, seventy-six of the members of 

BELIGI0U8. 219 

the First Church withdi'ew by letter, and formed a new society known as the South 
Street Baptist Church, receiving from the parent body a free gift of the chapel 
building and grounds. This church now enjoys a happy prosperity under the 
pastorate of Est. William Elgin. 

The number of members is about one hundred ; Sabbath-School membership, 
two hundred and fifty. 

The value of the property is about |10,000. 


Location: Corner of Washington and Missouri streets. 

A second mission interest was established by the First Church, in 1866, in the 
old German theater, on the corner of Tennessee street and Kentucky avenue. It 
now occupies the building at the corner of Washington and Missouri streets, 
and sustains a weekly prayer meeting, and a Sunday-School of one hundred and 
fifty scholars. Henry Knippenberg, Esq., is the Superintendent. 


In April, 1870, a third mission interest was established on the corner of Cherry 
and Broadway streets, and is now known as the North Baptist Mission. This in- 
terest sustains a Sunday-School of about one hundred and seventy pupils, under 
the charge of C. P. Jacobs, Esq., Sviperintendent. Preaching every Sunday, a 
weekly prayer meeting on Tuesday evening, and an adult Bible class. A neat 
chapel, thirty-two by forty-five feet, has been erected and furnished, and a church 
will doubtless be organized here during the coming year. 

The value of the property is about |6,000. 


Location: Michigan street, between Indiana avenue and West street. 

This church was founded in the year 1846, by the Rev. Mr. Sachel, a missionary 
of Cincinnati. The services of the congregation were first held in a school house 
on Alabama street. In 1849, they built their first house of worship, on North 
Missouri street, between Ohio and New York streets. It was a small building, 
twenty by thirty feet; and was burned in the winter of 1851. The building was 
not insured, and the congregation for some time afterward, worshiped in a house 
near the corner of North and Blackford streets, owned by John Brown, Esq., (now 
deceased), who was a deacon of the church, and a prime mover in building the first 
and second houses of worship of the congregation. 

In the latter part of the year 1852, the church building was rebuilt, on the 
site occupied by the building that had been burned. It was a cheap, one sjory 
structure, twenty-six by thirty-six feet ; and was enlarged in 1864. The congre- 
gation seem to have always been both prosperous and enterprising; and accord- 
ingly we find them commencing the erection of a more commodious house of wor- 
ship, in September, 1867. 

It will, when completed, be a neat and capacious building, reflecting great 
credit on the congregation, considering the means at their disposal and the obsta- 
cles they had to overcome. The dimensions are sixty-three feet square. The base- 
ment has been completed and occupied, and the buildJng will be completed in 
due time. 


The auditorum will occupy an entire story, with a ceiling twenty-two and oae- 
half feet in height, and a gallery all around. The extreme elevation at the top 
of the belfry, will be one hundred and five feet. The cost of the completed struct- 
ure will be about $16,000. The congregation has been served by the following 

Joshua Harmon, (since deceased), 1848-51 ; Jesse Young, 1852-53 ; J. J. 
Fitzgerald, (since deceased,) 1853-5; George Butler, 1855-6; Pleasant Bowles, 
1857, (for sis months) ; and Eev. Moses Broyles, the present pastor, who is now 
in the fourteenth year of his pastoral relation to the congregation. For the want 
of method and system in the administration of its affairs, the church underwent 
many trials and vicissitudes during the first eleven years of its existence. When 
Mr. Broyles took charge of affairs in 1857. the membership was not more than 
twenty-five; now it is four hundred and thirty-five, and steadily increasing. The 
usual Sabbath and week day religious services, are regularly held in this church. 
Its affairs are now methcdically administered, and it has all the officers of a well 
appointed, thoroughly organized church. The Sabbath-School, of which Andrew 
Lewis is superintendent, has two hundred and sixty-five members, and is divided 
into twenty classes, with as many teachers. 

Summary/ — Total membership of the Baptist Church in Indianapolis, one 
thousand and ninety-three; total Sabbath-School membership, one thousand two 
hundred an<i sixty-five; total value of church property, $76,000. 



Location: Meridian street, near Circle Park, 

This church was organized August 9th, 1857. The original membership .con- 
sisted of thirty-one persons, a majority of whom joined by letter from other 
churches in this city. For several months previous to the organization, these mem- 
bers supported religious worship and a Sabbath-School in the Senate Chamber of the 
State House. There the church continued to worship (except for a short period, 
■during which services were held in Ramsey's Hall on Illinois street), until their 
removal to their present edifice on the north-west corner of Circle and Meridian 
streets. For a few months after the organization, Rev. W. C. Bartlett officiated as 

The original officers of the church were as follow: 

Trustees.— A. G. Willard, E. T. Sinker, W. W. Roberts, E. J. Baldwin. 

Deacons.— Horace Bassett, Albert G. Willard, Edward T. Sinker, Benjamin M. 

Clerk. — E. Montgomery. 

Treasurer. — Albert G. Willard. 

Rev. N. A. Hyde, the first pastor, entered upon his duties in October, 1868, and 
resigned the pastorate in August, 1867, to become Superintendent of the American 
Home Missionary Society for Indiana. 

Rev. E. P. Ingersoll, the next pastor, commenced his labors March 1st, 1868, 
and resigned January, 1870. 

Rev. Joseph L. Bennett, the third and present pastor, entered upon his dutieg 
in January, 1871. 

The officers at the present time are the following; 


Trustees.— S. A. Fletcher, E. T. Sinker, (died April 5th, 18T1), N. R. Smith, S. 
A. Fletcher, Jr. 

Deacons.— H. S. Rockey, A. G. Willard, I. S. Bigelow. 

Clerk.— Jared M. Bills. 

Treasurer. — Albert B. Willard. 

The membership of the church now numbers about two hundred. The Sab- 
bath-School, John Martin, superintendent, numbers about one hundred and twenty- 

The house of worship occupied by this church was commenced in the fall of 
1858; the front part, containing the lecture room, pastor's study and social rooms^ 
was completed in September, 185&; this was occupied as the plnce of worship by 
the congregation until the main audience room was erected, in 1866. 

Of the church building extensive improvements, both external and internal, 
were commenced in October, 1870; and the reconstructed and improved edifice was 
dedicated on the 30th of April, 1871, at which time the present pastor, the Rev, 
Joseph L. Bennett, was installed. 

The house of worship, if surpassed by others in size and architectural splen- 
dor, is nevertheless one of the most pleasant and convenient in this city of elegant 
and costly church buildings. 

The value of building and site is about $38,000. 


Location : Corner of St. Clair and East streets. 

A Sabbath-School, organized by the Young Men's Christian Association, at s 
small private house on the corner of Jackson and Cherry streets, resulted in the 
organization of the present Maytiower Congregational Church, on the 23d May, 
1869. The oi-iginal membership consisted of thirteen members, who united with 
the church by letter: five from the Plymouth Congregational Church of i.his cityj 
two from the Third Street M. E. Church ; one fx-om Roberts Park M. E. Church ; 
three from the Fourth Presbyterian Church. 

The church building, located as above, was dedicated in January, 1870. It is 
a frame building, forty by sixty feet, and simple and neat in its architectui-al 
aspects. From the time of organization as a church until November, 1870, the 
Rev. C. M. Sanders was pastor. He was succeeded on the 1st April, 1871, by the 
Rev. G. "W. Barnum, the present pastor. 

Forty-three members have united with the church since its organization. 

The present number of members is about thirty-five. The Sabbath-School has 
about two hundred and twenty five pupils. 

The present officers are : M. tS. Whitehead and J. R, Irving, Deacons ; An- 
drew Fisher, Treasurer; E. D. Olin, Clerk; S. A. Fletcher, Andrew Fisher and E, 
D. Olin, Trustees. 

The value of the church property is about $5,000. 

Summary — Total membership of the Congregational Denomination in Indiana- 
polis, two hundred and thirty-five ; total Sabbath-School membership, three hun- 
dred and fifty; total value of church property, $43,000, 




Location: South-west corner of Ohio and Delaware streets. 

This society was organized on the 12th January, 1833. Dr. John H. Sanders 
and Peter H. Roberts were its first ruling elders. The number of names enrolled 
at the time of organization was twenty. Eld. John U'Kane may appropriately be 
considered the Father of this church. He visited the city in the latter part of 1832, 
and started the movement that led to the organization of the society, of which he 
was the first preacher. 

During the early history of the church, and when it most needed aid, Ovid 
Butler, Esq,, Robert A. Taylor, (since deceased, and father of Hon. Napoleon B. 
Taylor, of this city), Dr. John H, Sanders, (father of Mrs. G-overnor Wallace, Mrs. 
R. B. Duncan and Mrs. Dr. Gatling, of this city), and Mr. Charles Secrest were 
fast and liberal friends of the enterprise, and contributed freely to its support. 
Elder O'Kane, J. L. Jones, M. Combs, L. H. Jameson, A. Prather and others 
visited the city during the early years of the church, to hold protracted meetings 
which were generally successful. B. K. Smith, and Elder Chauncey Butler were 
resident laborers in this service. Through these instrumentalities the church grad- 
ually grew in strength; and a house of worship was built in the summer of 1836, 
on Kentucky avenue. 

On the 1st October, 1842, at the instance of Elder O'Kane, Elder L. H. Jam- 
eson became resident evangelist, in which service he continued until 1853. Dur- 
ing the latter year the congregation occupied 'he present church edifice. At this 
date the membership had increased to three hundred and seventy-five. 

The succession of pastors thenceforward was : Elders James M. Mathes, for one 
year; L. H. Jameson, one year; Elder Elijah Goodwin, three years; Elder Perry 
Hall, three years; Elder O. A. Burgess, seven years; Elder W. F. Black, the pres- 
ent pastor, who has served the church for two years. 

Christian Chapel ranks among the leading churches of the city. The present 
number of members is about six hundred. The Sabbath-School has about two 
hundred members. 

The church building is quite plain externally; but is attractively furnished and 
appointed within. 

The value of the building and site is about |35,000. 


Location : First street, between Mississippi street and the Lafayette Railway. 

This society was established in the spring of 1867, as a mission of the First 
Christian Church of this city, Prominent in its establishment and support during 
its infancy were Messrs. W. W. Dowling and J; M. Tilford. As soon as possible, 
and in a short time, a house of worship was secured at the above stated location. 
It is an unpretentious frame building, but sufficient to meet the present wants of 
the society ; having capacity for about two hundred and fifty persons. 

The .society consists of abjut one hundred members. The Sabbath-School is 
in a prosperous state, having about one hundred and twenty-five members. 

Rev. Rufus Conrad, the present pastor, has served the society in that relation 
ever since its organization. 

The value of the building and site is about $2,000, 



Location: Forest-Home avenue, near Ash street. 

In the spring of 1867 a Sunday-School was organized at the North-western 
Christian University, and placed in charge of Prof. A. C. Shortridge, who was 
mainly instrumental in its establishment. Out of this grew the organization of the 
Third Church, which took place in the chapel of the University on the first Sabbath 
in January, 1869'. For the first year of its existence the congregation had no regu- 
lar minister, but maintained the usual weekly meetings, with preaching by various 
ministei's as their services could be obtained. The second year the services of Aus- 
tin Council were secured as pastor. Since then Elder Elijah Goodwin has been 
serving in that capacity. 

The church has built a comfortable house of worship on Forest-Home avenue, 
near Ash street, — a frame building, sixty feet long and thirty-four wide, with a 
baptistry under the pulpit platform, and dressing rooms in the rear. The society 
numbers something over one hundred members. The Sabbalh-School has about one 
hundred and seventy-five members. 

The value of the property is about $8,000. 

The present officers are: 

Elders.— E. Goodwin, J. M. Tilford, J. M. Bramwell, E. T. Brown. 

Deacons.— A. C. Shortridge, H. C. Guffin, R. M. Cosby, J. P. Elliott. 


Location : Corner of Fayette and Walnut streets. 

This organization began as a Mission Sabbath-School on Sunday, 28th Junej 
1868, at a dwelling on Blake street. Here the school continued to meet every Sab- 
bath day until the following November, when the place of meeting was changed 
to a room on the corner of New York and Blake streets. In the following winter 
the mission was organized as a church society by Elder J. B. New as pastor, with 
W. W. Dowling as superintendent of the Sabbath-School. In the summer of 1869, 
the place of worship was changed to a small hall on Indiana avenue, where the 
services were held until the close of the year 1870. On the 1st of January, 1871, 
the present house of worship was dedicated. 

The chapel is a neat wooden structure, capable of seating about three hundred 
persons ; and cost, including the site, about $4,000. 

The present membership of the society is about one hundred; that of the Sab- 
bath-School, about one hundred and twenty-five. 

Elders John B. New, L. H. Jameson, W. W. Dowling and others have filled 
the pulpit from time to time. The society is yet without a regular pastor. 


Location ; Corner of Illinois and Fifth streets. 

This is a prosperous mission of the First Church. The house of worship was 
dedicated on the 25th December, 1870, by Elder W. F. Black. The Sabbath-School, 
under the superintendence of Geo. W. Snyder, has about two hundred members. 
The prospects are excellent that this mission will, at no distant day, be discharged 
from its wardship to the parent organization, and become a separate and flourishing 
church. The value of the present building and site is about $4,000. 



Location : Corner of Tennessee and Fourth streets. 

This is also a mission of the First Church, and was founded in 1869. Its servi- 
ces are now held in a rented building; but its members ezpect (an expectation war- 
ranted by the growth of the enterprise) to build a suitable edifice at an early date 
for the use of the mission. 

The Sabbath-School, of which Jasper Finney is superintendent, numbers about 
one hundred and seventy-five members. 

Swnmary — Total membership of the Christian denomination in Indianapolis, 
about nine hundred; total Sabbath-School membership, one thousand. Total value 
of church property, $53,000. 


There are two societies of this Denomination in Indianapolis : the First and 
Second German Eeformed Churches. 

This denomination is a branch of the church of the great Eeformation inaugu- 
rated in Germany in the sixteenth century, and the source of the present numerous 
family of Protestant denominations. Among the fathers of the German Reformed 
Church were Zwingle, Melancthon and Calvin, whose creed diflfered in several 
respects from that of the Father of the German Reformation, Luther. 

The Lutheran and German Reformed denominations originated about the 
same time (A. D., 1519) : the former in Northern Germany; the latter in Switzer- 
land, whence it spread into Southern Germany, France, Holland and England. 

The German Reformed Church first obtained a foothold in this country in the 
year 1740, in Pennsylvania, where the Rev. Mr. Schlatter labored as the first Ger- 
man missionary of that church in North America. Thence arose the German 
Reformed Synod of the United States, and the other Synods that labor through the 
Board of Domestic missions of the German Reformed Church 

This much by way of preliminary observations upon the denomination in 


Is located on Alabama street, between Washington and Market streets. 

In the fall of 1851 the Board of Domestic Missions sent to this city, to labor 
as its missionary, the Rev. George Long. He began by preaching every Sabbath 
day in the Court house. Before long he had succeeded so well that he was enabled 
to organize a congregation, who in the spring of 1852, began the erection of a 
house of worship on the above location, which was dedicated in October of the 
same year. In November, 1856, Mr. Long resigned his pastorate, and on the 25th 
of the following month the Rev. M. G. L Stern was elected his successor. During 
the ministry of Mr. Stern his church ceased to be a missionary enterprise, and became 
a self-supporting society. The debts of the church were all paid, and it steadily 
grew in membership and in the attendance upon its services. 

On the 26th July, 1865, the Rev. Henry Echmeier succeeded Mr. Stern, and 
became pastor of the church. During his pastorate the church building was 
enlarged to its present dimensions and otherwise improved. 

Mr. Echmeier resigned after serving the church over three years as its minister ; 
and the Rev. J. S. Barth is now the supply of this congregation. 


The house of worship is a plain but neat brick building. The present mem- 
bership of the church is about two hundred; that of the Sabbath-School, nearly 
the same number. 

Some of the founders and prominent early supporters of this church are still 
active members. Among these are J. W. Brown, at present elder and superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath-School, Henry W. Tenneman, William Stolte, Frederick 
Kortepeter, Frederick Schowe, Henry Kruse and Herman Kortepeter. 

The value of the property of the society is about $12,000. 


Location: South side of East street, south of Merrill. 

This society was organized in the summer of 1867, by several members of an 
extinct church organization, living in the south-eastern quarter of the city. The 
Kev. Mr. Steinbach, who had labored here as a Lutheran missionary, took charge 
of the young society thus established. He served for a brief period, resiguing at 
the close of the year 1867. 

At a meeting of members held on the 1st January, 1868, the Kev. M. G. I. Stern 
was selected as Mr. Steinbach's successor in this missionary field. The result was 
the organization, in the autuma of 1869, of a second church of the German Ke- 
formed denomination in Indianapolis. 

Mr. Stern is still the pastor of this church; which has been a prosperous 
society from the first. The present number of members is about one hundred, and 
the average attendance upon Sabbath-day services about two hundred and fifty to 
three hundred. 

Connected with this church is a German-English parochial school, with an 
average attendance of about one hundred pupils, and having two instructors. The 
Sabbath-School membership is about two hundred and fifty. 

The church building is a plain neat, frame structure, having capacity for five 
hundred communicants. 

The property of the church is valued at about ^9,000. 

Summary— Total membership of the German Reformed Church of Indian- 
apolis, three hundred; total Sabbath-ScTiool membership, about four hundred and. 
fifty; total value of church property, ^21,000. 


There is but one church of this denomination in Indianapolis. The house of 
worship is located on the corner of Delaware and St. Clair streets. 

The church was organized in the year 1854. For two years the small congre- 
gation held their religious services in the old Lutheran church building, on North 
Pennsylvania street, near St. Clair. The officiating minister during this perio(J 
was Mrs Hannah Pierson, from Lockport, New York. In 1866 the society built 
their present house of worship, located as above stated. The next ministers of the 
church were David Tatum and Hannah B. Tatum. 

In 1865 the society organized a "monthly meeting," and has had the following 
resident ministers : Jane Trueblood, "W. G. Johnson, Barnabas C. Hobbs, and Enos> 
G. Pray. 

The present number of members is about two hundred and forty-six. The 
Sabbath-School has about eighty members. The value of the property is about 





Location : South west corner of Meridian and New York streets. 

This church society, long known as Wesley Chapel M. E. Church, was the 
pioneer organization of the Methodist denomination in this city, and occupies to- 
ward the numerous family of Methodist churches in Indianapolis to-day, the rela- 
tion of a tree to its branches. 

To begin with the beginning of the history of this church, it is neccessary to 
go back to the year 1822, when the Indianapolis Circuit of the Indiana District of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized by Rev. William Cravens, who 
had been appointed to this circuit at the session of the Missouri Conference. 

In 1825, the Missouri Conference was divided, the Illinois Conference was cre- 
ated, and the Indiana District became a part of the latter body. 

In 1829, Indianapolis Station was formed. This station subsequently passed 
within the limits of the Madison District, created in 1830 ; of the Indiana Confer- 
ence, created in 1832; and of the Indianapolis District of the latter Conference, 
created in 1833. 

At the session of the Indiana Conference, held in Centerville, on the I9th of 
October, 1842, the Indianapolis Station was divided into two charges: The Wes- 
tern (Wesley Chapel), and the Eastern (Roberts Chapel). 

At the session of the Indiana Conference, held in Madison, on the 16th Octo- 
ber, 1845, the charge was again divived, forming the central charge, (Wesley 
Chapel), and the western charge (Strange Chapel). 

In 1870, the society took the name of Meridian street M. E. Church, from the 
location of their elegant new church edifice, now nearly completed. 

For many years, the society, of which the present Meridian Street Church is 
the development and continuation, occupied as a house of worship the well-remem- 
bered Wesley Chapel building, on the south-west coroer of Meridian and Circle 
streets. This familiar and weather-scarred structure, gave way, in the year 1869, 
for the erection on its site of the present Sentinel Building. 

The society purchased a site on the south-west corner of Meridian and New 
York streets ; on which a costly and artistic house of worship is now near comple- 
tion. The basement has for sometime been occupied, and the edifice will be com- 
pleted and dedicated during the present summer. 

Between the dates of the abandonment of the Wesley Chapel building and of 
the occupation of the yet unfinished strtucture, the congregation worshipped in 
the building of the Second Universalist Church. 

The circuit preachers, stationed preachers, and presiding elders, have been as 

1821 — Rev. William Cravens, Circuit Preacher. 1822-3, Samuel Hamilton, 
Presiding Elder; James Scott, Circuit Preacher. 1823-4, William Beauchamp, 
Presiding Elder; Jesse Hale and George Horn, Circuit Preachers. 

In 1825, on the division of the Missouri Conference, John Strange become 
Presiding Elder, and John Miller, Circuit Preacher. 1825-6, John Strange, Pre- 
siding Elder; Thomas Hewston, Circuit Preacher. 1826-7, John Strange, Presid- 
ing Elder; Edwin Ray, Circuit Preacher. 1827-8, John Strange, Presiding Elder ; 
N. Griffith, Circuit Preacher 1828-9, John Strange, Presiding Elder; James 
Armstrong, Stationed Preacher. 1829 to 1832, Allen Wiley, Presiding Eider ; Thos. 


Hitt, Stationed Preacher. 1832-3, John Strange, Presiding Elder ; Benj. 0. Steven- 
son, Stationed Preacher. 1833, Allen Wiley, Presiding Elder; C. W. Ruter, Sta- 
tioned Preacher. 1833-4, James Havens, Presiding Elder; C. W. Rviter, Stationed 
Preacher. 1834-5, Jas. Havens, Presiding Elder; E. R. Ames, Stationed Preacher. 
1835-6, James Havens, Presiding Elder; J. C. Smith, Stationed Preacher, 1836-7, 
James Havens, Presiding Elder; A. Eddy, Stationed Preacher. 1837-8, A. Eddy, 
Presiding Elder; J. C. Smith, Stationed Preacher. 1838-9, A. Eddy, Presiding 
Elder; A. Wiley, Stationed Preacher. 1839-40, A. Eddy, Presiding Elder; A. Wiley, 
Stationed Preacher. 1840-1, James Havens Presiding Elder; W. H. Goode, Sta- 
tioned Preacher. 1841-2, James Havens, Presiding Elder; W. H. Goode, Stationed 

1842-3 — "Indianapolis station" having been divided into two charges, James 
Havens was appointed Presiding Elder, and L. W. Berry Stationed Preacher, of the 
Western charge (Wesley Chapel). 

1843-4 — Same appointments. A building committee, consisting of Alfred Har- 
rison, Thos. Rickards, and Bentley Alley, was appointed to erect a parsonage build- 
ing on the church lot. 

1844-5 — L. W. Berry, Presiding Elder, and W. W. Hibben, stationed preacher, 
Superintendent Sabbath-Schools, J. J. Drum, A. W. Morris and Mrs. Eliza Drum. 

1845-6 — L. W. Berry, Presiding Elder; Wm. V. Daniels, Stationed Preacher. 

1846-7— Rev. E. R. Ames, Presiding Elder, and W. V. Daniels Stationed 
Preachers. Salary of Stationed Preacher, $550. 

1847-8— Rev. E. R. Ames, Presiding Elder; Rev. F. C- Holliday, Stationed 
Preacher. Same salary. 

1848-9 — Same appointments. Salary of Preacher increased to $600 

1849-50— Rev. E. R. Ames, Presiding Elder; Rev. J. S. Bayless, Stationed 
Preacher. Salary of latter, $500. 

1850-51— Rev. C. W. Ruter, Presiding Elder; Rev. B. F. Crary Stationed 
Preacher. Salary, $600. 

1851-2 — James Havens, Presiding Elder; Giles E. Smith, Stationed Preacher. 

1852-3 — B. F. Crary, Presiding Elder; John Kurns, Stationed Preacher. 
Salary of preacher, $700. 

1853-4 — B. F. Crary, Presiding Elder; J. P. Linderman, Stationed Preacher. 

1854-5 — B. F. Crary, Presiding Elder; James H. Noble, Stationed Preacher. 

1856-7— W. C. Smith, Presiding Elder; James Hill, Stationed Preacher. 

1858-9— Wm. C. Smith, Presiding Elder; E T. Fletcher, Stationed Preacher. 

1860-2— Jas. H. Noble, Presiding Elder; C. D. Battelle, Stationed Preacher. 

1862-4— Jas Hill, Presiding Elder; S. T. Gillett, Stationed Preacher. 

1864-6— James Hill, Presiding Elder; Wm. McK. Hester, Stationed Preacher. 

1866-7- S. T. Gillett, Presiding Elder; Wm. McK. Hester, Stationed Preacher. 

1867-8— S. T. Gillett, Presiding Elder; C. K Sims, Stationed Preacher. 

1868-70— B. F. Rawlins, Presiding Elder; 0. N. Sims, Stationed Preacher. 

1870-71— B. F. Rawlins, Presiding Elder; R. Andrus, Stationed Preacher. 

The present membership of the church numbers five hundred and four ; that 
of the Sabbath-School, four hundred and eighty-nine. 

The pastoral labor is performed by Rev. Reuben Andrus. 

The following persons constitute the " Official Board," who, in their respective 
departments, supply the work of the church : 

Trustees — Oliver Tousey, Ingram Fletcher, A. Ballard, V. T. Malott, Daniel 
Stewart, J. H. Ross, Jacob P. Dunn, Dr. H. E. Carey, C. W. Smith. 


Stewards — J. F. Kamsey, J. C. Yohn, T. P. Haughey, Jason Carey, AaroQ' 
Ohr, J. M. Ridenour, F. A. W. Davis, J. H. Colclazer, J. H. Osborn. 

Class Leaders.— R. Ferguson, T. P. Haugbcy, A. Ballard, R. S. Carr, I. Tay- 
lor, B. V. Enos 

Local Preachers.— E. T. Fletcher, T. A. Goodwin, J. C. McCoy, R. Ferguson. 

Committees. Missionary. — J. M. Ridenour, C W. Smithy Charles Dennis^- 
Wilson Morrow. 

Sunday-School.— Dr. H. G. Gary, C. W. Smith, R. S. Carr.. 

Tract Cause. — R. Ferguson, J. H. Ross^ Aaron Ohr 

The principal officers of the Sabbath-School are : 

Superintendents. — Wilson Morrow, H. G. Carey, Mrs. TheOi P. Haughey. 

Secretaries. — J. H. Colclazer, Miss Annie Dunlop. 

Treasurer. — J. S. Carey. 

Fifty per cent, of the entire school are adults, and about one-half of the mem- 
bership of the church, including twenty-one out of twenty-three of the active mem- 
bers of the official board, are engaged in the Sabbath-Sehool. 

The church edifice has a front of seventy-three feet on Meridian street, and a 
depth of one hundred and twenty-on>e feet on New York street. Its walls, towers 
and buttresses are built of a bluish-looking lime stone, with cut-stone trimmings, 
and irregularly laid and nea-tly pointed. The style of its architecture is the Mod- 
ern Gothic; after designs of Messrs. Enos & Huebner, of this city. Externally 
the principal feature of the building is the front, the center of which is flanked on 
either side by a graceful, buttressed tower, terminating in a lofty spire (not yet com- 
pleted). The center terminates in a high gable, surmounted by the Rock of Ages — 
the Crosj of Christ. On each side of the center are wings, whose corners are 
strengthened and ornamented by buttressed turrets. The sides of the walls are 
also buttressed. 

The entrance is by three large doors, whose arches are supported by richly 
ornamented columns. Above the entrance is a large and very beautiful rose win- 
dow, elaborately ornamented. The entrance ia into a spacious vestibule, leading. 
into the lecture room in the fi'rst story, and into the audience room in the second 
story. The first story contains the lecture room, sixty-two by forty-six feet ; two 
infant class rooms, ladies' parlors, the class room, and the pastor's study. The 
windows of this story are all of beautiful stained glass. From the rear of the first 
story a long winding stairway leads to- the audience room. 

But it is in the decorations and appointments of the audience-room that this- 
edifice especially excels. Its dimensions are sixty-six by eighty-seven feet. Its- 
height at the sides is twenty-six feet ; at the center, forty-three feet. The ceiling ia 
highly ornamented. The pews, which are of elegant pattern and limsh, are curvi- 
linearly arranged. The most artistic features are its elaborately ornamented win- 
dows, each one of which typifies in its design, some one of the prominent attributes 
of the Christian religion. This room will easily seat one thousand persons. 

The total cost of the property will be about $100,000. 


Location: Corner of Delaware and Vermont streets. 

This society was organized in October, 1842, by a division of the Meridian 
Street congregation (then called " Wesley Chapel," and worshiping on the corner 
of Circle and Meridian streets)- The new congregation was called- "The Eastern 


Oharge" — the city 'being then divided by the Conference into two charges sepa- 
rated by Meridian street. 

The first pastor was the Rev. John S. Bayless ; the first place of worship, the 
'Court house. At the end ef the first year the membership numbered three hundred 
and twenty-two. 

The society was active and energetic from the first; and within a short period 
after its organization, it had erected a commodious church building on the north- 
east corner of Pennsylvania and Market streets, which was christened Roberts 
Chapel, in honor of the famous Bishop Roberts. This building, so long a religious 
•landmark of the city, gave way in 1868 to the encroaching march of commerce; 
and the same reasons that made its site valuable to the uses of trade, also recom- 
mended the purchase of a new site for the church, less surrounded by the noise 
of business, and more appropriate for Divine worship. So the venerable building 
disappeared, and on its site a business block was erected. 

The congregation purchased an acre of ground, fronting on Delaware and Ver- 
mont streets; and in the center of this ample space a splendid and substantial edi- 
fice is rising. Pending its erection the congregation have been worshiping in an 
old frame building, near the location of the new edifice, which has been aptly 
named Roberts' Chapel Tabernacle. 

The elegant structure now in proce&s of erection is in the Menaissance style of 
architecture, one hundred and twenty-three by seventy feet, and will be sur- 
mounted by a lofty spire. The walls will be of white magnesia lime stone. 

The entrance to the main audience room is from the west, fronting on Delaware 
street. The entramce to the lecture room is from the south side of the church, 
'fronting on Vermont street ; the entrance is into a short hall, on the east side of 
which is the Sabbath-School and church libraiy room. There are two large double 
■ doors from this hall, one opening into the lecture room, and the other into the 
church parlor and infant class room. Its dimension are fifty by sixty-two feet, and 
including the church parlor and infant class room, which connect with it by large 
folding doors, will be capable of seating eight hundred persons. The wood work 
is of oiled ash. The ceiling is divided into nine large pannels, with elegant wooden 
■cornices; and from the center of each pannel hangs a chandalier. The room is 
lighted by six double windows. All the windows of the church are of ground 
glass; the body of each light is plain, with a vine border around the edge. The 
■upper part of each window is semi-circular, and furnished with a beautiful emblem 
or motto. The main. audience room will seat one thousand three hundred persons. 
A gallery will encircle the auditoriurn around its entire extent. The organ 
loft and singers' gallery will be in the rear of the pulpit. The estimated cost of 
'the building, including the site, is $150,000. 

The congregation has been characterized by great spirituality and energy as a 
■religious organization, and has set off several flourishing colonies: Asbury Church, 
on South New Jersey street; Trinity, on the corner of North and Alabama streets; 
■and Grace Church, on the corner cf East and Market streets, are all oiFshoots from 
^Roberts, Chapel. 

The church membership numbers five hundred and twenty-seven ; that of the 
'Sabbath-School, three hundred and fifty-two. 

Roberts Park Church has been served by the following pastors, in the order 
;given : 

Revs. John S. Bayless, John L. Smith, George M. Beswick, Samuel T. Gillett, 
.John H. Hall, William Wilson, Samuel T. Cooper, "WilUam H. Barnes, J. W. T. 


McMullen, C. W. Miller, W. Wilson, H. Colclazer, John V. E,. Mille?, A. S. Kinnan, 
W. H. Mendenhall, F. C. Holliday. The present pastor, the Rev. Dr. Holliday, 
now in the third year of his pastorate, is widely knowa, as well without as within 
his denomination, as an able and effective minister — a conspicuous light, for many 
years, in the Methodist church of Indiana. 

The principal officers of the church are: F-ev. P. C. Holliday, J). D., Pastor; 
John B. Abhett, Local Elder; Thomas A. Nelson, Local Preacher; George W, 
Ackert, Local Preacher. 

Church Trustees — Dr. L. Abbett, John W. Ray, A. G. Porter, George Tousey, 
Frederick Baggs, J. F. Wingate, W. H. Craft. 

Sunday-School Superintendent, John W.Ray; Assistant Superintendent, W. 
L. Heiskell ; Female Superintendent, Mrs. Anna C. Baggs. 

&T. John's m. e. church. 

Location: Corner of California and North streets. 

This society was organized under the name of the Western Charge (west of 
the canal), in the year 1845. The first minister appointed to the charge was the 
Rev. Wesley Dorsey. 

A frame building for the use of the congregation was built on Michigan street, 
west of the canal, and christened Strange Chapel, in honor of Rev. John Strange, 
an eminent and honored pioneer of the Methodist church in Indiana, whose remains 
lie in the old cemetery of this city. This building soon proved to be disadvanta- 
geously located, and it was accordingly removed to a site on Tennessee street, near 

At a quarterly meeting conference, held January I2th, 1869, the following 
resolution was adopted and put upon the minutes: 

" Resolved, That it is the sense of this (Quarterly Conference, that the prosperity 
of the charge, spiritually and financially, will be promoted by its adherence to the 
old usages of the church, especially in the seating of the congregation, and sing- 
ing ; and that the Conference hereby pledge the charge to stand by these usages." 

This resolution was passed to accommodate some wealthy members, who did not 
believe in promiscuous or pew sittings, nor in choral or instrumental music. The 
result was the withdrawal of about one-half of the membership from the church 
by letter, and the addition of but four or five other members to the church during 
the ensuing quarter. 

During ihe year 1869 the church property on West Michigan street was sold, 
and a new house of worship built, located on the corner of Michigan and Tennessee 
streets. This building, erected at a cost of f 13,000, was dedicated on the 9th of 
January, 1870. To secure the further religious exercises of the congregation 
against all innovations on "old fashioned Methodism," provisions to that effect 
were incorporated in the body of the conveyance of the site. The edifice dedica- 
ted to these principles stood but one year, and was consumed by fire on Sunday, 
the 8th January, 1871. 

Several months prior to the latter date, the membership had become divided 
on the question of receiving the pastor appointed by the Conference. The ma- 
jority, but least wealthy, of the members were worshiping in Strange Chapel at 
the time of its destruction by fire. The other division, the lesser in numbers, the 
greater in wealth, had been worshiping in the building of the Second TJniversalist 
church congregation, over the way from Strange Chapel. 


The church property — that portion which had not been destroyed by fire — was 
sold; and the remainder of the congregation, at length a unit in belief and action, 
have since held their religious services in Kuhn's Hall, with Mr. Walters as pastor. 

The third quarterly conference, held March 6th, 1871, appointed a committee 
to purchase a lot on which to erect a house of worship. A building committee con- 
sisting of D. B. Hosbrook, Rev. G. Morgan and J. A. Gregg, were appointed and 
invested with plenary power to devise plans and erect a suitable building for the 
use of the congregation. 

By a unanimous vote the name of the church was changed to Si. John's 
M. E. Churchy and the leaders' and stewards' meetings, and boards of trustees, were 
authorized to transact business hereafter under that name. 

The purchasing committee has selected a lot on the corner of California and 
North streets, sixty by ninety-five feet, for which $1,400 was paid, and on which 
a church is to be built, in the Norman style of architecture, to cost from $12,000 to 
$15,000. The church is to be completed by the 1st of July, 1871, with the Eev. 
L. M. Walters, as pastor. 

The society, dating from the last schism, is reported to be in a flourishing con- 
dition. The present membership numbers about one hundred and forty. The Sab- 
bath-School has one hundred and fifty members. 

From Strange Chapel sprung a flourishing local mission enterprise, which has 
since become the Third Street M. E. Church, elsewhere mentioned. 

The following is a list of the pastors who have served Strange Chapel since its 
organization : 

Rev. Wesley Dorsey, Rev. D. Crawford, Rev. Wm. Morrow, Rev. T. G. Behar- 
rell. Rev. Frank Taylor, Rev. E. D. Long, Eev. T. S. Webb, Rev. G. M. Boyd, 
Rev. Griflith Morgan, Rev. William Graham, Rev. N. L. Brakeman, Rev. J. C. 
Reed, Rev. James Havens, Rev. J. W. Green, Rev. C. S. Burgner, Rev. G. W. 
Telle, Rev. J. W. T. McMullen, and Rev. L. M. Walters. 


Location: New Jersey street between Louisiana and South streets. 

This church was organized in 1849, under the name of the Depot and Indian- 
apolis East Mission. It was a colony of Roberts Chapel Church, to which con- 
gregation collectively, and to the Rev. William H. Goode, Presiding Elder of the 
Indianapolis District of the Northern Indiana Conference especially, it owes its 
existence as a church. The original membership was composed entirely of Metho- 
dists residing in the southern part of the city, and who had previously been mem- 
bers of Roberts Chapel Church. 

During the period of its wardship to Roberts Chapel, Asbury Church was 
controlled and sustained by the quarterly conference of that body, aided by a 
small missionary appropriation from the North Indiana Conference. Its first pas- 
tor, the Rev. Samuel T. Cooper, was a member of Roberts Chapel Quarterly Con- 

The first stewards of the Depot Mission, John Dunn, Theodore Mathews, 
John E. Ford, Miles J. Fletcher, and Richard Berry, were elected by the quar- 
terly conference of Roberts Chapel Church, on the 17th of November, 1849. The 
connection of the mission with the parent body, and its dependence thereon, con- 
tinued until the 9th of November, 1850. 

The members of this young organization seem to have had their full share of 


difficulties and deprivations to encounter in rearing the infant charge to the stat- 
ure of a grown-up and self-supporting church. In default of a better, they used 
as a place of worship an upper room in the freight depot of the Madison and 
Indianapolis Railroad Company, until the erection of their present church build- 
ing, which was dedicated in the summer of 1852. Henceforth, the obstacles were 
few, and the progress was more rapid and less interrupted. The church is now in 
a prosperous condition, having a membership of two hundred and fifty, and a flour- 
ishing Sabbath-School of t\yo hundred members. 

The pastors of the church have been as follow, in the order given: 
Kev, Samuel T. Cooper, Kev. J, B. De Motte, Eev. Samuel T. Gillett, Eev. Samuel 
P. Crawford, Rev. J. W. T. McMullen, Rev. Joseph Cotton, Eev. Asbury P. Hes- 
ter, Rev. E. D. Long, Eev. John G. Chaffee, Eev. R. M. Barnes, Rev. W. W. Sny- 
der, Rev. J. W. Mellender, Eev. F. C. Holliday, Rev. John H. Lozier, Eev. Sam- 
uel T. Gillett, and Eev. Charles Tinsley. 
The present officers are: 
Pastor.— Eev. Charles Tinsley. 

Trustees.— Joseph Marsee, William Hannaman, George W. Hill, Valentine 
Rothrock, and William L. Wingate. 

Stewards.— George W. Hill, E. L. Lukens, George W. Crouch, Andrew May, 
W. K. Davis, James Fisler, Isaiah G. Shafer, and Jacob Coffman. 
Sabbath-School Superindent— James H. V. Smith. 
The value of the church building and site is about $15,000. 
The church owns a valuable lot on the south-east corner of South street and 
and Virginia avenue, valued at $10,000, on which it is proposed to erect a house of 
worship next year. 


Location : North-west corner of North and Alabamba streets. 

On the 17th May, 1854, a class of sixteen members of Eoberts Chapel, led by 
J. W. Dorsey, Esq., met and organized as the "Seventh Church." The place of 
meeting then, and during the remainder of the year, was " Dorsey's School House," 
a small frame building, on the west side of North New Jersey street, north of 

The Sabbath-Scbool was at first larger than the church membership, and in a 
short time the house of worship became too small for the society. The present 
location was then purchased; on one side of which, by the end of the year 1854, a 
plain brick church building was erected. Here the society, young and feeble, 
looking unpropitious circumstances resolutely in the face, began an earnest strug-' 
gle for existence; and in the succeeding years has made gradual and sure progress 
over a way hedged up with formidable trials and obstacles. 

The first pastor was Eev. Mr. Griffin, who served six months. At the end 
of his term, the name of the society was changed to North Street M. E. Church. 

Following Mr. Griffin, as pastor, came Eevs. William Holman, for three 
months; John C. Smith, one year and nine months; Prank A. Harding, one year 
and six months, John Hill, two years; C. P. Wright, one year; Charles Martin- 
dale, six months. Eev. Elijah Whitten filled out the remainder of Mr. Martin- 
dale's year, as supply. 

Por the years 1862 and 1863, the charge was left to be "supplied," various 
local preachers officiating, until Rev. George Betts, for a brief period, and after 


him, Rev. William Wilson, wei'e regularly employed. In April, 1864, the Rev. 
W. J. Yigus was appointed to the charge. The Missionary Society appropriated 
$300 in payment of his salary. Mr. Vigus served three years. 

In the spring of 1867 the Rev. E. D. Robinson succeeded Mr. Yigus ; and it was 
during his pastorate that the church for the first time became self-sustaining. 

By the action of the General Conference of 1868 on the question of boundaries, 
this church was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Northern to that of the 
South-Eastern Indiana Conference. In September of the same year the Rev. J. 
Monroe Crawford, the present pastor, was appointed. Mr. Crawford has been 
more than a pastor, simply, of the church ; he has at the same time labored unre- 
mittingly, and with great success, to rescue the church from financial embarrass- 

The following clergymen have served the charge as Presiding Elders: Revs. 
James Hill, Augustus Eddy, H. Barnes, J. V. R. Miller, and R. D. Kobinson, the 
present Presiding Elder. 

The Sabbath-School has flourished from the first; now having an average 
attendance of two hundred and twenty-five, and an enrolled membership of three 
hundred and fifty. Its present Superintendent is Eli. F. Ritter, Esq. 

The church has a total membership of two hundred and twenty-three, including 
the members on probation. 

The present house of worship was dedicated on the first Sabbath in January, 
1867, by the Rev. T. M. Eddy, D. D. The society now took its present name of 
Trinity M. E. Church. 

The building — yet in an unfinished condition — is built of brick, with stone 
trimmings; dimensions, fifty by eighty feet; is pleasantly located; and is pro 
vided with permanent sittings for six hundred and twenty-eight persons. The 
property is valued at about $20,000. 

The officers of the society are : John G. Smith, Local Elder ; Christian Spie- 
gle, John S. Dunlop, Eli F. Ritter, W. H. Smith, Rev. Henry Wright, Trustees. 

Location: Corner of Madison Avenue and Union street. 

The history of this church, though brief in chronology, is abundant in peculiar 
interest. Its establishment to-day on a firm and prosperous footing is not due to 
the liberality of an opulent membership, nor to any considerable extent to extrin- 
sic assistance, nor to propitious chance ; but pre-eminently to the persistent energy 
of a few persons of limited means. 

Ames Church was organized by Rev. Joseph Tarkington, while he was city 
missionary for the four Annual Indiana Conferences, whose boundaries meet at In- 
dianapolis. The field of the young church being within the limits of the Indiana 
Conference, a few members of Wesley Chapel purchased a lot on the corner of Nor- 
wood and South Illinois streets, upon which a small, rude tabernacle was placed, in 
July, 1866. In this humble structure Mr. Tarkington held services fortnightly; 
until the cold weather forced him to abandon the place. But " where there is a 
will there is a way; " and accordingly we find the young congregation worshiping 
for the next three months in an unoccupied grocery building on Madison avenue. 
While thus situated, in February, 1867, a society, comprised of twelve members, 
was organized ; a series of meetings followed ; and a number of additions to the 


church, on probation, were made. A Sabbath-School was organized on the 1st of 
February, 1867. 

On a lot, purchased for the purpose by members of Wesley Chapel, an unpre- 
tending place of worship for the congregation — twenty-four by forty feet — was 
meanwhile being erected. This was completed in March, 1867, and was occupied 
by the congregation during the same month. 

In September, 1867, the Indiana Conference made an appropriation of $650, 
from the missionary funds, for the partial support of a pastor for the young church, 
and Rev. L M. Walters was appointed to the charge. On entering upon his duties 
he found a congregation consisting of but twenty-one available members, and five 
probationers. The first fruit of his pastorate was a revival of religion, during 
the following winter, resulting in the addition of nearly one hundred members. 
The church now began to flourish ; the house was insufiicient; an addition was 
built in the summer of 1868, and this, too, was shortly filled. The increase of 
membership was so considerable, that the winter of 1868, found the building still 
inadequate. But the members were more abundant in exemplary zeal, than in 
this world's goods ; and were unable to build the sort of an edifice their numbers 
and needs required. External aid was sought to no purpose; the time was un- 
propitious ; the wealthier Methodist Churches of the city, were too much occupied 
with their own enterprises, to aid the young and struggling church. Its prospects 
were anything but promising. Here was a house full of poor members, unable to 
support the present establishment ; no space for the necessary increase of accom- 
modations ; and no means at hand, or prospect of aid from without, to obtain a 
suitable site and erect a suitable building. 

So discouraging was the prospect, that many of the members had about come 
to the conclusion to disunite with the church, and join some other society, better 
established, and free from unusual financial difiSculties, as a means of ridding them- 
selves of present and prospective church burdens. 

The pastor, seeing that the church must take prompt and energetic action, if 
it was not to perish untimely, opened a vigorous campaign against the discouraging 
forces, and, over considerable opposition, effected the purchase of the Indian- 
apolis Mission Sunday-School property, on the corner of Madison avenue and 
Union street. The price was $5,000; for the payment of which a period of five 
years was allowed. This gave the church a substantial brick building, forty by 
seventy-two feet; which they have occupied ever since June, 1869. The congrega- 
tion, in addition to the purchase money, have expended $1,500 on repairs and im- 

By an advantageous sale of their church property, on South Illinois street, for 
$4,000, the congregation have almost liquidated the debt incurred in obtaining 
their present church property, and the remainder of the debt will not mature for 
four years. The church, meanwhile, has flourished and become stronger ; and, at 
length, after a succession of financial embarrassments, and a steady progress from 
a small beginning, Ames Church, in the fourth year of its age, is a fixed and flour- 
ishing society. Within the past three years there has been expended for the sup- 
port of the church an aggregate of about $8,750; of which about $7,000 was raised 
within the church. 

The membership now numbers about two hundred persons. The audience room 
will seat comfortably about three hundred ; and if the church will not compare 
in splendor or magnitude with the older and more pretentious ones in this city, 


it can challenge any of them to show better results in proportion to the means of 
each. The Sabbath-School has about two hundred and twenty-five members. The 
present pastor is Kev. Joseph W. Asbury. 

The church is under many obligations to Wesley Chapel for aid and encourage- 
ment in its darkest days. To the Rev. Mr. Walters praise is due for his unwearying 
patience and disinterested labors in an untempting field, to rescue the church 
from its manifold diiSculties, and establish it on a firm and enduring basis, when 
so many embarrassments and discouragements combined against the struggling 


Location : North-east corner of Market and East streets. 

At a meeting of the friends of a missionary movement for the planting of a 
Methodist church in the eastern part of Indianapolis, held on the 10th September, 
1868, the following memorial was adopted: 

" We, the undersigned, members of the M. E. Church, residing in and near 
Indianapolis, respectfully represent : 

1. That there is a large field ripe for the barest, embracing the eastern part 
of our city, occupied by our denomination, and which only req^uires vigorous culti- 
vation to produce much fruit for our beloved Methodism. 

2 That we hereby pledge ourselves to sustain to the best of our ability, a 
missionary movement for the occupancy of this inviting field, both by personal 
identification with such organization, and the contribution of our means. 

3. That we promise to pay the amount set opposite our names, to sustain a 
missionary appointed for this work. 

4. That we believe the sum of $5,000 can be raised to build a house of wor- 
ship, and we pledge ourselves to go forward at once in the enterprise of building a 
church for the use of such congregation." 

The memorial asked for the appointment to this work of a minister of " zeal and 
experience," and was signed by Willis D. Wright, Charles W. Brouse, W. H. 
McLaughlin, Arthur L. Wright, William Moffitt, John H. Frazier, John Berry- 
man, J. W. Hossman, Charles Potts, J. M. W. Langsdale, James Ballenger, W. J. 
West, W. Q. Smith and S. T. Beck, J. M. W. Langsdale, Wm. H. McLaughlin 
and Arthur L. Wright were appointed a committee to lay the memorial before 
Bishop D. W. Clark, then presiding over the Southeastern Indiana Conference, 
in session at Franklin, Indiana. 

In compliance with the request of the memorialists, the Rev. W. H. Menden- 
hall, who had served Robert's Chapel as its pastor, was appointed to the new 

The first quarterly meeting was held on the 19th and 20th of September, 1868 ; 
at the close of which one hundred members from Roberts' Chapel had united with 
the mission. The first quarterly conference was organized September 22d, 1868. 

A suitable site for a house of worship was at once obtained ; the building was 
rapidly erected, and on the 2 1st February, 1869, it was dedicated by Bishop D. W. 

Rev. M. H. Mendenhall was reappointed by Bishop Simpson at the session of 
the South-eastern Indiana Conference, September, 1869, and served the charge until 
April, 1870, when he was transferred to the North Indiana Conference, and Rev. 
J. W. Locke, D. D., was appointed to fill the vacancy until the close of the Confer- 


ence year. The present pastor, the Kev. Thos. H. Lynch, was appointed to the 
charge September 7th, 1870. 

Highly successful revival services have been held, in this church from time to 
time, and there is not in the city a congregation that has made better progress, con- 
sidering its age. 

The entire cost of the building, including site, furniture, and other appoint- 
ments, has been about $20,000. The building is pleasantly located, is inviting 
in appearance without and within, and has seating accommodations for about six 
hundred persons. 

The church membership numbers about two hundred and forty; that of the 
Sabbath-School, over three hundred. 


Location: Third street, between Illinois and Tennessee. 

In July, 1866, a class was organized, with Jesse Jones as leader, and a mem- 
bership of thirty-six persons, to meet at the resit^ence of Mr. Ellison Brown. 

This class was the origin ot^Third Street M. E. Church. 

In the spring of 1866, a site was purchased on Third street, and the erection 
of a building commenced, under the direction of the Ames Institute, intended for 
a mission church. Not receiving the necessarry support, the young men of the 
institute were unable to finish the building; and Jesse Jones, a member of Strange 
Chapel, completed the work at his own expense. 

At the stssion of the N orth- Western Indiana Conference, in September, of that 
year, the church was placed under the control of Rev. J. W. Green, of Strange 

Soon after this, the Rev. A. L. Watkins, was made associate pastor with Mr. 
Oreen, and labored successfully in the new church for four months, when his fail- 
ing health compelled him to abandon his work. The services of R. N. McKaig, a 
student of Asbury University, were secured for the remainder of the conference 

The church building was dedicated September 8th, 1867, by the Rev. Thomas 
Bowman, D. D. 

At the session of the North- Western Indiana Conference, September, 1867, 
Third Street Church was made an independent charge, and Rev. S. J. Kahler was 
appointed pastor. 

The boundaries of the Indiana Conferences having been changed by the Gen- 
-eral Conference of 1868, Third Street Church fell within the limits of the South- 
East Indiana Conference,. 

Rev. S. C. Noble was the pastor during 1868-9; and Rev. L. M. Wells, during 
1869 '70. The Rev. Frost Craft, the present pastor, was appointed in 1870. 

The church edifice is a neat frame building, and its auditorium has seating ca- 
pacity for about three hundred and fifty persons. 

The membership numbers one hundred and thirty ; the Sabbath-School, about 
one hundred and twenty-five. 

The value of the building and site is about $6,000. 


Location : Corner of New Jersey and New York streets. 

This congregation was organized in the year 1849, with fifteen members. 


The first louse of worship was built in 1850, on Ohio street, between New 
Jersey and East streets. The first Trustees were: Wm. Hannaman, Henry Tute- 
wiler, John Koeper, Frederick Truxess, John B. Stumph. 

The growth of the society rendered a more capacious house of worship a neces- 
sity, and on the 19th of December, 18&8, the site of the present church building, 
corner of New York and New Jersey streets, was purchased. The erection of the 
building was much delayed by the want of the requisite means. The basement 
was occupied on Christmas day, 1869; and through the persistent energy of the 
pastor, the Rev. G. Trefz, and the liberality of his congregation, the building was 
finally completed. The dedicatory exercises took place on the 17th day of April, 
1871. Sermons were preached on the day of dedication by Professor Loebenstein, 
of Berea College, Ohio; Dr. William Nast, and the Rev. H. Liebhart. 

The building is fifty-three by soventy-six feet in sixe, outside dimensions. The 
style of architecture is Byzantine, and the material of the structure is stone and 
brick. From the middle of the roof rises a tower, fifteen feet square, terminating 
in a spire one hundred and fifty-eight feet in hight. The interior is furnished in 
artistic style, and is neatly and comfortably appointed. The room is lighted by 
twelve Gothic windows, having ground glass centers and colored side pieces. The 
seating capacity, including galleries, is seven hundred and fifty, although a thou- 
sand could probably gain admittance. The room is lighted at night by a ceiling 
gas reflector, seven feet and a half in diameter, containing forty-two burners — the 
largest single reflector in the city. 

The pastors have been : Rev. John Muth, 1849 to 1850; Rev. John H. Barth, 
1850 to 1852; Rev. John H. Bahrenberg, 1852 to 1854; Rev. G. A. Braunig, 1854 
to 1855; Rev. John Bier, 1855 to 1856; Rev. John H. Luckemeyer, 1856 to 1857; 
Rev. Max Hohans, 1857 to 1858; Rev. G. F. Miller, 1858 to 1850; Rev. John Hop- 
pen (who died in 1861, and was one of the most zealous and effective ministers in 
the conference), 1860 to 1861; Rev. John Schneider, 1861 to 1862; Rev. William 
Ahrens, 1862 to 1863; Rev. G. A. Braunig, 1863 to 1864; Rev. A. Loebenstein, 
1864 to 1866; Rev. H. G. Lich, 1866 to 1868; Rev. G. Trefz, the present pastor, 
who entered upon his duties in 1868. 

The present Trustees are : Frederick Thorns, Peter Goth, Frederick Rapp, 
George Albright, Joseph Long, George Hereth, Gustave Stark. 

The present membership numbers two hundred and twenty-five; the Sabbath- 
School has twenty-four officers and teachci-s, and two hundred pupils. 

The cost of the building and site was ;g27,500; ani the society i.'* virtually ouS 
of debt. 


Location : Corner of Massachusetts avenue and Oak street. 

This society was organized in the summer of 1870, under the pastoral direction 
of Rev. B, F; Morgan, with about eighty members. 

The Rev. Amos Hanway, the present pastor, was appointed by Bishop Scott, in 
September, 1870. 

The number of communicants is now about one hundred and eighty ; the Sab- 
bath-School has about two hundred and fifteen members, and is in a growing eondi- 

The church site and building are worth about $4,000. 



Location : On Broadway street, between Christian Avenue and Cherry street. 

This society was organized August 6th, 1866, by Bishop Campbell ; and began 
with only eight members. In the same year the conference appointed Elder W. S. 
Lankford a missionary for the north-eastern portion of the city. He began his 
labors by holding religious services at a private house in that quarter of the city. 
Here he organized a Sabbath-School. Steps were early taken to procure a site and 
erect upon it a house of worship for the society. By the aid of a small contribution 
from the conference, and larger ones from individual friends of the enterprise, the 
above site was secured, upon which a neat frame building — thirty-six by forty-four 
feet, having a seating capacity for about two hundred and fifty persons, and credit- 
able in its style and appointments — was promptly erected. By Christmas, 1866, 
the society had occupied their new building. 

Elder Lankford was succeeded in the pastorate, at the expiration of one year, 
by Elder Henry Brown, who remained one year. The latter's successor was the 
Rev. Henry DePugh, the present pastor, now in his third year. 

The society has shown great energy from the first, and has had a correspond- 
ing prosperity. Its membership now numbers about two hundred, and the Sab- 
bath-School has one hundred and twenty-five members. The value of the property 
is about $5,000. 


Location-: Vermont street, between Missouri and West streets. 

This society was organized in 1836. The colored population of the city at that 
time, and for many years following, was inconsiderable in number and limited in 
means. Consequently the society prospered indiflFerently, and contended against 
many difficulties. For several years the religious services were held in such 
buildings as the means of the society enabled them to secure — in private houses, 
etc. Finally a site was secured on West Georgia street, between Mississippi and 
the Canal, to which was removed the discarded building formerly used by the con- 
gregation of Christ Church. In this building the society worshiped for several 
years; when it was destroyed by fire, July 9th, 1862. 

Several years later the property on Georgia street was sold, for which $3,000 
was realized. 

The society secured their present church site, on Vermont street, between 
Missouri and West, and energetically proceeded to erect thereon a far more costly 
and pretentious building than the one that the fire had destroyed. Pending its 
erection and dedication the congregation worshipped in the old Strange Chapel, 
on Noi-th Tennessee Street. 

Though their new house of worship is not yet completed, the audience room 
has for some time been occupied by the congregation. To complete it and extin- 
guish the debt of the society will require several thousand dollars. 

It is quite a neat and commodious structure, and will seat from six hundred to 
eight hundred persons. The property includes a parsonage, adjacent to the church 
building. When the improvements shall have been completed, the value of the 
property will be from $25,000 to $30,000. 

Owing to the deficiency of the records of this church, and of the other sources 
of information that have been accessible for the present purpose, it has not been 

liiMimJU-L)' HA r. 




practicable to obtain a list of the past pastors of this society. The present pas- 
tor is Eev. W. C. Trevan ; and particularly prominent, energetic and efficient among 
his predecessors, was the Rev. W. E. Kevels — a brother of Ex-Senator Revels, of 
Mississippi — who served the congregation from 1861 to 1865. 

The present church membership is about four hundred; that of the Sabbath- 
School, two hundred. 

Summary — Total membership of the Methodist Denomination in Indianapolis, 
three thousand two hundred and nineteen ; total Sabbath-School membership, two 
thousand eight hundred and six; total value of church property, $391,500. 



The year 1836 may be given as the date of the initiatory steps in the forma- 
tion of the first Roman Catholic society in this city. Prior to that date several 
Catholic families had settled in this city and in its vicinity, who were visittd onca 
or twice a year by priests from a distance. The earliest of these visitors was 
the Rev. Father Francois, who was living and laboring among the Indians near 
Logansport, Indiana. Another pioneer minister of the church was the Rev. Theo- 
dore Badin, the first priest ordained in the United States, who held religious servi- 
ces a few times in Indianapolis and Shelbyville, Indiana. There being no house 
of worship dedicated to the Roman Catholic faith anywhere in this section, the 
visiting clergymen were content to say mass at the residences of Joseph Laux, 
Michael Shea, John O'Connor, and of other of the early Catholic settlers. 

Some time during the year 1837, the Rt. Rev. Simon Gabriel Brute, appointed 
the first Bishop of Vincennes in 1834, assigned the Rev. Vincent Bacquelin to the 
charge of the Catholic settlement near Shelbyville, Indiana. The latter laid the 
foundation of St. Vincent's Church, which was soon after completed. Once or 
twice each month he visited the infant Catholic society here; who, for want of a 
church building of their own, now rented a small room which they used for church 
purposes for nearly three years. 

In 184C a lot was purchased beyond the canal, opposite to the old "Carlisle 
House, ' on which a small frame church called The Holy Cross Church was erected. 
This building is still standing, but is now used for trade purposes. The pastor, 
Father Bacquelin, a zealous and earnest evangelist, continued to attend alternately 
St. Vincent's, Shelby county, and the Holy Cross, Indianapolis, until August, 
1846, in which year he was accidentally killed, and was buried at St. Vincent's. 
For several months after his death, the church was served by Rev John McDer- 
mott; who was succeeded by Rev. Patrick J. R. Murphy, who, in March, 1848, was 
located elsewhere; and the charge was then given to Rev. John Gueguen. At the 
time of the accession of the last named minister to the pastorate, the congregation 
had outgrown the capacity of their church, and steps were taken for the erection of 
a suitable edifice. Accordingly work was commenced on the present St. John's 
Church, which was completed in 1850. Father Gueguen officiated here until the 
year 1853, and was sueceded by Rev. Daniel Maloney, who, in 1857, enlarged the 
church building. 

In the same year the Roman Catholic Germans, whose minister was Rev. L. 
Brandt of Madison, commenced building the present St. Mary's Church, on Mary- 
land street, near Delaware. The enlargement of St. John's church had scarcely 


been completed when Father Maloney was removed, and Rev. Aug. Bessoniea 
appointed pastor. The appointment was made in October, 1857, and on the 5th 
November following Eev. Mr. Bessonies began the pastoral labors which he has 
ever since performed with unremitting zeal, and in a most exemplary Christian 

In January, 1858, the German Roman Catholic congregation were assigned a 
settled pastor, in the person of Rev. J. Seigrist, who officiated a short time in St. 
John's, until, by extraordinary effort, the erection of the German church was so 
far advanced as to permit its use for Divine service on August 15th of that year. 
In 1858 the members of St. John's congregation began building a Young Ladies' 
Academy on the corner of Georgia and Tennessee streets, which was completed 
and opened by the Sisters of Providence in 1859, and was enlarged in 1861. Dur- 
ing the four years succeeding 1859, several purchases of real estate were made, and 
a number of buildings for church uses erected ; among which may be specified the 
Catholic Cemetery, in 1862, and St. John's Pastoral Residence, in 1863. In 1862 
Rev. J. M. Villars was appointed assistant pastor of St. John's, and was succeeded 
by R. F. Gouesse. 

In 1865 St. Peter's Church, at the end of Virginia avenue, was built by the 
Rev. Aug. Bessonies, and was opened for Divine service on the 29th of June, 
(Feast of St. Peter). Rev. Joseph Petit was the first pastor. In 1865 the large 
school building for boys adjoining St. John's Pastoral residence, was begun. It 
was completed in 1866; and in 1867 the Brothers of the Sacred Heart took charge 
of it and began their educational labors. At the same time the German Catholics 
built school houses for boys and girls, and in 1866 the Sisters of St. Francis, from 
Oldonberg, opened their academy. 

The house of worship of St. John's Church, notwithstanding the formation of 
the two new parishes — St. Mary's and St. Peter's — was now too small; and the 
erection of a splendid cathedral, fronting on Tennessee street, between Maryland 
and Georgia streets, was commenced in 1867. The foundation, which cost over 
$7,000, having been finished, on July 21, 1862, the corner stone was laid by the Et. 
Rev. Maurice de St. Palais, Bishop of Vincennes, in the presence of the Governor 
and officers of State, the members of the City Council, and an immense concourse 
of the inhabitants of the city and neighborhood, such as was never before gathered 
together in the city on any similar occasion. 

The general style of the cathedral is the French Gothic of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and the front will be very imposing and elegant. The extreme dimensions 
of the building are seventy-five by two hundred two and a-half feet. The center 
nave is fifty feet wide and fifty-three feet high at the highest point. The transept 
is to be fifty by sixty-seven feet. The three principal entrances are on the west, 
the center one being double. Also north and south side entrances. 

The sanctuary is forty by thirty and a-half feet, with the vestry rooms on 
either side. There will be a chapel for the baptismal font on the north side of the 
church, near the entrance; and four smaller chapels on each side of the nave, for 
side altars and confessionals. The pulpit will be at the south-west corner pillar 
of the transept. 

The elevation comprises two towers surmounted by spires, similar in general 
outline and finish, and two hundred feet high. The three front portals are trim- 
med with cut stone, One leads through each tower. The central portal is thirty- 
two feet in height and eighteen feet in width. The others are sixteen feet in 
height and eight in width. 


Above the chancel, there is a large rose window, eighteen feet in diameter, filled 
with cut stone tracery. The glass will be stained and filled with emblematic fig- 

There will be a gallery for an organ and choir, thirty feet in width, and ex- 
tending across the front of the church;' but no other gallery. 

The foundation of stone is very heavy; and the window and doorways will be 
set in cut stone. Two large furnace and coal cellars underneath are arched, and 
heating pipes will be enclosed with iron cylinders, so that the building will be fire 

On the occasion of the laying of the corner stone, the sermon was preached by 
the Jesuit Father Smarius. 

The Eev. Father P, R. Fitzpatrick, who succeeded Father Gouesse, in 1866, 
was appointed to make the requisite collections for con'inuing the work of erect- 
ing the edifice, and Rev. D. McMullen was sent here to assist in the parochial du- 
ties and to attend to adjoining missions. In 1868, the pastor, Rev. Aug. Bessonies, 
took charge of the building, and, with Father Fitzpatrick, collected funds to carry 
on the work. In June, 1869, the latter was as^signed to St. Peters Church to take 
the place of Rev. Father Petit, who visited Europe. In October, 1869, Father 
Brassart was sent to assist at St John's, until January 1st, 1870, when Rev. Father 
Petit returned and was located at St. John's until the Bishop's return from Rome. 
St. John's new church, better known as the Cathedral, in expectation that the 
Bishop of Vincennes, will remove to this city, or that a new See will be created 
at Indianapolis, is now completed as to the exterior; and work on the interior is 
steadily progressing. The interior finish and appointments will be in keeping, 
with the artistic elegance of the general design. The cost of the completed edifice 
will be about $120,000. 

In 1870, Father P. R. Fitzpatrick, then pastor of St. Peter's church, finding 
that building to small to accommodate his fast increasing congregation, laid the- 
corner stone of a new church building, called St. Patrick's. It is a fine brick 
structure, and will be completed sometime in August, 1871, when the old church 
will be used for a school house by the Brothers of the Sacred Heart, for the instruc-- 
tion of the boys of the congregation, 

St. John's Home for Invalids, whose character and purposes are sufficiently 
indicated by its name — is located on Maryland street, between Illinois and Ten- 
nessee, and is under the charge and administration of the Sisters of Providence.. 
In place of this institution, the erection of a hospital on East street is proposed . 
— for which purpose an appropriate site has been secured. 

House of Refuge. — The erection of a buildiu;; for this purpose is proposed; 
and to this end suitable property has been donated to the Sisters of the Good. 
Shepherd, by the city of Indianapolis, and by S. A. Fletcher, Esq. 

The Catholic population of the city, including children, is estimated at ten 
thousand, distributed among the parishes as follows : 

St. John's, five thousand ; St. Mary's three thousand ; St. Peter's two thousand. . 

The pastors now in charge are: St. John's, — Rev. Aug Bessonies, and Rev., 
Joseph Petit; St. Peters, — Rev. P. R. Fitzpatrick; St. Mary's, — Rev. S. Siegrist. 

Summary. — Total number of communicants of the Catholic Denomination ins 
Indianapolis, about four thousand ; total Sabbath-School membership, about one<- 
thousand; total value of church property, $300,000. 



The Hebrew population of Indianapolis nunabers about five hundred. The 
Judaic faith has one church society in this city; whose house of worship is lo- 
cated on the ffouth side of Market street, between New Jersey and East streets. 
Prior to 1833, the families of Moses Woolf and Alexander Franco, constituted the 
entire Hebrew population of this city. With these for a nucleus, the number slowly 
increased; and in the winter of 1855, a congregation was organized, who purchased 
three and a-half acres near the city and dedicated it to the uses of a cemetery. 
The constitution and by laws of the society give the following list of officers and 
members at the date of organization : 

Mr. Moses Woolf, President; Dr. J. M. Rosenthal, Vice President; Mr. Max 
■Glaser, Treasurer; Mi\ Ad. Dessar, Secretary; Mr. Ad. Rosenthal, Mr. Max Dern- 
ham, Mr. Mr. Julius Glaser, Trustees; Mr. Peter Harmon, Mr. Josesph B. Dessar, 
Mr. Selig Weil, Mr. Jacob Maas, Mr. S. ISloman, Mr. H. Bamberger, Mr. Simon 
Wolff, Mr. J. M- Altraan, Mr. H. A. Jessel, Mr. F. Ullman, Dr. N. Knepfier, Mr. 
Fred. Knefler, Mr. Henry Kittner, Mr. Moses Heller, (Knightstown,) Mr. H. Ro- 
senthal, (Kokomo.) 

Of these Mr. Woolf and four others are the only members still connected with 
the society. No minister was engaged until the autumn of 1856; when a small 
room in Blake's Row was rented and fitted up for religious services, and the Rev. 
Mr. Berman was engaged as pastor during the holidays. 

The congregation increased very rapidly during the next few years, and in 
1858 was able to provide a more suitable place of worship, a hall in Judah's Block, 
which was dedicated by the Rev. Dr. Wise, of Cincinnati. During the same year 
the energetic congregation engaged the Rev. J. Wechsler, a minister of eminent 
zeal and ability, as pastor; who served until 1861. 

During the latter year the society was without a pastor and was on the brink 
of dissolution — the membership at one time having been reduced to thirteen. In 
1862, the society rallied, and made a forward movement by the election of Rev. M. 
Moses as pastor. Meanwhile, several innovations were made in the old-time cere- 
monies and tenets of the Jewish faith, and the worship was not a little modified 
and altered, in accordance with the spiritual progress of the age. Thus a life-giv- 
ing spirit and harmonious zeal were infused into the society. Among the changes 
made at this time was the organization and employment of a choir. Henceforth 
the society had a more rapid growth. 

Mr. Moses retired from the pastorate in 1863, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Dr. Kalish, a learned divine who rendered general satisfaction. The membership 
had now increased to over fifty, and the society began to seriously consider the ne- 
cessity of obtaining suitable church property of their own. To secure the success of 
this enterprise, the Rev. Mr. Wechsler, who was a second time chosen, persist- 
ently labored. To impress its importance upon his congregation he made nearly 
every sermon an occasion; and, finally, in 1864, subscriptions were started. Du- 
ring the same winter a sufficient sum was subscribed to authorize the purchase of a 
site on East Market street, and on the 7th day of December, 1865, the corner stone of 
the present temple was laid, with the impressive ceremonies of the Jewish Church, 
the Rev. Dr. Lilienthal, of Cincinnati, delivering the oration. But before the build- 
ing had been completed the subscriptions were exhausted, and work was suspended 
for over a year. The society was again in the midst of a crisis, from which the 

f.rospects of escape were anything but encouraging; and it was abuTidantly pre- 
dicted and readily believed, that the property would have to be sold to pay the in* 
cumbrances upon it. 

From this dilemma the liberality of a few members rescued the imperiled en* 
terprise. These went into the money market and raised th« requisite means for 
•completing the buildiag. 

The temple, erected and furnished at a cost of $22,000, was dedicated on 
the 30th of October, 1868. The dedicatory exercises were of an imposing charac- 
ter: embracing a large procession, an address by H. Bamberger, Ssq., the President 
of the congregation ; a dedicatory sermon by the Rev. Dr. Wise, and a banquet at 

In the autumn of 1S67, Mr. Wechsler was succeeded by the Eev. Morris 
Messing, the present pastor. 

The congregation has certainly shown great perseverance in the face of for^ 
midable discouragements ; and may be patdoned for no small degree of pride, in 
the building of so handsome a house of worship by a membership so small. 

The society now has fifty-eight members, and sustains a Saturday and Sunday- 
School of fifty-fouT pupils. 

The temple is in the Renaissance style of architecture, and is a tasteful structure 
in its exterior aspects and interior finish and appointments. It is built of brick, 
"with an elegant stone front. Its dimensions are forty by eighty feet; an-d the 
auditorium has seating capacity for about four hundred persons. 

The value of the building and site is about $27,000.. 



Location: Corner of Alabama and New York streets. 

This association was organised in January, 1837, by the Eev. Abraham Eeek; 
and was at that time composed of twenty members, among whom were the heads 
of the Brown, Haugh, Ohr, and other families, — well-known names in the city. 

Of the primary organization but seven members are now living; and these 
are still connected with the church. 

The founder, and first pastor, died in 1869, in Lancaster, Ohio. 

The first church building,— a one-story brick — was erected in 1838, on the 
•south-east corner of Meridian and Ohio streets^ 

The Rev. Mr. Reck resigned the charge in 1840, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. A. A. Timper, (now of Illinois,) who served until 1843. He was shortly af- 
terward succeeded by the Rev. Jacob Shearer, (since deceased,) who was the pas= 
tor until 1845. From 1845 to 1850, the Rev. A. H. Myers, (now of Ashland, Ohio,) 
was pastor of the congregation. His successor was the Rev. E. R. Guiney, whose 
labors were closed by his death, in 1853, and whose remains lie in Crown Hill 
Cemetery. The next paster was the Rev. J. A. Eunkleman, (now of Philadelphia,) 
whose ministry covered a period of over eight years; during which period the pres- 
ent church edifice was built, (completed and dedicated in 1861.) After the retire- 
ment of Mr. Kunkleman, in 1866, the congregation was served successively by the 
Rev. J. H. W. Stuckenberg, (now of Pittsburgh,) for about eighteen months; and 
Prof. H. L. Baugher, (of Gettysburg, Penn.,) for nearly a year. The present pas- 
tor, the Eev. W. W. Criley, accepted the charge in 1869. 


The society now numbers over twx) hundred members-; the Sabbath-Schooij 
one hundred and fifty. 

The church edifice is a neat brick building, having capacity for about three- 
hundred persons. Connected with the church is a parsonagfi; 

The value of the church property is about $18,000, and the society is entirely 
out of debt. 

at. Paul's gebman evan&eeical ltttheran.. 

liocation : Corner of East and Georgia streets. 

This association was organized on the 5th June, 1844, at a meeting held in 
the old seminary building. Pursuant to the action of that meeting, a site was pur- 
chased on Alabama street, between Washington and Louisiana streets; on which 
a brick church edifice was built, and dedicated on the llth day of May, 1845. The 
first pastor was the Rev. Theodore J. G. Kuntz; who was succeeded in 1851 by 
the Rev. Charles Frinke. Under the energetic and wise administration of the lat- 
ter pastor, the congregation increased to such an extent that the capacity of their 
church-building became insufficient, necessitating the erection of another and 
larger edifice. 

For this purpose the requisite site was secured at the corner of East and Geor- 
gia streets ; where a house of worship, fifty by one hundred and seventeen feet was- 
erected, and was dedicated November 3d, 1860, by the Rev. Dr. Wynek-en, Pres- 
ident of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod. 

The completion of this commodious structure was a- source of appropriate 
pride and satisfaction to the congregation that had labored so a-siduously and har- 
moniously to that end; and whose success, considering the difficulties to be over- 
come, had been as conspicuous as it had been speedily attained. 

On the same site, immediately in the rear of the church edifice, two buildings 
for school purposes were also erected by the congregation ; who, since their first 
organization, have sustained a parochial school, which is now conducted by three 
teachers: Messrs. Contselmann, A. Erome, and William Brueggemann. 

The Rev. Mr. Frinke, having accepted a call from Baltimore, Md., was suc- 
ceeded by the present pastor, the Rev. Chr. Hochstetter, called from Pittsburgh^ 
and installed in his present pastoral relation on the 24th of April, 1868. 

Under the pastoral charge of Mr. Hochstetter the church has had great pros- 
perity ; and the number of members, as well as of pupils in the parochial school, 
has largely increased. 

In 1869, a site for a parsonage was purchased on the corner of East and Ohio 
streets, and a neat residence was erected upon it. 

In 1870, ten acres of ground were purchased in the south-eastern suburb of 
the city, and dedicated to the purposes of a cemetery for the Lutheran population 
of Indianapolis. 

The number of voting members of this church is two hundred and ten. 

A capable choir and a large organ furnish a good quality of music at the re- 
ligious services of this society. 

The present number of pupils in the parochial school is two hundred and 

The governing authorities of the church for the current year, are as follow: 

Rev. Ckr. Hochstetter, Pastor j Frederick Ostermieer, William Cook, and Charles 

nELiGious. 245 

)3Prange, Trustees ; Louis Meier, and William Roeber, Elders ; Ernest Roeber, and 
•Charles Stiegman, Presbyters. 

The value of the property is about $50,000. 

zion's chuech. 

Location: Ohio street, between Meridian and Illinois. 

This society was founded in 1840. The first pastor was the Rbt. J. G. Kunz ; 
■who served the church until 1842. The church had no regular pastor until 1844, 
"when the Rev. J. F. Isensee was called to the charge. 

The first house of worship, located on the site of the present church building, 
'Was dedicated on the 18th of May, 1845. The society now took the name of the 
German Evangelical Zion's Church — the first German Protestant church organi- 
.\zation in Indianapolis. 

The Rev. Mr. Isensee retired from the pastorate in 1850 ; since which time the 
church has been served by the following pastors: 

The Rev. A. Rahn, 1«50-61 ; the Rev. Mr. Riley, 1851-52; the Rev. C. E. 
."Zobel, 1853-54; the Rev. A. E. Kuester, 1854-59. The Rev. H. Quinius, the 
present pastor, has served the congregation eince 1859. 

In 1860, the -society built a two story brick building, for parochial school pur- 

In 1866, was begun the erection of their present house of worship. The cor- 
ner-stone was laid on the let of July, of the same year ; and the building was ded- 
ilcated on the 5th of February, 1867. The church now has four hundred commu- 
nicants; the Sabbath-School two hundred pupils, and the parochial school one hun- 
dred and eighty. 

The church property is -valued at |30,000. 

Summary — Total membership of the Lutheran Denomination, in Indianapolis, 
-eight hundred and ten ; total Sabbath-School membership, three hundred and fifty,; 
•.total value of property, $98,000, 



Locations Kew Jersey street between Market and Ohio. 

This society was organized on the 19th day of June, 1855, with twenty-one 
^members, under the name of "Immanuel Church of the Evangelical Association of 

The first Trustees of the organijzation were, M. W. Steffey, Samuel Dickover, 
and George Klepfer. 

The society has had to contend against great financial embarrassments, but 
»the liberality and energy of the members have been superior to all emergencies. 

The present house of worship, located as abov-e stated, is a plain, substantial 
■brick building, in size thirty-six by sixty feet, of the value (with site) of about 
$9,000. The auditorium has seating capacity for: about three hun-dred persons. 
The society, has been served by the following pastors : 

The Revs. M. W. Steflfey, Henry Kramer, Matthew Hoehn, Michael Krueger, 
A. B. Shaefer, G. G. Platz, J. M. Gomer, John Fuchs, F. Wiethaup, ,1. Haufman, 
^-and Conrad Tcamer, the present pastor. 


On the 23d of August, 1870, the name of the society was changed tO' Saleiss 

The organization is in a prosperous condition : numbering one hundred and 
eighteen members •,. the greater portion of whom are of mature age and heads of 

The Sabbath-School is likewise in a flourishing state, and has about one hun.- 
dred and fifty members.. 



The organisation of the first Universalist Church Societj in this city, was as 
early as 1844. The society, owing to the limited number of adherents to the Unl- 
Yersal faith living here at that time, had but a feeble and brief existenee. 

In 1853 a church was organised under the name of the '* First Universalist 
Church of Indianapolis." Of this society, the Rev. B. F. Foster, was the first pas- 
tor, continuing in that relation until 1860. His successor, for something over ons 
year, was the Rev. W. C. Brooks, who was succeeded by the Rev. B. F. Foster, who 
was followed, in 1866, by the Rev. J. M. Austin, of New York. Mr. Austin re- 
mained about six months, at the expiration of which period, Mr. Foster, being at 
that time State Librarian, and a resident of Indianapolis, took temporal charge of 
the church, continuing in that relation until the close of his term as State Librarian, 
in 1869. Since then the church has been without any settled pastor, though occa- 
sional services have been held. 

An effort is being matured for the re-establishment of the church on a perma- 
nent basis. 

The society has never had a house of worship of its own, and its services 
have been held in the following places: Iii the old Seminai-y building ion the site- 
of the present University Park,) in the Court House, in Temperance Hall, in Ma.- 
sonic Hall, in College H^ll, and in the Hall of Wallace's block. 


The organization of this societj' grew out of a schism in the First Universal- 
ist church, in the year 1860; not on account of doctrinal differences, but of indi- 
vidual difierenees. 

About $3,500 was obtained by subscriptions ; of which sum $1,000 was sub- 
scribed by John Thomas, Esq., the leader of the movement. A site was secured, 
and a house ©f worship erected, on the corner of Michigan and Tennessee streets. 

By the foreclosure of a mortgage on the property, and by discharging an in- 
debtedness of nearly $5,000, Mr. Thomas afterward became the exclusive owner 

With the exception of the first twelve months after the dedication — during 
which tiB:e the Revs. C. E. "Woodbury and "W. W. Curry oflSciated as pastors— 
the building has not been used for religious purposes by the Universalist denomi- 
nation. It was occupied for some time by "Wesley Chapel (Methodist Episcopal) 
congregation, pending the completion of their new building, and afterwards by 
one wing of the Strange Chapel (Methodist Episcopal) congregation, called the 
Congregational Methodist Church, with the Rev. J. W. T,. McMullen as pastor... 


The latter organization has also disbanded ; and the premises are now unoccupied 
for religious uses. 


This denomination is represented in this city by but one church ; whose house 
of worship is located on the south-east corner of Ohio and New Jersey streets. 

This society was organized in 1850; and the present church building was 
erected in the year following. Until a few years since the organization had a steady 
growth in prosperity. During the late war the membership had increased to three 
hundred and fifty-three ; but the withdrawal by letter, at the close of the war, of a 
number of the soldiers who had attached themselves to this church while in camp 
here, reduced the membership to about two hundred. 

In the autumn of 1869 a schism occurred in this society, resulting in a new 
organization under the name of the Liberal United Brethren, and embracing a 
majority of the original body. The Liberals held possession of the church prop- 
erty, closing its doors against the other body. 

A resort to the courts resulted in placing the original society again in posses- 
sion of the property on the 31st August, 1870. 

The Liberals disbanded their organization, and its members generally united 
with the Methodist Episcopal denomination. 

The society was then re-organized, and now numbers forty-two active members- 
The Sabbath-School, which had been disbanded by reason of the dissensions, has 
also been re-organized, and now reckons about eighty members. 

The church building has capacity for about four hundred persons; and the 
property is valued at $5,000. 

The society has been served by the following pastors, beginning with the first 
in the order stated: Revs. J. D, Vardaman, two years; A. Long, one year; A. 
Davis, one year; M. Wright, one year; D. Stover, one year; C. W. Witt, four 
years ; P. S. Cook, two years ; William Nichols, one year; L. S. Chittenden, one year 
and a half ; J. S. Wall, six months; Thomas Evans, two years; A. Hanway, on 
year; B. F. Morgan, one year; and W. J. Pruner, the present pastor. 



On the 13th of February, 1868, pursuant to a call signed by George K. Perrin, 
J. B. Follett, and others, a small company met in this city to consider the feasi- 
bility of forming a Unitarian Society. The late Judge David McDonald presided 
at this meeting. It was decided to open correspondence with various Unitarian 
clergymen with a view to securing the services of a regular pastor ; and Morrison's 
Opera Hall was engaged as a place for holding the services of the society. In 
this hall on the 12th of April, 1868, were held the first public services of the so- 
ciety, Dr. G. W. Hosmer, of Antioch College, Ohio, officiating. Thereafter, until 
the following summer vacation, services were held regularly at this hall; after 
which the society met for a time at the office of Judge McDonald. 

On the 14th of May, 1868, the society was formally organized, and a presi- 
<dsnt, an executive committee and secretary were elected^ 



In October, 1868, the Rev. Henry Blanchard, by invitation delivered a sermon 
before the society in the Academy of Music ; and a call was at once extended to 
him to become the pastor of the society. He accepted, entered upon the work in 
January, 1869, and remained for about two years. Mr. Blanchard was the only 
regular pastor the society has had; and since his resignation the pulpit has been 
irregularly filled by ministers from other cities. 

The following is the Declaration of Belief adopted by the society : 

" Keverently recognizing our dependence on Almighty God, the one God and 
Father of us all, who is above all, and through all, and in us all, and believing in 
the usefulness of public worship; accepting Jesus of Nazareth, who taught the 
Absolute Religion of love of God and Man, as the world's greatest Teacher and 
Example, and desiring to imitate his life and study his words, we, the undersigned, 
agree to unite ourselves in a religious association to be known as the First Unita- 
rian Society of Indianapolis, Indiana." 

Mr. Blanchard was a popular pulpit orator and generally attracted large con- 
gregations. The largest attendance at his meetings was about twelve hundred ; 
the average, about five hundred. The greatest number of enrolled Sabbath-School 
pupils was about one hundred and twenty. 


The following table shows the Church and Sabbath-School membership of each 
Denomination in this city, and the value of the church property held by each 
Denomination, according to reports famished, in most instances, by the pastors of 
the several churches t 


Church Member- 


Value of 
Church Property 
































Eoman Catholic 






Christian .^ 



German Reformed 


German Evangelical Association.. 

United Brethren 

Universalistll , ... 



Friends ^ 



. 10,806 


'^'In the Summary on page 216, the number 2,008 should be 2,208. 

fin the Summary on page 220, the number 1,265 should be 1,435. 

J In the Summary on page 220, the amount $76,000 should be $82,000. 

g Includes the estimated cost, when completed, of buildings in process of election. 

II No reports. See page 246. 



YOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION. 

The Young Men's Christian Association, of Indianapolis, had its organized 
beginning on the 12th December, 1854, about five years after the first organization 
of this kind was founded, in London, England. The history of its work of benefi- 
cence and charity — like that of kindred organizations the world over — cannot be 
written to advantage, as in the case of a separate religious congregation, worship- 
ing at stated periods and in a particular edifice. The latter is a conspicuous object, 
and its work is done in ways and manners so regular and methodical as to be "seen 
of men." On the contrary, the real extent of the services performed by the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Indianapolis can be fully appreciated only by the 
workers in that organization, and by Omniscience. 

The number of persons who have been the recipients of its benefactions would 
amount to thousands. Its charities and ministrations are contracted or limited by 
no form of sectarianism. To serve God by benefiting man is its only faith — its 
comprehensive creed. While it has regular spheres of labor, it also claims the 
world for its field, and to the best of its means, aids the destitute and ministers lo 
the neglected, wherever found. Subordinate to the church in one sense, its effect 
is to extend the influence of the church to individuals, and into the waste places. 
For the benefit of the destitute and neglected classes the Association was particu- 
larly intended. 

Chief among the more comprehensive labors of the Association in this city, 
from time to time, have been the establishment and maintenance of mission Sunday- 
Schools, and religious services in destitute parts of the city — principally conducted 
by laymen. 

The quarters of the Young Men's Christian Association — until recently, loca- 
ted in Vinton's block, opposite the Post office — contain, beside the offices, a reading 
and library room, with current files of the principal religious periodicals, for perusal 
by citizens and strangers whenever they choose. The rooms are open every night 
and day for the accommodation of strangers, of both sexes, who may be inclined to 
call; and for the large number of applicants for assistance. Not the only recipi- 
ents of its charities are these applicants. The destitute and sick are invited, wher- 
ever they may be — all possible aid given them. 

Besides the prayer meetings held at the rooms every morning, there are some 
missions and other places of worship where regular religious services are held by 
the Association. During the summer season from six to fifteen open-air meetings 
are held under its auspices every Sunday. 

The amount of money expended in these charities, in the first year of the Asso- 
ciation, was $370.00; and fOr the year just closed, $4,681. The latter sum by no 
means embraces all the material charities of the Association. To this should be 
added a larger amount, in the shape of articles of clothing distributed by the Asso- 
ciation, and donated to them by citizens. Considering that its resources are entirely 
made up of voluntary offerings, it is seen by the above figures that the work and 
influence of the Association have greatly increased; and that it has now a firm 
hold in the consciences and upon the purses of the people. 

The following are names of its Presidents from the beginning : E. J. Baldwin, 
to March, 1856; Miles J. Fletcher, from March, 1856, to March, 1857 ; S. T. Bowen, 
from March, 1857, to March, 1858; J, W. Mclntire, from March, 1858, to March, 


1859; Benjamin Harrison, from March, 1859, to March, 1860; Theophilus Parvin, 
from March, 1860, to March, 1862; F. A. W.Davis, from March, 1862, 'to July, 
1865; W. P. Fishback, from July, 1865, to September, 1866; J. A. Kunkleman, 
from September to October, 1866; W. H. Hay, from October, 1866, to September, 
1868; W. A. Bell, from September, 1868 to September, 1869; John W. Eay, from 
September, 1869, to September, 1870; and the latter was succeeded by Wilson 
Morrow, the present President. 

From 1862 to 1865, by reason of the extraordinary demands of the war, the 
Association was comparatively neglected. Beginning with Mr. Fishback's admin- 
istration — peace having returned — the vigor of the Association renewed itself; and 
it has steadily grown in efficiency aad power ever since. 

The principal part of its early work was performed by volunteers, until early 
in 1868, when Rev. Wm. Armstrong was elected to the post of City Missionary and 
Superintendent of the work of the Association. In this capacity he zealously served 
until July, 1863, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. B. Brandt, the present incum- 
bent, an industrious, zealous and competent gentleman for the place. 

Lectures are occasionally given under the auspices of the association, by the 
more prominent public lecturers, serving the double purpose of giving the out- 
siders the benefit of the lectures, and the association the assistance of its portion of 
the net profits of the engagement. 

The membership of the association, at this time, numbers about three hundred 
and seventy-five. 

The above is, necessarily, the merest outline of the history of the association. 
As stated in the beginning of this sketch, the magnitude of the good it has done 
cannot be known by any one person in this world. Yet thousands of men and 
women can testify to benefits received through its ministrations. Hardly a church 
has been organized here since the existence of the Association but is more or less 
indebted to it. It is gratifying to know that the Association is in a more prosper- 
ous condition than ever before. It is now one of the permanent institutions of the 
city, with every promise of continually increasing usefulness. 

On the 1st of March, 1871, the Trustees purchased, for the occupancy and use 
of the Association, the building on the west side of North Illinois street, between 
Washington and Illinois streets, known as the Exchange Theatre. 

The purchase price was $24,000; which sum has nearly all been raised or sub- 
scribed. The building has been refitted and renovated, and the Association now 
has accommodations more commensurate with its needs. 

The officers for the current year are: Wilson Morrow, President; Ed. S. Field, 
Vice President ; Charles C. Dennis, Recording Secretary ; M. E. Barnard, Corres- 
ponding Secretary; Joseph McDowell, Treasurer; Rev. J. B. Brandt, Superin- 

Board of Trustees — "William S. Hubbard, President; E. C. Mayhew, Treasurer ; 
"Wm. C. Smock, Ingram Fletcher, Benj. Harrison, R. Sedgwick, John H. Ohr, Theo. 
P. Haughey. 

Executive Committee — Joseph McDowell, Chairman ; 0. C. Dennis, Secretary ; 
"Wilson Morrow, M. R. Barnard, "W. H. Hay, E. S. Field, Mrs. Anna Baggs, Mrs. 
Delitha B. Harvey, T. H. K. Enos. 

Standing Committees. — On Finance — D. H. Wiles, E. Sedgwick, Wm. 0. 

Library and Rooms — J. G. Kingsbury, D. H. Wiles, E. A. Cobb. 
Lectures and Sermons — W. A. Bell, M. R. Barnard, Joseph McDowell. 


Meetings— R. Frank Kennedy, C. C. Olin, C. P. Wilson. 

Temperance— John W. Ray, W. H. Hobbs, Mrs. Dr. Siddall. 

Hotels and Boarding Houses — E. A. Cobb, Edward Gilbei't, G. W. Alexander. 

Ladies' Working Committee— Mrs. Anna Wilson, Mrs. Martin Byrkit, Mrs. If. 
L. Jackson. 

Ladies' Missionary Committee — Mrs. Mary E. Carey, Mrs. Rebecca Newland, 
Mrs. Dr. James Braden. 

Missionary — W. S. Wooten, D. W. Coffin, Joseph Sutton. 

Statistics — John B. Brandt, Joseph R. Perry. 


This auxiliary of the Young Men's Christian Association was organized in 
October, 1870. Its principal sphere is to secure homes and employment for home- 
less women, and to visit and care for the indigent sick. It also has charge of a 
Sabbath-School for newsboys, boot-blacks, &c. The society has about one hundred 
members, of whom about thirty are on the active list. 


This Association, similar in its character and objects to the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Indianapolis, was organized on the 5th of January, 1870. 

An organization of this character, dependent entirely for support on the vol- 
untary aid of individuals, cannot, in the space of a little mare than one year, be- 
come great and powerful ; yet, considering its age, the Association has made good 

The present membership numbers about sixty. 

Each member pays a yearly contribution of one dollar into the treasury ; the 
payment of $20.00 secures a life membership. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held every Tuesday evening. 

It is proposed to open, at an early day, suitable rooms for the purposes of a 
library, reading rooms, and offices. 

The officers of the Association are r President, J. J. Wenn«r ; Vice Presi- 
dents (one from each of the German churches), Christian Schmidt, Second German 
Reformed Church; J. J. Wenner, German Methodist Church; Adam Helm, Zion's 
Church ; William Braun, First German Reformed Church ; Chas. Aldag, German 
Evangelical Church. 


This association is an auxiliary of the American Bible Society, and was organ- 
ized in 1839. The object of the Society is shown by its title, and is known by its 
works : The distribution of the Bible to the destitute who cannot afford to buy it, 
and in public places where its reading is neglected. The jurisdiction of the Society 
is the city of Indianapolis and Marion county. 

The funds of the Society are derived from the voluntary donations of the churches 
and citizens generally. During the war the Society gave an aggregate of fifty^ 
one thousand four hundred and ninety-one Bibles and Testaments to soldiers and 
prisoners of war stationed at this point. The total number gratuitously distributed 
since 1853, is fifty-eight thousand one hundred and sixty-nine. 


The affairs of tbe Society are directed by a president, a vice president, treac- 
lurer, secretary and board of managers. The present officers are : 

President, Mrs Jane M. Graydon ; Vice President, Mrs. John Wilkins; Treas- 
urer, Mrs. C. W. Brouee ; Secretary, Julia A. BassetL 



This institution is located on Delaware street, on the w-est side of the Court 
House square. 

A description of the institution necessitates a brief recital of the instrument- 
alities that led to its establishment. 

Previous to 1863, the only organization of physicians, in this city, was the 
Indianapolis Medical Association. This was as mach social as professional. Its 
meetings were held at the offices or residences of now one and then another mem- 
her; in fact, it was not an organization in the true sense of the term, nor was 
it highly useful to the cause of medical science. This association became extinct 
in the course of a few years, and was succeeded, in 1863, by another organization 
similar in name, but much more efficient and useful in point of fact. In 1864, 
the Marion County Association was formed. These two organizations were 
merged into the Indianapolis Academy >®f Medicine, a corporate body under the 
laws of the State, founded on the 3d of October, 1865. The Academy has ever 
since held stated meetings once each week, at which regular exercises, in the inte- 
rests of medical science, have been held — such as an ^say by some appointed mem- 
ber, discussions of pathological, physiological and thereapeutical questions, etc. 

The benefits of the organization to medical science and to the members — who 
thus interchange views and obtain the advantages of the peculiar experiences or 
observations of one another — are sufficiently obvious, without further explanation. 
The Academy was the parent of the Indiana Medical College. 

This institution was organized in May, 1869. The first movement looking to 
its establishment, was started by the Academy in February of that year. The 
original plan was, a State institution as a department of the Indiana State Univer- 
sity, and thus to obtain the aid of the State in behalf of the enterprise. The com- 
mittee of the Academy appointed to make an investigation into the feasibility 
of this plan, consisting of Drs. George W. Mears, John S. Bobbs and J. H. Wood- 
burn, reported unfavorably on the project. 

The report was eoneurred in by the Academy and a resolution adopted, that a 
•committee of •five be appointed to report upon the propriety of an efibrt, on the 
part of the profession in Indianapolis, for the establishment here of a medical col- 
lege ; and also to report a plan for that purpose. 

This committee, consisting of Drs. Waterman, Harvey, Todd, Kitchen and 
■Gaston, reported in favor of the enterprise, and submitting a plan of organization. 
The plan was accepted, and subsequently another committee was appointed to se- 
lect a faculty: the professors so selected to organize themselves into a college of 
medicine, to be known as "The Indiana Medical College;" to devise the means 
for its maintenance; secure suitable building accommodations; in short, to manage 
the business concerns, generally, of the institution. 

The first Faculty was composed as follows : 

*0f the establishjttcnt, nature aad brief exiateace of the ^'Central Medical College," mentioa 
£s made cm page .9L 


Ehijott&Brebe Ij-tti .Gin-.C 




MEDICAL, gggj 

J. S. Bobt)S, M. !>., Pres't., Principles and Practice of Surgery; Q. W. Mears, 
M. D., Obstetrics ; R. T. Brown, M. D., Chemistry and Toxicology ; R. N. Todd, 
M. D., Vice President, Principles and Practice of Medicine; Lv D. Waterman, M. D., 
Descriptive and Surgical Anatomy ; T. B. Harvey, M. D., Treasurer, Diseases of 
Women and Children ; W. B. Fletcher, M. D., Physiology ; F. S. Newcomer, M. 
D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; J. A. Comingor, M. D., Surgi- 
cal Pathology, Orthopedic and Clinical Surgery; C. E. Wright, M. D., Demon- 
strator of Anatomy. 

At a meeting on the 4th of May, 1869, Dr, Bobbs reported articles of associa- 
tion, which vrere approved and signed by the other members of the Faculty ; and, 
at the same meeting, Hons. Samuel E. Perkins and John D. Howland were elected 
members of the Board of Trustees, with the Faculty. 

The Academy of Medicine subscribed liberally to the support of the institu- 
tion, to make up the excess of expenses over the inadequate receipts from tuition, 
during the infancy of the college; and a number of the members bound themselves 
to pay annual subscriptions, for this purpose, for five years. 

In this way the Indianapolis Medical College was founded. The first session 
was opened in October, 1869. 

The College building is now complete. Its lecture rooms are adapted to the 
accommodation of over two hundred students. All the departments, especially those 
of Anatomy and Chemistry, ar3 well supplied with material for illustrations. A 
laboratory for students has been opened under the charge of Prof. Stevens, where 
superior facilities are provided for the practical teaching of Analjctic Medical 

The city hospital affords ample opportunities for the study of clinical medicine 
and surgery. Cases were presented to, and operations performed before, the class 
during the past winter, representing almost the entire field of Medicine and Sur- 

The Chemical department is now furnished with a full line of apparatus, which 
enables the teacher of this branch to give a thorough and illustrative course in 
chemistry and toxicology. 

Candidates for the degree of Doctor of Medicine, must have attended two full 
courses of lectures — the last one being in this college ; and have studied three years 
under the direction of a regularly educated physician. 

The present Faculty is composed of the following gentlemen : 

J. A. Comingor, M. D., President and Prof, of Principles and Practice of Sur- 
gery ; G. "W. Mears, M. D., Prof, of Obstetrics; Thad. M. Stevens, M. D., Professor 
of Chemistry and Toxicology; R. N. Todd, M. D., Professor of Principles and Practice 
of Medicine; L. D. Waterman, M. D., Prof, of Anatomy and Clinical Surgery; 
T. B. Harvey, M, D., Prof, of Diseases of Women and Children; W. B. Fletcher, 
M. D., Prof, of the Institutes of Medicine; Dugan Clarke, M. D., Prof. Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics ; J. M. Dunlap, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy. 


This is an institution in the building of the College, and is so named in honor 
of the late Dr. John S. Bobbs of this city, who, at his death, left a bequest of $2,000, 
to be employed by trustees named in his will, for the benefit of the poor of Indian- 
apolis. The Faculty of the College, of which Dr. Bobbs was President at the time 
of his death, suggested, as the means of most advantageously and most appropri- 


ately carrying out the intentions of the deceased, that the bequest beusfed in estab^- 
lishing and aiding in the maintenance of a Dispensary for the benefit of the poor- 
of the city. The plan was so appropriate that it was put into effect; and the re- 
sult is the Bobbs Dispensary, by means of which poor people in need of medical 
assistance, and unable to pay for it, receive the necessary treatment. Those inca- 
pable of attending the Dispensary are visited by some one of the corps of attend- 
ing physicians, composed of members of the College Faculty. 

In addition to the bequest of Dr. Bobbs, the county makes an annual appropri- 
ation of 5700, and the city a similar appropriation of $600, in support of the insti- 
tion. The bequest could in no other Way have been employed so beneficially and 
so appropriately. 

In April last the Kesident Physicisfn made the following report to the City 
Council : 

Whole number of patients treated 331 

Number of visits- made 468 

Number of post mortem examinations made 4 

Number vaccinated 29 

Number of surgical operations 37 

Number of prescriptions filled at Dispensary .w...... 88© 


Is located on the corner of Illinois and Georgia streets. 

This Institute was incorporated July 24th, 1869, with a capital stock of $150,- 
000.00, for the treatment of deformities of the spine and limbs, and all descriptions 
of surgical cases. For ten years prior to the time of its establishment in Indian- 
apolis, this enterprise had been carried on in Illinois, and it was then removed to 
this city because of its more central and more easly accessible loca,tion. 

The building will accommodate about three hundred patients, and is capable 
of affording treatment to about three thousand cases annually. The number of 
patients treated is generally equal to the greatest capacity of the institution. 

In respect of the capital invested, of the mechanical and other appliances for 
the treatment of patients, of capacities and facilities generally, this institution has 
no superior in the United States. Its patronage is correspondingly great in num- 
ber, and is distributed over a corresponding area of territory. 

Patients from twenty-five States have resorted to this institution for treatment. 
During the past year moi-e than ten thousand people have visited Indianapolis 
because of the Surgical Institute, paying to the various railroads over $100,000 in 
the way oi fares, and expending in the city, for board, merchandise, treatment, 
etc., nearly $400,000. 

The Institute gives employment to over fifty persons, including surgeons 
mechanics and nurses. The buildings, which were at first considered ample, have 
since proved to be too small to accommodate the demand. 

The institution is provided with the various kinds of baths : the Turkish, Rus- 
sian, electro-thermal, &c.; also, a large machine-shop, with a steam engine, and the 
requisite machinery for the manufact ire of the apparatus and appliances employed 
in the treatment of deformities. 

The superior facilities afforded by the institution are attested by the results. 
Numerous cases of the more hopeless descriptions, of children and adults afliicted 
■with deformities ordinarily considered incurable, have been successfully treated 
here. Paralysis of the young, crooked feet, legs, hands and arms, hare-lip, deform* 


ities of the face, tumors ; such are the chief phases of deformity and afiliction that- 
defying ordinary curative powers — find their way to this institution, and there are 
proven to he tractable and curable. 

Victims of accidents upon the railways, of explosions, runaways, or whatever 
cause, are frequently taken to the Institute for treatment, on account of its admitted 
superior facilities for surgical treatment. 

While the Institute is an individual enterprise, it is in no small sense a benev- 
olent institution. Patients who are able to pay, are required to do so; but many 
indigent suiferers are treated gratuitously. 

The object of the institution is the treatment of that large class of sufferers, that 
can obtain no benefit from the general practitioner of the healing art, because of 
his want of the necessary adjuncts in the way of surgical appliances. Here all 
the approved adjuncts are at hand. Mechanical contrivances adapted to^the varied 
types of deformity and essential to work cures, baths suited to the patient's case 
and constitution, here make corrigible what without them would be hopeless. And 
should the attending surgeon require the assistance of some peculiar apparatus not 
at hand, he has the requisite machinery and skilled workmen to make what is 

With such facilities and capacities, the Surgical Institute has very naturally 
great success in treating the afflicted. 


This city is the headquarters for the State of the following Temperance organ- 
izations: The Indiana State Temperance Alliance, Sons of Temperance, Good Temp- 
lars, Temple of Honor. 

The State Temperance Alliance was organized in this city December 11th, 1867. 
Its iir^t anual session was held here on the 26th February, 1868; the second, on 
the 2d and 3d February, 1869; the third, on the 2d and 3d February, 1870; the 
fourth, on the 1st and 2d February, 1871. 

The Alliance — as its name implies — is a union of all the advocates of total 
abstinence from the use of intoxicating liquors in the State. Its membership is, 
therefore, largely — but not exclusively — composed of members of the other Tem- 
perance organizations. The administration of the society is vested in a Board of 
Officers and a Board of Managers. The present Board of OflBcers is as follows : 

R. T. Brown, President, Indianapolis; N. W. Bruice, Vice President, Lafay- 
ette; C. Martindale, General Agent and Corresponding Secretary, Indianapolis; T. 
A. G-oodwin, Eecording Secretary, Indianapolis; J. B. Abbett, Treasure!*, Indiana- 

With reference to the Board of Managers, the State is divided into three 
divisions, each having a Board of ten members. 

Subordinate to the State Alliances, there are five " District " Alliances in the 
State, holding Conventions quarterly; also an Alliance in each county. 

Daring the past two years about one hundred thousand persons have become 
members of this society; and the sum of nearly ^40,000 has been raised and 
expended under the direction of its managers. 

Briefly stated, the object of the society is to discourage the use and sale of 
intoxicating liquors; to repress the traffic therein, by the enforcement of existing 
laws, and the speedy enactment of more stringent and prohibitory legislation in 


that regard. Prominent among the means employed, are the copious distribution 
of Temperance literature, the efforts of lecturers (of whom six are employed), &c. 

The city Alliance has about two thousand members. 

The " Temperance Alliance" is the name of the official organ of the State Tem- 
perance Alliance. It is published monthly in this city. Its editor is Eev. C. Mar- 
tindale. Corresponding Secretary of the organization. 


This is the most numerous and influential secret Temperance organization in 
the State The Grand Lodge meets in Indianapolis once in each year. 

In this city ttiere are eight lodges, with a membership of about eight hundred. 
Four of these Lodges meet at the "Good Templars' Hall," one at the "Temperance 
Alliance Hall," and the others in different parts of the city. There about three 
hundred Subordinate Lodges in the State, and about fifteen thousand members. 

The present officers of the Grand Lodge are: E. B. Reynolds, Esq., G. W. C. 
T.; Kev. S. B. Falkenburg, G. W. C; Miss A. M. Way, G. W. V. T.; Sylvester 
Johnson, G. W. S.; H. F. Underwood, G. W. T.; John W. Buttriss, G. W, M.; Miss 
Ella Kex, G. W. D. M ; Miss Sarah Reeves, G. W. L G.; M. W. Jackson, G. W. 
O. G. Rev. E. Gaskins, G. W. Chaplain. 

The number of members " in good standing," in this city, is about one thou- 


This order, considered as to North America, embraces in its organization 
National, Grand and Subordinate Divisions. 

The National Division of the Sons of Temperance was organized in the city of 
New York on the 17th June, 1844. At the present time the order has been carried 
into nearly all the States and Territories of the Union, and in all the British North 
American Provinces. During the twenty-seven years of its existence there have 
been admitted into the Order, in this country, more than two millions of members. 

The Indiana Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance, of which this city is 
the headquarters, was organized May 2d, 1846. In 1861, there were about four 
hundred and ninety Subordinate Divisions in the State. Since then the order, con- 
sidered as to this city and State, has retrograded in numbers, owing to the war and 
other causes, until now there are but forty Subordinate Divisions in the State. This 
decline appears to have been arrested ; and the membership in this city and State 
is reported to be again increasing steadily. 

The order in this city is represented by. Washington Division iVo. 1 ; which has 
a membership of about fifty. 


The Subordinate bodies of this order are called Temples; the State body ia 
called the Grand Temple. 

The order is represented in this city by one Temple, organized on the 27th 
March, 1870, and having about fifty members. 

The Grand Temple meets annually, on the fourth Monday of May ; it has no 
fixed place of meeting. 


The Grand Officers are: Joseph A. Williams, W. 0. T., New Albany; J. 
J. Young, W. V. T., Evansville; Will. A. Quigley, W. E., Madison. 

The Supreme Council, the head of the Order for North America and the Brit- 
ish Provinces, meets annually in July — this year at St. Louis, Mo. 

ST. Patrick's temperance benevolent society. 

This is the title of an Irish Temperance Society, organized in 1870. It now 
numbers about one hundred and fifty members. 


One of the prominent "objects of interest" is the United States Arsenal build- 
ing and grounds, situated on a commanding eminence east of the city, about half a 
mile north of Washington street, and one mile and a-half east of Circle Park. 

The location of an Arsenal at this city was authorized by act of Congress, 
early in the Rebellion. Its establishment here was in March, 1863, and, pending 
the erection of the present buildings, a rented building, on the corner of Delaware 
and Maryland sti^eets, was used for the purposes of the Arsenal, Captain William 
Y. Wiley O. S. K., in charge. Captain Wiley resigned his commission on the 14th 
of October, 1870. 

The site of the Arsenal was selected by General Buckingham, and work on 
the buildings was commenced in August, 1863. These, with the exception of some 
minor details, have been completed and occupied some years. 

Of these buildings the following is a brief description : 

Main building — Three stories high, one hundred and eighty-three feet long, 
and sixty-three feet wide; for the storage of arms, &c. 

Artillery Store-house — Two stories high, two hundred and one feet long, and 
fifty-two feet wide; for the storage of artillery, &c. 

Magazine — One story high, fifty feet long and thirty-four feet wide; for sto- 
ring powder. 

Office — One story high, forty-three feet long and twenty-two feet wide. 

Barracks — Two stories high, one thousand one hundred and five feet long and 
thirty-two feet wide; for the enlisted men. 

Two Sets Officers' Quarters — Two and a half stories high, eighty feet long and: 
forty feet wide. 

One Set of Officers' Quarters — One story and a half high, forty-seven feet 
long and twenty- eight feet wide. 

All of these buildings, with the exception of a portion of the officers' quarters, 
are built of stone and pressed brick, and are both substantial and imposing in ap- 

The grounds consist of seventy-six acres, and have great advantages in respect of 
beauty as well as of utility. Nature has given the site a commanding elevation, 
an undulating surface and numerous forest trees. To these art has added the beau- 
tifying auxiliaries of shrubbery, fine drives and walks, &c. A stream of running- 
water passes through one corner. About twenty-five acres are used for pasturage- 
and garden purposes; the rest for the buildings and surrounding grounds. 

The grounds and improvements — especially in summer and autumn-time — 
unite in forming one of the most picturesque and attractive localities in. the vicinity 
of the city. 


The several commandants from the beginning have been: William Y. Wiley, 
Captain and O. S. K. ; T. J. Treadwell, Captain of Ordnance; James M. Whit- 
temore, Captain of Ordnance; William H. Harris, Captain of Ordnance and Bre- 
vet Lieut. Colonel U. S. A.; and R. M. Hill, Captain of Ordnance and Brevet 
Major U. S. A., the present commandant. 


Location: On Louisiana street, between Illinois and Meridian streets. 

The eleven railways centering in this city, all converge in the Union Depot. 
'No equal convenience of a like character is found anywhere else in this country. 
The ends of the earth, so to speak, are here brought into connection under one 
■roof, and long transfers from one depot to another, involving expense, inconve- 
nience and delay, are avoided. 

The building, and so much of the tracks leading into it as lie within the city 
limits, belong to the Union Raihvay Company ; that is, to an association composed 
of the following railway companies: Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis; Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis; Bellefontaine; Indianapolis & Cincinnati; Indiana Central. 
The remaining six companies occupy the depot as tenants. 

The U?iion Railway Company was formed in 1850, and was at that time com- 
posed of the Madison & Indianapolis, Bellefountaine, and Terre Haute & Rich- 
mond Companies; of which John Brough, Oliver H. Smith and Chauncey Rose 
were, respectively, the Presidents. These three men, since famous in history, and 
of whom Mr. Rose alone is yet living, were thus the founders of the Union Depot. 

Gen. T. A. Morris, as Chief Engineer, superintended the erection of the build- 
ing, which was completed in 1853. At that time only the Madison, Bellefontaine, 
Terre Haute, and Peru Railways were in operation Soon after the Indianapolis 
& Cincinnati, and the Indiana Central Railways were admitted into the associa- 
tion, and therefore into the Depot. The Indianapolis «& Peru Company never had 
any interest in the Depot, and but a slight interest in the tracks, which it subse- 
quently sold to the association. The Lafayette & Indianapolis Company was admit- 
mitted, with tenant rights, in 1854; the Jeffersonville & Indianapolis Company in 
1855; The Cincinnati & Indianapolis Jun^-ition in 1858; the Indianapolis Bloom- 
ington & Western, and the Indianapolis & Vincennes in 1869 ; and the Indianapo- 
lis & St. Louis in 1870. 

Mr. William N. Jackson, Secretary and Treasurer of the Utiion Railway Com- 
pany, has had charge of the Union Depot ever since its opening in September, ^1853. 

The dimensions of the building are four hundred and twenty by two hundred 

The expansion of our railway system has greatly exceeded even the liberal 
anticipations of the projectors and founders of the Union Depot; and extensive as 
are its provisions, it has grown to be insufficient for the great demands upon it. 
Its available space is entirely taken up by the net- work of tracks of which it is the 
focus — presenting at times, during the day, a scene of apparent confusion very 
like a tangled skein, having neither beginning nor end to it, but which the care 
and efficiency of its management always unravels in good order. The number of 
trains daily arriving in, and departing from, the Union Depot now averages about 
seventy-six, many of them of great length. It is estimated that the annual num- 
ber of arrivals and departures of passengers at this depot amounts to two millions. 

•But, as before remaked, the demands upon the Depot have outgrown its ca- 


pacities, large as they are, and the want of room entails greatly increased respon- 
sibilities upon the managemeilt. 

The erection of a similar building and on a larger scale, now urgently 
demanded, must ere long become a necessity, if the great convenience of one pas- 
■senger depot for all our railway lines is to be continued. 

The cost of the site and improvements of the Union Depot property has been 
about $275,000, 


Location : Court House Square, on Washington Street, between Alabama and 
Delaware streets. 

As the present rude structure, that has for so many years sufficed for the pur- 
poses of the courts and offices of the county, is in process of gradual dismember- 
ment, to give way to a new and more becoming structure ; it is the latter, as it 
will be when completed, that is to be described here. The building will front on 
Washington street; the lineal extent of the front will be two hundred and seventy- 
five feet; the depth of the main building, one hundred and thirty feet; and that of 
the two wiags, one hundred and four feet each. The elevation of the main cornice 
will be eighty-one feet; and of the tower, two hundred feet. The building will 
consist of three stories, with a basement and a Mansard roof. Two minor towers, 
one at the extremity of each wing, will be about one hundred feet in hight. 

The style of architecture is the Renaitsance. The ground floor will contain the 
several county offices ; the second story, the courts, consultation, library, and wit- 
nesses' rooms ; the third (a mezzanine), the jury rooms, &c. The basement will be 
devoted to general utility purposes. Beneath the basement floor will be the heating 

There will be three main entrances to the building ; on the south, west and east. 
The court and other rooms will be spacious, and appropriate in the style of their 
■finish, with ceilings of great elevation. The whole building will be traversed by 
spacious halls and corridors, and will be supplied with an abundance of light. The 
ground plan is rectangular in form, and its entire linear extent is one thousand 
six hundred and eighty feet. The plan makes due provisions for a jail building, 
jail yard, and Sheriff's residence in the rear, and comprehends two entrance gates 
t)u each side — the two on the north side being designed for carriages. 

The plans are perfected, and the foundation is now rising. It is calculated 
that the building will be completed in about four years, at an estimated cost (^ 
about $500,000. 



Location: Two miles north-west of the city limits. 

The dates of the establishment, dedication, etc., of Crown-Hill Cemetery, with 
the names of the incorporators and managers, are stated in the general historical 
sketch, page 125. 

The total area of the grounds is three hundred and forty-nine acres. The location 
is the most beautiful and appropriate for the purpose in the vicinity of the city ; 
and its superiors anywhere are very few. It takes its name from that of the only 
considerable eminence near the city. The grounds would appear to have been 


especially ordained by nature for the purposes of a last resting place. They com- 
bine the attractions of a rural cemetry with convenience of distance from the city — 
yet not so near as to be in danger of encroachment from the extension of the city 
limits. A turnpike road is on the west line, and another on the east; while a street 
railway to the main entrance brings it within a half hour's ride of the city. The 
grounds are cut by small ravines into undulations of convenient size for sections; 
and the carriage-roads are so surveyed and laid out as to take advantage of this 
feature. The sections, therefore, vary in size and figure, and the winding roads aid 
in producing a picturesque effect. 

It has been the usage, in other principal cemeteries, to lay off the space in 
square or rectangular lots, without regard to the configurati&n of the ground; im- 
parting a certain monotony of aspect, which is obviated here by sections- of multi- 
form figures, and various size. This not only varies the aspect of the grounds, but 
brings about " that true fraternity and comity of interests between the rich and 
poor which should especially prevail in the city of the dead." 

Large and magnificent lots, valued at thousands of dollars, are joined by small 
plots which are within the means of the humblest citizen ; and the elaborate and 
costly monuments on the former add greatly to the beauty of the more unpreten- 
tious memorial stones on the latter. Every section contains its large lots, and 
small and cheap ones also; and each presents attractions for all classes, so that 
there can never be a separation of the Cemetery into divisions for different 

A section of the cemetery, on a beautiful and commanding knoll, is set apart 
for a resting place for the Union soldiers who died while on duty in this city, 
or whose remains have been brought here for interment. 

To the natural beauties of the grounds, in their picturesque undulations and 
abundance of forest trees, individual taste and affection have added (under judi- 
ciaus regulations by the managers), the ornaments of evergreens and flowering 
plants. Inclosures of lots have been forbidden, as marring the appearances of a 
cemetery, and tending, with the rust and decay of time, to disfigure rather than to 

The tendency, in so many cemeteries, to too great a profusion of shrubbery 
and shade trees, which excludes sunlight and makes the grounds dark and damp, 
is confined within judicious limits here. 

The Cemetery is a public instititution in whish every person who purchases a 
burial plot has as great an interest as any of the incorporators or managers — the 
second of the articles of incorporation being as follows: " The distinct and irrevoc- 
able principle on which this association is founded, and to remain forever (except 
as hereinafter allowed), is that the entire funds arising from the sale of burial lots 
and the proceeds of any investment of said funds, shall be and they are specifically 
dedicated to the purchase and improvement of the grounds for the Cemetery, and 
keeping them durably and permanently inclosed, and in perpetual repair through 
all future time, including all incidental expenses for approach to the Cemetery, and 
the proper management of the same ; and that no part of such funds shall, as divi- 
dends, profits, or in any manner whatever, inure to the corporators." 

The exception provided for in the foregoing article is the provision of the thir- 
teenth article, that -'after twenty-five years shall have expired from the organiza- 
tion of this corporation, by a vote of twenty-five of the corporators living in the 
county of Marion, Indiana, and after a fund has accumulated which will amply 
and permanently provide for the preservation, sustaining and ornamenting the 


Cemetery, sucTi alteration may be made, at any annual meeting, in the princi- 
ples and limitations of these articles as that out of the surplus funds of this Ceme- 
tery or association, contributions and appropriations may be made by the managers 
in aid of the poor of Indianapolis." 

The success of the enterprise will appear from a comparison with other well 
inown cemeteries. The receipts from the sale of lots in Greenwood Cemetery, 
during the first five years after it was opened, were $54,298.17, and the like receipts 
in Spring-Grove Cemetery, during the first twelve years, $128,892.4-9. The lilie re- 
ceipts in Crown Hill Cemetery, from the date of its dedication to Januai-y 1st, 1870 
(four years), were $172,060.70. 

The Crown Hill Street Railroad, built chiefly by the Cemetery Company, at a 
cost of $17,000, was permanently leased to, and is now operated by, the Street 
Railway Company, of Indianapolis. 

Crown Hill Cemetery has been under the immediate care of F. W. Chislett, as 
Superintendent, ever since its establishment; and its condition is the best evidence 
he could desire, of his eflBeieney. 

The number of interments to January 1st, 1871, aggregated two thousand one 

It contains many elegant monuments; and, whether in respect of natural 
beauty of site or added ornaments, ranks conspicuously among the cemeteries of 
the country. 


Location : On Kentucky Avenue, between West street and the river. 

Of the establishment of this Cemetery, and other principal facts of its history 
mention is made on page — of the historical sketch in the first part of this volume. 

It was, until the opening of Crown Hill Cemetery, the principal burial. ground 
of Indianapolis. 

The original tract consisted of but four acres. As need arose for more space, 
several additions were made by incorporated companies, the City having only a sort 
of general administrative supervision over these additions, and the expenses of 
of keeping the grounds in repair being borne by the proprietors and lot owners. 

The site is a favorable one, and the added ornaments, in the matter of shade 
trees, shrubbery, drives, etc., extensive; but since the opening of Crown Hill Cem- 
etery, the City Cemetery has fallen into comparative disuse. 

The names of many of the prominent citizens of by-gone days are recorded 
on the memorial stones here ; among others that of Ex-Governor Whitcomb. 

With the exception of about one hundred, the lots are all sold ; but less than 
half of them are occupied, as yet, by graves. 

There is no record of the number of interments in this cemetery. 

Of the additions to the cemetery, the principal are as follows : 

The Union Cemeiery, consisting of five acres, laid off in February, 1834, by 
Nicholas McCarty, Sr., Isaac Coe, James Blake, James M. Ray and John G. 

The next addition, consisting of seven and one-half acres, was laid off by E. J. 
Peck, Esq., President of the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railway Company, in 
February, 1852. 

In September, 1838, a Philadelphia company, under [the name of Siter, Price 
& Co., laid off a third addition, embracing two out-lots of the city, which was called 
iQiT&sn Lawn CemeUrju. 


The original grounds and the several additions above mentioned, are in one 
inclosure, and are collectively called The City Cemetery. The entire area of this- 
cemetery is about twenty-five acres. 


Location : Three miles south of the center of the city. 

The grounds consist of three acres. As its name implies, this cemetery is de- 
voted to the uses of a burial place for the Jewish population. 

It was established in 1856, and was the first property purchased by the Hebrew 
congregation of Indianapolis. 

" It handsomely laid off in lots, but a small proportion of which have been re- 
quired for interments, the Jewish population of the city being proper tionably 

The grounds are appropriately inclosed, and if not picturesque either by na- 
ture or art, are nevertheless maintained in a n^at and tasteful condition. 


Location : Two miles south of the city. 

The grounds of this cemetery consist of eighteen acres; of which five acres 
belong to the German (St. Mary's) congregation, and the remainder to the other 
Catholic congregations. The whole tract was purchased in the year 1860, by the- 
Rev. Aug. Bessonies, pastor of St. John's Church, at a cost of about $2,500. The 
value of the tract to-day would be about $4,000. 

The grounds have no striking natural aspects. The site is- sufl5ciently undu- 
lating for all essential purposes, and art has done much to ornament the spot, in the 
way of evergreens, shade trees, &c. The whole is neatly inclosed, and contains a. 
number of elegant monuments. 


On the first of May, 1870, the Trustees of St. Paul's German Evangelical 
Lutheran Church purchased ten acres of ground, situated a short distance south of 
the city, on the Three-notch road, between the Madison and Bluff roads, for a cem- 
etery for the members of that society. The grounds have been laid off in rectan- 
gular lots, generally forty by sixty feet. The number of interments at the date of 
this writing is five hundred and five. 


The pricipal law courts located here are : 

The United States Circuit and District Courts; the Supreme Court of In- 
diana; the Criminal Circuit, the Civil Circuit, and the Common Pleas Courts of 
Marion county, and the Superior Court. 


The United States District and Circuit Courts are held in: the Governmentr, 
■building, corner of Pennsylvania and Market streets,. 


District Court— The United States District Court, for the District of Indiana, 
was constituted by an act of Congress, approved March 3d, 1817. Under this act 
the District Court had Circuit Court jurisdiction, and the judge's salary was fixed 
at $1,000 a year, which has since been increased, from time to time, to $3,500 a 
year. The following have been judges of this Court: Benjamin Park, 1817 to 
1825; Jesse L. Holman, 1835 to 1842; Elisha M. Huntington, 1842 to 1863; Caleb 
B. Smith, 1863 to 1864; Albert S. White, March to September, 1864; David 
McDonald, December 13, 1864. to August, 1869; Walter Q. Gresham, the present 
incumbent, since 1869. 

Circuit Court.~~The judges of this Court have been John McLean, Noah H. 
Swayne, David Davis and Thomas H. Drummond. Judges McLean, Swayne and 
Davis presided in the Circuit Court by virtue of their offices as Associate Justices 
of the Supremo Court of the United States. Judge Drummond presides as Judge 
of the Circuit Court of the United States for the Seventh Judicial Circuit, com- 
posed of the States of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin; a recent law of Congress 
having created a circuit judge for each judicial circuit. 

District Attorneys— Thomsis Blake, 1817 to 1819; Alexander Meek, 1819 to 
1822; Charles Dewey, 1822 to 1829; Samuel Judah, 1829 to 1837; Tighlman A. 
Howard, 1837 to 1840; John Pettit, 1840 to 1842; Courtland Cashing, 1842 to 1844; 
Daniel Mace, 1844 to 1848; Lucien Barbour, 1848 to 1850; Hugh O'Neal, 1850 to 
1853; Benjamin M. Thomas, 1853 to 1856; Alvin P. Hovey, 1856 to 1858; Daniel 
W. Voorhees, 1858 to 1861; John Hanna, 1861 to 1866; Allred Kilgore, 1866 to 
1869; Thomas M. Browne, the present Attorney, from May term, 1869. 

Clerks of Circuit and District Courts— nenvj Hurst, from 1817 to 1835; Horace 
Bassett, from Nov. 30, 1835, to May 24, 1853; when John H. Rea was appointed 
District Clerk. Mr. Bassett continued Circuit Clerk to December 20, 1860, when 
Mr. Rea was appointed to that place. He continued to hold both offices to Septem- 
ber 15, 1863, when Watt. J. Smith was appointed District Clerk. These gentlemen 
remained in office until April 18, 1865, when J. D. Howland was appointed to both 

Marshals— John Vawter, 1817 to 1829; William Marshall, May 4, 1829, to 
1830; Gamaliel Taylor, May 7, 1830, to 1840; Jesse D. Bright, May 18, 1840, to 
1841; Robert Hanna, November 15, 1841, to 1845; Abel C. Pepper, November 17, 
1845, to 1849; Solomon Meredith, May 21, 1849, to 1853 ; John L. Robinson, May, 
1853, to 1860; Elisha G. English, 1860 to 1861; David G. Rose, April 1, 1861, to 
1865; Benjamin Spooner, the present Marshal, April 24, 1865. 

Branch Courts — During the present year, what may be termed Branches of the 
Circuit and District Courts have been established at New Albany and Evansville, by 
authority of a late act of Congress. 


Created by the Constitution, was organized by an act of the first General Assembly 
of the State, approved on the 23d December, 1816. The first term began on the 
6th May, 1817. Up to 1852 the Supreme bench consisted of but three Judges, 
who were appointed by the Governor. Since then there have been four Judges, 
elected every six years by the people. The following shows who have been Judges 
of the Supreme Court from the time of its establishment, and the period of service 
of each: 

The first bench consisted of James Scott, John Johnson and Jesse L. Holman. 
At the December term, 1817, Isaac Blackford was appointed successor of John 


Johnson, deceased. On the 28th January, 1831, Stephen C. Stevens and John T. 
McKinney succeeded Judges Scott and Holman. On the 30th May, 1836, Charles 
Dewey was appointed successor of Judge Stevens, resigned, and Jeremiah Sullivan, 
successor of Judge McKinney, deceased. On the 2lst January, 1846, Samuel B. 
Perkins succeeded Judge Sullivan. On the 29th January, 1847, Thomas L. Smith 
was appointed the successor of Judge Dewey. 

October 12th, 1852, the bench having been increased to four Judges, by an 
amendment of the State Constitution, and made elective by the people, Samuel E. 
Perkins, Andrew Davison, William G. Stewart, and Addison L. Roach were elec- 
ted — Judge Blackford holding over, as a fifth Judge, until the expiration of his 
appointment. Judge Blackford retired from the bench on the 3d January, 1853, 
having been a Judge of the Court thirty-six years. On the 18th May, 1854, Alvin 
P. Hovey was appointed to succeed Judge Roache, resigned, and on the 10th Octo- 
ber following Samuel B. Gookins was elected the successor of Judge Huvey. 

December 10th, 1857, James M. Hanna was appointed to fill the unexpired 
term of Judge Gookins resigned; and on the 16th January James L. Worden suc- 
ceeded Judge Stewart, resigned. 

On the 11th October, 1864, Charles A. Bay, Jehu T. Elliott, James S. Frazer, 
and Robert C. Gregory were elected to the Supreme Bench, and served until the 
expiration of their term, January 3d, 1871 ; when the present Court was sworn in: 
Samuel H. Buskirk, John Pettit, Alexander C. Downey, and James L. Wordec,. 

The Reports of the decisions of this Court, from the date of its organization 
to the present time, consist of forty-one volumes. 

The ofiice of official Reporter of the Decisions of this Court was created in 
1852, and made elective every four years. The reports of the decisions of the 
Court up to May, 1848, were published by Judge Blackford in eight volumes, and 
are styled Blackford's Reports. Another of the Judges, Smith, published a report 
of the decisions rendered between May, 1848, and May, 1850, in one volume — not 
in general circulation among the profession — called Sjniih's Report. The first offi- 
cial Reporter was Horace Carter, whose reports are comprised in the first and second 
volumes of the Indiana Reports — beginning chronologically where Blackford's Re- 
ports terminate. Albert G. Porter was Reporter of volumes three, four, five, six 
and seven; Gordon Tanner, of volumes eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen 
and fourteen ; Benjamin Harrison, of volumes fifteen, sixteen and seventeen ; Mich- 
ael C. Keer, of volumes eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty and twenty-two; 
Benjamin Harrison, of volumes twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, 
twenty -seven, twenty-eight and twenty-nine; James B. Black, the present Reporter) 
of volumes thirty, thirty-one and thirty-two. 


The Civil Circuit Court for this county was established in 1821. Up to the 
creation of the Criminal Court, it had jurisdiction of criminal as well as civil 
actions; since then, of civil actions only. Its present jurisdiction may be briefly 
stated thus: 

Exclusive jurisdiction of actions for slander and libel. 

Concurrent jurisdiction with the Common Pleas and Superior Courts, in all 
causes where the amount exceeds $50; and with the Superior Court in causes in- 
volving the title to real estate, and in those charging breach of marriage contract- 

Appellate jurisdiction of civil causes arising in the justices courts, and of con. 
tested wills appealed from the Court of Common Pleas. 


The following have been Judges of this Court from the time of its organiza- 
tion : Wm W. Wick, Bethuel F. Morris, Wm. W. Wick, Stephen Major, Wm. J. 
Peaslee, Wm. W. Wick, Fabius M. Finch, John Coburn, John T. Dye, Cyrus 0. 
Hines, and John S. Tarkington, the present Judge. 


This Court was established by an act of the last General Assembly. It has no 
exclusive jurisdiction. 

Concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit Court in all manner of civil causes of 
which the latter has jurisdiction, except actions for slander. 

Appellate jurisdiction of all civil causes arising in the justices courts. 

The Court has three Judges, who each try causes as a separate Court, at what 
is called the Special Term,; and who jointly determine at the General Term appeals 
from the special term. 

The bench consists of Judges H. C. Newcomb, Frederick Kand and Solomon 


Was created, by an act of the Legislature, December 20, 1865. There are six courts 
of this description in the State. They were established in a few of the more popu- 
lous counties to relieve the crowded dockets of the Civil Courts of all criminal 
causes, and thus expedite the disposal of litigation. 

This Court has original, exclusive jurisdiction of all felonies and misdemean- 
ors, except such as may arise in the justices' courts and Mayor's court; and appel- 
late jurisdiction of criminal causes arising in the justices' courts and Mayor's 

The first Judge of this Court was Gea. George H. Chapman, who was succeeded 
in 1870 by Byron K. Elliott, the present Judge. 


This Court was established in 1852, absorbing the Probate Court, which had 
existed from the early history of the county up to that time. 

The recent creation of the Superior Court, has relieved the Common Pleas of 
much of its business, and will probably have the eflfect to make the latter chiefly 
a Probate Court. 

Its jurisdiction, as qualified by successive statutes, is, in brief, as follows : 

Exclusive jurisdiction of all probate matters. 

Concurrent jurisdiction with the Civil Circuit and Superior Court in all civil 
causes except actions for libel, slander, breach of marriage contract, and those 
involving title to real estate. 

Appellate jurisdiction of all civil causes appealable from the justices' courts. 

The Judges of this Court have been : Levi L. Todd, Davi(J Wallace, John 
Coburn, Charles A. Ray, Solomon Blair, and Livingston Howland, the present 

• justices' COURTS. 

These are inferior courts, having limited jurisdiction in civil and criminal 

Civil jurisdiction in causes where judgments are confessed, in any sum not ex- 


ceeding $300. They may try any action where tlie amount claimed does not'ex- 
cee'd $200, where the suit is founded on contract or tort. 

Criminal jurisdiction — Exclusive, original jurisdiction where the fine assessed 
cannot exceed $3.00; concurrent jurisdiction with the Criminal Court, to determine 
all cases, punishable by fine only, where the fine may not exceed $25; and prelim- 
inary jurisdiction of felonies generally. 


This Court is coeval with the incorporation of Indianapolis as a city. It has 
exclusive jurisdiction of violations of city ordinaces, and preliminary jurisdiction 
of felonies. 


The capacities of the musical societies and of the musical professionals in a 
community, form a good measure of the position of that community in the scale of 
civilzation and refinement. , 

A comparison of results attained in this city, shows a progress in musical sci- 
ence commensurate with the city's material progress. 

That a great improvement has been made in the character of our musical com- 
positions, in the capacities of our musical organizations for vocal and instrumental 
execution, in the qualifications of our musical teachers, in the general diffusion of 
musical knowledge, in the patronage accorded the higher grades of musical talent, 
are facts quite evident to those who have taken an interest in these subjects during 
the past few years. 

The first musical society of any prominence in this city, of which any record 
is preserved, was organized about the year 1850. Mr. A. G. Willard was its leader, 
and Professor P. E. Pearsoll (a musical pioneer of the city, but who has kept 
even pace with, and often in advance of, musical progress, and who might be 
termed the Nestor of our home musicians), principal musician. Among its mem- 
bers were Mr. John L. Ketcham, Mr. Davidson, Mrs. Dr. Ackley, and other well 
known names of the past and present days of Indianapolis. This society was short 

Other societies, neither comprehensive in their objects nor animated by the 
conditions favorable to longevity or success, were formed, lived their brief periods, 
and were disorganized. 

In 1863, the Musicale, a select society, composed only of musical experts, was 
organized, with Mr. J. A. Butterfield as leader. The meetings were held in the 
parlors of some of the members, among whom were Mrs. John W. Ray, Mrs. Hol- 
comb, Mr. R. R. Parker and Mr. A. M. Benham. This society was devoted to clas- 
sical music only, and appeared in public but once during its organization, which 
lasted two years. 

In the summer of 1864, Professor Benjamin Owen came to this city, and soon 
gathered together a large number of pupils in vocal music; whom, with the ama- 
teur musicians of this city, he organized into a class, of which he which he was the 
leader and pianist. This organization was largely efficient in educating the public 
taste as to music ; their public appearances were frequent; they successfully essayed 
difficult selections from the great masters. Among the prominent solo singers of 
this society were Miss Croft (now Mrs. A. M. Benham), Miss Amelia Heinrichs, 
Mrs. Dora Patterson Swift (since deceased), Miss Helen M. Dodge, Mr. L. D. Golds- 
berry, Mr. and Mrs. Owen, and many others whose names do not now occur to 


the writer. The period of the existence of this society was about three years, when 
it, too, yielded to the common lot. 

The next considerable musical society in this city, was the Mendelssohn Society^ 
which was organized at Benham's music store, on the 23d of September, 1867. Its 
officers were: W. H. Churchman, President; General Daniel Maeauley, Vice 
President; O. P. Jacobs, Secretary; Thos. N. Caulfield, Director. The sessions were 
held at the Institute for the Blind. Mr. Caulfield was the conductor until his 
removal from this city in 1868, when Professor Bergstein was elected leader, which 
position he filled until the society was discontinued, in 1870. This organizatton 
was by no means in vain. Its members studied good music and attained superior 
excellence in execution, and certainly contributed materially to the cause of mu- 
sical culture. 

This necessarily brief and imperfect record of our past musical history, brings- 
us up to the organization of existing musical societies. 

Before dismissing these general observations, it may be worthy of mention, 
that the first pianos offered for sale in this city were manufactured by T. Gilbert, 
of Boston, and consigned to the Rev. Charles Beecher, in 1844. Some of these 
instruments are still in use, and present a picturesque contrast with the improved 
pianos of to-day. The first piano brought to this city was the one still in the pos- 
session of Mrs, James Blake. 


The Indianapolis Maennerchor, in respect of its age, prominence, and musical 
capabilities, is the chief German singing society of this city. It was founded in 
1854. Its first leader was E. Longerich, who was succeeded by A. Despa; he by 
C. J. Kantman ; he by Professor C. H. Weegman, and he by Professor Carl Berg- 
stein, the present leader. In the great National Saengerfest held here in 1867, the 
Indianapolis Maennerchor was the inviting society and the directing one. The 
net proceeds of that festival aggregated $2,500; all of which was donated for the^ 
benefit of the German-English School, of the Indianapolis Benevolent Society,^ 
and of the German Benevolent Society of this city. 

The Maennerchor now numbers about sixty active members, of whom about 
twenty-five are ladies; and three hundred honorary members. 

In addition to the occasional public appearances of the Maennerchor, its mem- 
bers hold a "Social" once each month, during the winter season, on which occa- 
sions fine vocal and instrumental concert programmes are performed, and the best 
and most difficult compositions are excellently rendered. Recently the society 
has leased the entire Turner-Hall building, where its meetings for the transaction 
of business, rehearsals, and practice, are held, 


A German singing society, was organized on the 1st of October, 1869, and is- 
the result of a consolidation of three former German societies of this city, the 
Liederkranz, the Hmmonia and the Frohsinn. These three societies joined together, 
under the direction of Professor Bergstein, in September, 1869, to celebrate the 
Humboldt centennial. 

The temporary union of these societies was followed by their permanent con- 
solidation, under the name of Harmonie, on the date above mentioned. This union, 
suggested, and in a great measure secured, by Professor Bergstein, made the Mar- 


monie a very large society. Its objects are similar to those of the Maennerchor, and 
its organization also, save that ladies are not admitted as members, as in the Maen- 

The members meet twice a week, in Marmont's Hall, for rehearsals and practice. 
The President of the society is Henry Elft, and the Director C. B. Lizius. 
The number of active members is forty-five. 


This German singing society was founded in 1868. As its name implies, none 
but Druids can be admitted to membership, and it has no lady members. In other 
respects, its organization and character are similar to the Maennerchor society ; 
but, being much younger than the latter, it has not attained to the prominence or 
skill of that organisation. 

Its meetings for the transaction of business, rehearsal, practice, and so forth, 
are held twice eacb week, in Mozart Hall. 

It has about one hundred members, of "whom thirty-two are on the active or 
singing list. The President is Philip Reichwein ; and the Director, Professor August 


This is a select society, having for its objects mutual progress in musical cul- 
ture and the advancement of musical science in this city. It is composed chiefly 
of amateurs, directed and leavened by skill and trained talent. It numbers many 
of the best amateur singers in the city. 

The Union was projected and has been sustained by certain enterprising citi- 
zens, in the hope of making it a fitting musical exponent of the city of Indian- 

Need often arises, in a city of this size, for the services of a musical organiza- 
tion capable of rendering the better and more difScult musical productions, and this 
desideratum is is now found in the Choral Union. Prom its large membership and 
its abundant practice and competent training, the organization appears to partic- 
ular advantage in choruses, while it also embraces a good proportion of singers 
of marked and peculiar excellence for solos and concerted pieces. The recent 
public appearances of the Union attest the great capabilities and promise of this 
organization. The society has already accumulated a large musical library. The 
Union is not devoted to vocal music alone, but embraces an orchestra also. The 
number of members is about one hundred and twenty-five. 

The officers are: M.R.Barnard, President; Wm. 0. Smock, Secretary; Prof. 
J. S. Black, Director; E. C. Mayhew and Prof. G. B. Loomis, Leaders. 


This organization is composed of a number of the more proficient amateurs of 
this city. It contains the elements and capabilities of a first class orchestra. The 
members meet once each week for study and practice. The field of their study and 
practice is classical music, as opposed to the wish-washy and tasteless productions 
which are thrown upon the market in such lavish abundance, and find multitudes 
<of interpreters and patrons. The leader and conductor is Dr. E. A. Barnes. 



Benbam's Musical Review (a handsome and well edited monthly periodical of 
twenty-four pages), now in the sixth year of its publication, must be reckoned 
prominently among the agencies that have done much to organize and develop 
our musical talent, and advance musical interests in this city. Its pages embrace 
each month much valuable original and selected matter, correspondence, musical 
compositions, etc. Its list of contributors comprises son^e first class talent, in this 
country and in Europe, whose contributions are frequently \?idely reprinted. 

The Musical Visitor, a monthly periodical of twenty pages, published by A, 
G. Willard & Co., yet in the first year of its publication, is also growing into 
deserved favor and consequence. 

Within the past three or four years Professor J. S. Black, as an instructer of 
vocal music, has done much to inspire gi-eatly increased interest in musical culture. 

Among other prominent instructors are Professors Bergstein, Keitz, Leckner 
and Pearson. 


The State Library was called into existence by an act of the General Assembly 
in 1843. It was created and is maintainedby Legislative appropriations. Includ- 
ing battle-flags, war relics, and so forth, the Library occupies the entire west half 
of the first story of the State Capitol. 

The present number of volumes, of all descriptions, is about twenty-fiv?? thou- 
sand : of which ten thousand are literary and miscellaneous works; seven thousand, 
public laws and documents; two thousand, bound volumes of newspapers and peri- 
odicals; four thousand, duplicate volumes of public laws and documents; and two 
thousand, pamphlets and unbound documents. 

The Library is in charg^e of the State Librarian, who is elected biennially by 
the General Assembly. The following have been the Librarians : Samu«l P. Dan- 
iels, to 1844; John B. Dillon, 1844 to 1851; aSTathaniel Bolton, 1851 to 1853; 
Gordon Tanner, 1853 to 1857; James B. Bryant, 1857 to 1859; James Lyon, 185& 
to 1861; Deloss Brown, 1861 to 1863; David Stevenson, 1863 to 1865; Benjamin 
F. Foster, 1865 to 1869; M. G. McLain, 1869 to 1871; and James De Sanno, the 
present Librarian. 

For the support of the Library, and for meeting the expenses incident to its main- 
tenance, there is a standing appropriation of $400 per annum, and a yearly specific 
appropriation of $1,000. These amounts do not admit of extensive additions to. 
the Library; and to make it all it should ba, in respect of the literary and scientific- 
collection, larger appropriations are requisite. 


The city is yet without a general circulating Library. The want of such a 
Library has led, in past years, to the inception of a number of unsuccessful move- 
ments looking to that result. As a preliminary movement to this end, in March, 
1869, one hundred citizens organized, under the style of the Indianapolis Library 
Association. The conditions of membership were, and are, a subscription for 
library purposes of $150, to be paid in annual installments of f25; thus afford- 
ing an annual revenue of $2,500, for five years, for the maintenance and increase 
of the Library. 


The Association proceeded with promptness to carry out its object. Suitable 
rooms wete secured in Martindale's building, north-east corner of Pennsylvania 
and Market streets ; and the'paid up portion of the subscriptions have, from time 
to time, been devoted to the purchase of books and the support of the Library. The 
management ef the enterprise has been excellent, and the funds of the Association 
have been invested to the best possible advantage. Already a collection of about 
three thousand volumes has been obtained; which number will be increased 
during the present spring to about four thousand five hundred; and it may justly 
be said that a better selection of like magnitude, than the three thousand volumes 
now on the shelves, could hardly be made. For the present the privileges of the 
Library are restricted to members — those who subscribe $150 to the Library fund — 
and to such others as may be allowed the use of the books by the payment of $5.00 

This limitation of the use of the books to subscribers was, and is yet, mani- 
festly necessary to the creation of a Library at all; and it has been the intention 
from the first to convert it into a Public Circulating Library as soon as it shall 
have attained a suitable magnitude and endowment. 

The ofBcers of the Association are: John D. Rowland, President; William 
P. Fishback, Vice President; D. W. Grubbs, Secretary; William S. Hubbard, 


This Library now numbers about two thousand volumes. The records show 
the first meeting of the first Board of Trustees of the Library to have been held in 
April, 1844. The Trustees are appointed by the County Commissioners. The first 
Board consisted of D. L. McFarlin, George Bruce, Henry P. Coburn, John Wilk- 
ins, James Sulgrove, and Livingston Dunlap. 

The present Trustees are Powell Rowland, L. M. Phipps, Charles N. Todd 
William Hadley, John Duncan, and George W. Parker. 

The interest on a fund of $2,000 is expended, as it accrues, in the purchase of 
books, &c. 

The payment of a small sum annually entitles any citizen of the county to 
the use of the books. 


Is in the keeping of the Township Trustee, whose office is on North Delaware street, 
opposite the Court house. 

The collection is an indifferent one, numbering, all told, about one thousand 
volumes ; and the appropriations for its support are too limited to admit of any 
considerable additions. 



Location of Indianapolis Office: In Blackford's Block, south-east corner of 
Washington and Meridian streets. 

The first Telegraph office in this city was opened on the 12th of May, 1848 — 
an office of the Ohio, Indiana and Illinois Telegraph Company — better known as the 


O'Reilly line, from the name of its principal owner, Henry O'Reilly, one of the 
early builders of telegraph lines in this country, and owner of the right to con- 
struct lines in a large extent of western territory, purchased from S. F. B. Morse, 
the inventor of the Electro Magnetic Telegraph. 

The O'Rdlly line, as originally constituted, was from Dayton to Chicago, and 
ante-dating all of the numerous railways diverging from this city at the present 
day, was built along ordinary highways. Richmond, Indianapolis, and Lafayette 
were the intermediate points of prominence on this line. A branch of this line 
extended from Lafayette down the Wabash river, and through Terre Haute to 
Evansville; and these embraced all the telegraphic facilities in the State at that 
time, except a line through the northern counties, from Cleveland to Chicago. 

In 1853, the Cincinnati J St. Louis line was built, and an "opposition" office was 
opened in this city. 

About January, 1852, the "opposition" line had been sold to a new company, 
and rechristened as the Wade line. 

On the 1st of May, 1853, the "opposition" office was consolidated with the 
O'Reilly oflSce, and its interests were merged into the latter. This step was in con- 
sequence of the light receipts of the offices; for it was only a few years ago that the 
use of the telegraph was a comparative rarity when contrasted with the general 
and extensive use of that agency at the present day. The consolidation applied 
only to points where both companies had been maintaining separate offices. 

During the spring of 1854, the Wade company constructed a new line from 
Cincinnati to St. Louis, via the OJdo ^ Mississippi Raihaay, which resulted in the 
discontinuance of that company s line between the same points, via the ordinary 
"highways through this city. 

The next line built was from Indianapolis to Union City (along the Bellefon- 
taine Railway), and extended from the latter point to Dayton, Ohio; on the com- 
pletion of which the line along the ordinary road, between Dayton and Indianap- 
olis via Richmond, was discontinued. 

In the summer of 1854, the Western Union T&legraph Company built a line from 
Cincinnati to Indianapolis, over the Indianapolis ^ Cincinnati Railway, and main- 
tained a separate office in this city for a short time. About the first of October, 
1856, the office of the Wester7i Union and C Reilly \\ne^, in this ci.y, were consoli- 
dated, giving to the former company control of the consolidated interests, with 
John F. Wallack) the present district superintendent) as manager. The Western 
Union Telegraph Company now operated four lines: one to Cincinnati ; one to Day- 
ton, Ohio, via Union City; one to Madison; and the old line, via the ordinary road, 
from here to Lafayette. 

In 1856, was inangurated the present arrangement between the Western Union 
Telegraph Company and the Associated Press of" Indianapolis, in regard to tele- 
graphic news reports — an arrangement since expanded and perfected; existing at 
nearly every point in this country where daily newspapers are published, and ena- 
bling the latter to furnish their readers with the news of the day in all parts of 
the New and Old Worlds. 

It will, perhaps, be sufficient to give an idea of the magnitude of this business 
of furnishing " Press Reports," to state that the transmission of these reports oc- 
cupy the lines almost exclusively from six o'clock in the evening till from one to 
three (as a rule) on the next morning. The aggregate of such reports, received at 
and sent from this city, is now about eight thousand five hundred words per day, 


paid for at lower rates, of course, than ordinary messages, on the basis of contracts 
between the several united Press associations and the Telegraph companies. 

It may be worthy of note, in this connection, to state, that the first press re- 
port sent to this city by telegraph, appears to have been in the month of Decem- 
ber, 1851, according to an entry in a record of that date, charging Wm. J. Brown 
(of the Sentinel) $11, on account of services in telegraphing the President's mes- 
sage (a very slight abstract or statement of its points, evidently). Henceforth the 
growth of the business of the office was rapid, and new lines multiplied as new 
railroads were built. 

In December, 1864, the United States Telegraph Company — an association that 
promised at one time to be a strong rival of the Western Union Company — opened 
an office here; but, from the first, the policy of the managers of the Western Union 
has been that of absorbing rival enterprises; and so, in 1866, the United States line 
shared the general fate; and its lines here, nine in number, passed under the con- 
trol of the Western Union Company. 

By a recent re-division of the Territory of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany (which operates seven-eighths of all the lines in the United States, and a con- 
siderable portion of the lines in New Brunswick and New Found landj, Mr. Wal- 
lick's jurisdiction, as Superintendent of the Sixth District of the Central Division, 
comprises the lines radiating from Indianapolis, and the lines intersecting there- 
with, south to the Ohio river; east to Columbus and Crestline, Ohio; west to Alton* 
Illinois; and north to Chicago. 

The number of Telegraph offices within the area of Mr. Wallick's district, of 
which Indianapolis is the principal office, is one hundred and sixty; with two 
thousand two hundred and eighteen miles of poles, and four thousand four hundred 
and fifty-eight miles of wire. In the main office in this city twenty-nine separate 
wires are worked. 

The business having out grown the accommodations of the former location of 
the office, it was removed in 1865 to blackford's Block, south-east corner of Meri- 
dian and Washington streets; where it is now located, and* occupies four rooms: 
one in the basement, called the "battery room;" one on the ground floor, for the 
business office — where messages are received and delivered; one on the second floor, 
used for the Superintendent's office; and a large room on the third floor, called the 
"operating room," containing twenty-four sets of the best instruments, and with 
superior appointments in every other respect; and another on the third floor, used 
as a "local battery" room. 

The offices in this city operating the Westerii Union Company^ s lines are as fol- 
low: The main office in Blackford's block, and auxiliary offices at the Union 
Depot, at the rooms of the Board of Trade, and at each of the railway depots — 
about eighteen or twenty in all. 

The present organization of the office is as follows: John F. Wallack, Dis- 
trict Superintendent; C. C. Whitney, Manager of the main office in Indianapolis ; 
and fifty-one operators and other employes, including those at the branch offices. 

It is an instructive commentary on the progress of Indianapolis, as well as on 
the increasing patronage of the Telegraph, that for several years after the establish- 
ment of the first office in this city, one operator, (without the assistance of even a 
messenger), had no hard task in transacting all the business, besides keeping a sec- 
tion of the line in repair; while about fifty-six persons are required to direct and 
perform the business of to-day. 

The growth of this business will also appear by the following exhibit of the 


annual receipts of the main office (exclusive of the receipts from press reports, the 
extent of which has already been mentioned), since the establishment of the first 
office in Indianapolis: 1848, $530.33; 1849, $1,105.08 ; 1850, $1,161.08; 1851, 
$1,619.28; 1852, $1,889.88; 1853, $1,808.18; 1854, $2,433 90, 1855, $2,788.4Y; 
1856, $2,524 04; 1857, $4,29.38; 1858, $33,855.18; 1859, $4,078.72; 1860, $5,202.61; 
1861, $16,098.25; 1862, $23,192.33 ; 1863, $22,158.32 ; 1864, $31,978.85 : 1865, $33,- 
418.31; 1866, $26,981.51, 1867, $23,916 75; 1868, $29,037.59; 1869, $24,854.47; 
1870, $22,271.19. 

The slight reduction of the receipts for the past year from those of several pre- 
T^ious years, is on account of the extensive employment of the telegraph for mili- 
tary purposes during the war — which inflated the business of the Telegraph Com- 
,pany, as it did nearly every species of business. 


Location of the Indianapolis office: No 21 South Meridan street. 

On the 15th December, 1869, the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company opened 
an office at No. 22 South Meridian street, in this city, with E. C. Howlett, Esq., 
as manager. This company was organized as an opposition to the Western Union 
Company; and has thus far avoided the fate of previous opposition companies in 
the West: which have been either absorbed into that powerful corporation, or, 
after a while, have ceased to exist. 

The usual result of competition has followed the establishment of the opposi- 
tion office here: a large reduction (almost 66 per cent.), in the rates of telegraph- 
ing to all points reached by the lines of the competing companies. 

The new company gives every external evidence of a good degree of prosper- 
ity and growth, considering its youth and the great wealth and power of the West- 
■ern Union company. 

The lines have been extended as rapidly as patronage has seemed to justify; 
and the reduction in tolls caused by the establishment of competing lines, appears 
to have increased the volume of business to such a degree as to sustain a healthy 
opposition to the Western Union Company; in which opposition the Pacific and At- 
lantic, the Atlantic and Pacific^ and the Franklin Companies are combined and 
mutually interested. The business of the office here shows a favorable improvement : 
the receipts for the month of December, 1870, being tenfold those of the corres- 
ponding month in 1869. The office now employs the services of a manager and 
two operators, and operates wires as follows: One to Pittsburgh, two to Chicago, 
two to Dayton, and one to Cincinnati. This company also has communication with 
St Louis, via Chicago. 

On the 1st February, 1871, a fire partially destroyed the building at that time 
occupied by the office of this company. The office was promptly re-opened at No. 
-21 South Meridian street, its present location. 


The increase in the carrying trade by express companies, at this point, has 
been in proportion to the multiplication of railways, and, consequently, has been 
very great. 

The Adams Express Company was the first to open an office here, upon the 
completion of the Madison Railway, in 1847. The first agent of the company was 
M. M. Landis, Esq. As other railway lines were opened, new routes were also 
opened over them. 

2i5'4 HOLLOWArS INI>IAilA-pX)Lm. 

The American Express Company's office, here, was establislied in 1852. 

This latter event resulted in a division of territory, as follows : the Adamz- 
having routes over the Bellefontaine and Terre Haute & Kichmond Railways, and 
on all the railway lines running south of the lines named; the American also hav- 
ing routes over those two lines, and on lines running north of them. 

This division of territory remained in force until the establishment here of an 
office of the United States Express Company, in 1854. This new competitor ac- 
quired a portion of the routes previously operated by the American, the Adams still 
retaining all of the territory acquired in the division with the American. 

This arrangement remained in force until 186G, when a new competitor, the' 
Merchants' Union, opened an office here, establishing routes over such lines of rail- 
ways as granted the requisite permission. This status continued about two years. 
Then, to prevent unprofitable competition, the several companies above named 
made a new division of territory. By this arrangement the Adams Express Com- 
pany's office here disappeared early in 1868. 

In the latter part of the year 1868, by consolidation of the two companies, the 
offices and business of the American and Merchants' Union Express Companies, at 
this place, were united. 

By virtue of a new arrangement between the companies, the office of the- 
Adams Company was reopened March 12th, 1870. As a result of the previous ar- 
rangements, above noted, the business of the Adams has been very much dimin- 
ished, and restricted to fewer routes than formerly; for which concessions herCj 
corresponding advantages were gained" elsewhere. 

The present division of territory is as follows : 

The American has exclusive routes on the Indianapolis, Cincinnati & Layfay- 
ette Railway; the Martinsville; th-e Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis ; the 
Indianapolis & St. Louis; the St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute & Indianapolis ; 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago (north of Greencastle); The Evansville & 
Crawfordsville (north" of Terre Haute); the Evansville, Terre Haute & Chicago 
(north of Terre Haute); the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis (from Indianapolis 
to Dayton); the Chicago and Great Eastern (from Richmond to Chicago); 

The United States has exclusive routes over the Cincinnati & Indianapolis Junc- 
tion Railway; the Indianapolis, Peru & Chicago; the Indianapolis, Bloomington & 
Western; the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis (from Richmond to Columbus); 
the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis (from Indianapolis to Crest- 
line); and the White Water Valley of the I., C. & L. 

The Adams has exclusive routes over the Indianapolis & Vincennes Railway ; 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago (south of Greencastle); the Evansville «& 
Crawfordsville (south of Terre Haute). This company has also the right to do- 
tkroiigh business over the eastern lines leading from this city. 

The earnings of the Indianapolis offices of the several companies, last year. 
were as follows: 

American Merchants' Union $100,335 CO 

United States 46,600 00 

(est.) 25,000 00 

Total $171,935 00 

Number of employees: American Merchants' Union and United States, 80; 
Adams, 7. 


The offices are located as follows: American Merchants' Union and United 
States, J. A. Butterfield, Agent, north-west corner of Meridian and Maryland streets . 
Adams, John H. Ohr, Agent, No. 17 North Meridian street. 



Indianapolis, as the Capital, from ita central situation, and as the commercial 
metropolis of the State, is so identified with the agricultural interests of Indiana, 
that a sketch of the State Board of Agriculture is proper in this volume. 

The Indiana State Board of Agriculture was organized by a special act of the 
Legislature, entitled "An act for the Eacouragement of Agriculture," approved 
February the 14th, 1851. 

In this act we find, as incorporate members of the Board, the names of such 
prominent men as Gov. Jos. A. Wright, Dr. A. C. Stevenson, Putnam county; Gen. 
Joseph Orr, Laporte county; David P. Holloway, Wayne county; Geo. P. Lane, 
Dearborn county; and others who have taken conspicuous parts in matters apper- 
taining to the general advancement of agriculture and manufacturing interests in 

Prior to the passage of this act, and in no small degree instrumental in se- 
curing its passage, societies for the promotion of agriculture and the mechanic arts 
had been formed, by individual enterprise, in a few of the counties. Of these the 
most noteworthy were those in Wayne and Marion counties; the former, attribu- 
table to the efforts of Gen. Sol. Meredith, W. T. Dennis, David P. Holloway, J. M. 
Garr, and others; the latter, to the efforts of Rev. Henry Ward Beechei', Wm. S. 
Hubbard, Dr. G. W. Mears, and others. 

Through this means a stimulus was given to agriculture and manufacturing in 
Indiana, and especially to the latter at this point, that in all reasonable proba- 
bility, in the absence of this legislative enactment, would not have bean attained; 
for many years to come. 

The State Board was industrious and efficient. Dr. A. C. Stevenson, of Putnam 
county, visited England while a member of the Board, and brought home numerous 
specimens of the finest short-horns. In eastern Indiana, more particularly, are the 
fruits of these instrumentalities conspicuously apparent. General Meredith, George 
Davidson, and others, of Wayne county, and Hon. I. D. G. Nelson, of Allen county, 
soon followed in this line of progress, until the ambition to offer first class products 
in the markets of the East from Indiana, became general; and whatever credit 
may have attached to Indiana in this regard is, in the main, directly traceable to 
this Act of our Legislature and the efforts made by our Board of Agriculture. 

The following have been Presidents of the Board: Gov. Joseph A. Wright, 
Gen. Joseph Orr, Dr. A. C. Stevenson, Gen Geo. D. Wagner, Hon. D. P. Holloway, 
Maj. Stearns Fisher, Hon. A. D. Hamrick, and Hon. Jas. D. Williams, present incum- 
bent. The following have been Secretaries : John B. Dillon, William T, Dennis, 
Ignatius Brown, W. H. Loomis, A. J. Holmes, Hon. Fielding Beeler, and Jos. Poole 
present incumbent. 

The Eighteenth Annual State Eair, under the auspices of the State Board, waa 
held in October, 1870. The First was held on the site of the present western City 
Park, October 28th, 1852. The State Board have paid in premiums more than one 
hundred and thirty thousand dollars at these several Fairs. But the amount ex- 


pended in premiums is a very small portion of the great assistance agricultural 
interests in Indiana have received by the law to which we have referred. For it 
not only brought into existence the State Board of Agriculture, but we find that 
in the brief period of five years (1857), sixty-eight County Societies had been or- 
ganized under and by the provisions of this act. 

February I7th, 1852, the first or original act was amended, allowing County 
Societies to draw from the county treasuries certain funds arising from licenses to 
menageries, &c.; and subsequently the Legislature passed laws empowering the 
State Board of Agriculture and County and District Societies to purchase and hold 
real estate. 

In 1864 W. H. Loomis, then Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, was mainly 
instrumental in securing the passage of an act exempting Fair Ground property 
from taxation, and directing County Treasurers to refund taxes paid on real estate 
so held. 

It is due to Mr. Loomis, in passing, to state he has been something more than 
merely an efficient officer in the Board. His zeal and interest in securing the 
highest usefulness of that organization, have been extraordinary and efficacious; 
and for many years he has been a valuable aid to agricultural progress in Indiana. 
The supreme efi'orts of the State in aid of subduing the Rebellion absorbed 
the attention of Legislatures and people, agricultural progress was retarded in 
consequence, and very many local Agricultural Societies were discontinued. Sub- 
sequently the attention of the pubUc returned to the arts of peace ; and agriculture 
reasserted its high claims upon the attention of the authorities. 

Previous enactments having been found defective, the Legislature enacted a 
law authorizing "Joint Stock Associations for the promotion of Agricultural, 
Mechanical, Mining and other industrial pursuits." Under this latter law many 
contiguous counties in various portions of the State, have united and organized 
"Joint Stock Associations," have purchased fine grounds, pay larger premiums 
than the old societies, and have proved more useful to the advancement of home 
industry than the older organizations. 

To the success of all laudable efforts in the promotion of these enterprises, 
whether under the auspices of our State Board of Agriculture, or of Joint Stock, 
County, or District Associations, the Capital has contributed liberally. State Fairs- 
like any other public gatheriags that assemble at Indianapolis— while they may, and 
do, bring profit to its tradesmen and patronage to its hotels, are, nevertheless, 
proportionally beneficial to the State at large ; and the Capital has not been the 
recipient of any undue share of the benefits growing out of these enterprises. 
While the State has appropriated $37,752.71 for the State Board of Agriculture, 
since its organization, in 1851; the citizens of Indianapolis have contributed to 
the Board $28,946.95, in addition to their proportion of legislative appropriations. 
Thirteen of the eighteen annual exhibitions of the State Board have been held at 
this city; and of these but one was, io any sense, a failure. 

This exception was the exhibition of 1860, one of the finest displays made at 
any of the whole series, but called a "failure," financially, because at its conclu- 
sion the Board found itself several thousand dollars in debt. But inasmuch as it 
was the first exhibition held in the new Fair Ground, (Camp Morton having just 
been purchased by the Board for that purpose), on which large sums had been 
expended by way of improvements, the Fair could not justly be called a failure, 
because its receipts were unequal to such extraordinary expenses. 

On the contrary, all but one (that at Terre Haute), of the five Fairs held at 


other points, in the State, were financial failures, because of their unfavorable loca- 
tions for a general attendance from all sections of the State. 

By excellent management the debt of the Board has since been extinguished. 

The Fair Grounds, situated in the northern suburb of the city, consist of 
thirty-six acres; of which thirty acres were purchased by the railway companies, and 
the remainder by the State Board. These grounds are excellently adapted to the 
purpose, and possess all the requsite improvements for the convenience of exibitors 
and visitors. 


In the year 1870 a Joint Stock Association with the above title was formed in 
this city, for the encouragement of Agriculture, the Mechanic Arts, and Stock- 
growing. The first Board of Directors, elected on the 28th of March, 1870, was 
composed of Lewis W. Hasselman, E. S. Alvord, Hon. Fielding Beeler, John Fish- 
back, Kichard J. Bright, John T. Francis, W. C. Holmes, Jos. D. Patterson, and 
Hon. T. B. McOarty. 

At the first meeting of the Board of Directors they elected the following offi- 

President, Lewis W. Hasselman; Vice President, E. S. Alvord; Treasurer, E. 
J. Howland; General Superintendent, John B. Sullivan; Secretary, J. George 
Stilz ; Assistant Secretary, William H Loomis. The latter gentleman, until his 
recent removal to Colorodo, performed all the actiye duties pertaining to the office 
of Secretary. 

The Association held its first exhibition — and a very creditable one — on the 
State Fair Grounds, last September; at which more than $14,000 in premiums was 
awarded and paid. Owing to the value of the premiums thus paid, to the fact that 
this was the Association's first exhibition, and to the erroneous impression prevail- 
ing throughout the State that it was merely a local exhibition, the attendance was 
disproportionate to the merits of the Fair. 

So far as the display was concerned, it was incontestibly a great success; and 
in live stock and manufactures, it was preeminently so. The merits of this initial 
exhibition, and the liberal award of premiums, if not at the time remunerative, have 
given the Association a wide-spread popularity, and will insure adequate attend- 
ance upon its future exhibitions. 

Though the first exhibition resulted in a loss of several thousand dollars, for 
the reasons stated, the Association is confident of future success, and is determined 
to deserve it. Its officers and principal stockholders have the requisite enterprise, 
public spirit and financial ability to successfully conduct a much graver undertak- 

At the second annual meeting of Stockholders, held at their office in the Indi- 
anapolis Board of Trade Room, March 28th, 1871, the following gentlemen were 
elected a Board of Directors : John Fishback, Indianapolis ; Col. Wm. M. Wheatly, 
Indianapolis; Gen. Sol. Meredith, Cambridge City; Owen Tuller, Terre Haute; 
Hon. Fielding Beeler, Indianapolis; John T. Francis, Indianapolis; Wm. C. Smock, 
Indianapolis; Eli Heiny, Indianapolis; John H. Kenyon, Indianapolis. 

The following officers were elected for the current year: President, John 
Fishback; Vice President, Col. Wm. M. Wheatley ; Treasurer, Joseph K. Haugh; 
Secretary, Wm. H. Loomis * ; Superintendent, Elisha J. Howland. 
* Sin ce appointed Register of the Land Office at Fair Play, Colorado ; whither he has removed. 


At this meeting steps were taken to purchase suitable grounds for the use of 
the Society, and eighty-six acres, directly south of the city, on the line of the Jef- 
fersonville and Indianapolis Railroad, two milts from the center of the city, at the 
southern terminus of East street, were subsequently secured. The grounds are 
abundantly supplied with clear, perpetually running water, and abundance of shade. 

The capital stock of the Assocation has been increased to one hundred thou- 
sand dollars; thus making it an easy matter for the Society to improve their 
grounds in a substantial manner, by the building of permanent halls for the exhi- 
bition of machinery and manufactured articles of all kinds, of stalls for live stock, 
and by putting into proper condition a fine one-mile time-track for the exhibition 
of horses. 



The society of the Indianapolis Tzim- Verein was organized on the 31st Decem- 
ber, 1864, with the following members: John F. Mayer, Fred. SteflPens, Charles 
Hcehne, F. Erdelmeyer, C. Koster, P. Lieber, J. Blosh, H. Hartung, F. Balweg, T. 
Moesch, L. Maas, E. J. Metzger, P. Kretsch, C. Steffens, B. Bannwarth. 

The objects of the Association, stated briefly, are the mental and physical im- 
provement of the members. Stated more fully, they were originally meant to 
embrace a wide field of intellectual exercises, as well as theoretical and practical 
gymnastics; slated meetings for hearing lectures on all subjects of human thought; 
literaiy and gymnastic exercises by the members; and methodical instruction, intel- 
lectual as well as physical. 

This comprehensive programme, never fully carried out, is less than ever 
adhei-ed to at the present time. In fact, beyond the gymnastic exercises of the 
youth, and the exhibitions of skill therein by them, the society is chiefly social in 

The Hall is furnished wiih the requisite appliances, for gymnastic exercises; 
in which a high degree of skill has been attained by many of the German youth. 

Occasionally, at public entertainments, festivals^ etc., the members give exhi- 
bitions of their proficiency in the performance of difficult gymnastic feats; illus- 
trating that the organization has been and is a success in respect of at least one of 
its objects, — that of physical improvement. 

To have succeeded so well in this particular more than justifies the establish- 
ment and maintenance of the society; for an organization that has been so effect- 
ive in conducing to good health and vigorous and muscular bodies, which invites 
so successfully the youth to spend their leisure time for the benefit of their health, 
instead of in idle and dissolute ways, is certainly a beneficent and commendable 

The Indianapolis Turn-Verein belongs to the American Alliance of Turners 
(the Yumer-Bund), and subscribes to the platform of the latter. 

The society numbers about fifty members, and occupies the first story of the 
Turn-Halle building. 

The present officers are: Adolph Frey, First Speaker (President); Adolph 
Bauer, Second Speaker (Vice President) ; Paul Krauss, First Turnwart (Director 
of Gymnastic Exercises); F. W. Wachs, Second Turnwart; F. Rassfeld, Recording 
Secretary; J. Martin, Corresponding Secretary ; F. Wen zel, Treasurer; C. Frische, 


'^ew^warf (Keeper of the Arms, &c.) ; C. Krauss, Librarian ; J. Hunter,* Chai-les 
.'Steffens, and Louis Maas, Trustees. 


Politieal differences in the Indianapolis Ihirn-Verein resulted in a schism ; a 
number of the members withdrawing and organizing an independent society called 
the Social Turn- Verein, on the 18th July, 1866. This independent organization is 
devoted, as its name implies, to social and gymnastic cultivation ; and forbids the 
introduction of the discordant elements of sectarianism or party creeds into its 
councils and proceedings. It is fashioned, in its objects and methods, after the re- 
gular organization from which it withdrew ; but, refusing to comply with the con- 
stitution of the National Alliance, in the respect of according support to political 
parties according to the measure of their advocacy of liberty and progress, it is 
not recognized by the American Turn-Bund. It has not, as yet, attained to the 

^prominence and influence of the Indianapolis Turn- Verein, although it now enjoys 
a good degree ef prosperity. 

The present Speaker of the society is Francis Schneider ; and thepresent nuni- 

'ber of members is about sixty-five. During the present month (June 1871), meas- 
ures, looking to a reunion of this organization with the Indianapolis Turn-Verein, 

•have been instituted, with. a strong probability of success. 


This German Association was founded in April, 187-0, by Prof. Obarles Bey- 
schlag, of this city ; who framed its constitution, and was its head and Speaker until 
his resignation, in November, 1870. 

The Association, as «et forth in its constitution, and illusti-ated by its practice, 
is founded on the basis of free thought, is independent of every sectional creed or 
ecclesiastical belief, and accepts as true only such conclusions as are confirmed by 
i,he elucidations of scien-ce, and established by the light of reason. 

The ordinary methods by which the Association proposes to carry out its objec-t« 
are: lectures on popular, scientific and moral themes; a Sunday-school, in which are 
taught the history and character of the different systems of religion and morals, 
according to th-e best authorities; social meetings, in which all free-thinking peo- 
-ple and their families are invited to participate; and appropriate observations by 
the Speaker at funerals, and on other serious and solemn occasions. 

The Association now numbers about one hundred and fifty members. For its 
-support each member is required to pay one dollar into the treasury quarterly. 


Mention of this organization was inadvertently omitted from the chapter re- 
lating to Benevolent Societies; it is therefore inserted here. 

This society was organized on the 24th of November, 1870. Its objects, as 
■ stated in its constitution, are: to promote the social welfare of Irish citizens; to 
create a fraternity of sympathy, an identity of interest, and a union of power 
among them; and benevolence. 

Membership of the society is limited to those who are of Irish birth or extrac- 


tion, who are between the ages of eighteen and fifty year?, and who are free ftom. 
bodily infirmities calculated to abbreviate life. 

The vitality and prosperity of the society are shown by the fact that its mem- 
bership, at the end of five months from the date of organization, numbered one 
hundred and fifty. It was recently incorporated under the laws of the State. 


The Indianapolis Circle of the Fenian Brotherhood was organized in the year 
1859, by the Rev. Edward OTIaherty. The first officers were: E.. S. Sproule, 
Centre; J. G. Keatinge, Secretary; Dr. Lynch, Treasurer. 

Up to the time of the breaking out of the rebellion, the workings of the order 
were in a quiet, preparatory sort of way, and but little was known or heard of it, 
in a public sense, compared with its subsequent notoriety. About this time Mr. 
John Simpson became Centre of the Indianapolis Circle. 

The split of the order into the O'Mahoney and Roberts factions took place late 
in 1865. A majority of the Indianapolis Circle voted that President Roberts was- 
the true chief of the Brotherhood; on which the minority withdrew and organized 
a Circle in the O'Mahoney interest. Thomas Nash was chosen Centre of the latter 
body, which died out after an existence of about one year. 

On the 19th of March, 1866, President. Roberts visited this city, and his recep- 
tion at the old Tabernacle building, in the court house square, was one of the largest 
mass meetings ever held in Indianapolis. At this meeting, a large sum of money 
was subscribed. After this all was quiet in Fenian Circles here till the latter part 
of May of the same year, when orders were received to March to Canada. In 
three days about one hundred and thirty men were armed, equipped, and sent to 
the rendezvous at Buifalo, N. Y., under command of Captain James Haggerty. 

The engagements near Fort Erie followed, in which the Indianapolis contin- 
gent bore a prominent part. After the fiasco in which this raid resulted, Fenian- 
ism, in this city, fell into decay; and late in 1866 it ceased to exist as an organiza- 
tion. In the spring of 1867 it was reconstructed, and recovered much of its lost